dunnettreader + article + counter-enlightenment   24

Vincent Citot - Le processus historique de la Modernité et la possibilité de la liberté (universalisme et individualisme) (2005) - Cairn.info
I - Considérations introductives sur l’essence de la modernité
- L’esprit de la modernité : la liberté, l’universalisme et l’individualisme
- Réflexivité, autonomie et indépendance
- Conséquences : les idées d’égalité et de progrès
II - Les origines antiques de la modernité
- Universalisme et individualisme en Grèce antique
- Le stoïcisme : entre hellénisme et christianisme
- Universalisme, égalitarisme et individualisme chrétien
- L’individualisme du droit romain
III - L’avènement de la modernité et la périodisation de l’ère moderne
- Le monde Ancien et le monde Moderne
- La périodisation de la modernité:
1 - La première modernité : de la Renaissance aux Lumières
2 - La seconde modernité : de la fin du XVIIIème siècle aux années 1960
3 - La troisième modernité : entre postmodernité et hypermodernité
Citot Vincent, « Le processus historique de la Modernité et la possibilité de la liberté (universalisme et individualisme). », Le Philosophoire 2/2005 (n° 25) , p. 35-76
individualism  moral_philosophy  Counter-Enlightenment  16thC  Romanticism  history_of_science  politico-theology  autonomy  scholastics  Renaissance  change-social  democracy  republicanism  modernity-emergence  political_philosophy  democracy_deficit  Stoicism  Reformation  Early_Christian  French_Enlightenment  18thC  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  French_Revolution  periodization  Europe-Early_Modern  universalism  downloaded  subjectivity  political_culture  religious_history  article  Ancients-and-Moderns  community  self  German_Idealism  Counter-Reformation  authority  Enlightenment  metaphysics  ancient_Rome  17thC  Cartesians  cosmology  Descartes  ancient_Greece  Locke  modernity  liberty  Hobbes  intellectual_history  bibliography 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Nicolas Duvoux - Les grammaires de la modernité. Notices bibliographiques autour de trois débats essentiels (2005) - Cairn.info
Plan de l'article
Une clarification sémantique préalable
I - La querelle de la sécularisation et l’interprétation de la modernité
II - Malaise dans la civilisation post-moderne
III - La modernité sortie de la modernité ?
Duvoux Nicolas, « Les grammaires de la modernité. Notices bibliographiques autour de trois débats essentiels», Le Philosophoire 2/2005 (n° 25) , p. 135-152
URL : www.cairn.info/revue-le-philosophoire-2005-2-page-135.htm.
DOI : 10.3917/phoir.025.0135.
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
multiculturalism  modernity  psychoanalysis  poststructuralist  social_capital  structuralism  cultural_critique  relativism  modernity-emergence  intellectual_history  identity  French_Enlightenment  constructivism  political_philosophy  subjectivity  alienation  agency-structure  bibliography  social_sciences-post-WWII  classes  community  change-social  phenomenology  mass_culture  popular_culture  secularization  communication  anti-modernity  article  Counter-Enlightenment  downloaded  ideology  Habermas  modernization  mobility  public_sphere  French_intellectuals  political_science  psychology  social_theory  consumerism 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Sylvie Taussig - Déclin et progrès chez Blumenberg (2011) - Cairn.info
La question du sens de l’histoire est un leitmotiv de la pensée moderne. La cosmologie issue de la révolution copernicienne a remis en cause la vision chrétienne qui posait de la Parousie au terme de l’histoire. Que des philosophies de l’histoire totalisantes aient pris le relais constitue une part de la sécularisation. Hans Blumenberg affirme la dimension indépassable de l’historicité tout en s’opposant aux tentatives de conférer un sens global à cette condition d’historicité de l’existence. Les Temps modernes, débarrassée des interminables discussions sur le progrès ou le déclin, sont légitimes. La sécularisation est ce processus dans lequel les ruines de l’âge ancien hantent la pensée moderne et l’aveuglent sur les enjeux de sa nouveauté – la mise à nu de sa contingence existentielle et du rôle humanisant de la culture
evolution-as-model  declinism  evolution-social  Blumenberg  progress  anti-modernity  secularization  secularism  modernity  historicism  Counter-Enlightenment  politico-theology  article  modernity-emergence  Europe-Early_Modern  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_history 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Hervé Serry - Saint Thomas sociologue ? 2094)- Cairn.info
Face à l’émergence de la sociologie comme discipline scientifique, l’Église catholique des années 1880-1920 et ses partisans dans les milieux intellectuels se mobilisent rapidement. L’école durkheimienne est ainsi controversée aussi bien par les instances cléricales que par des intellectuels laïques catholiques prolongeant leur action. Cette opposition s’arrime sur la volonté de forger une « sociologie catholique », dont la philosophie thomiste qui guide alors la doctrine officielle de l’Église serait le socle, afin de ne pas laisser le terrain du savoir sur le social aux opposants de l’Église. Méconnue, l’argumentation théorique et politique que développent les entrepreneurs de cette sociologie catholique, dont certains sont les héritiers de Frédéric Le Play, permet d’explorer l’élaboration, à l’époque où l’école française de sociologie s’impose, des fondements de certains schèmes de pensée qui, dans les sciences sociales, privilégient la « liberté » des individus contre les déterminismes sociaux. -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
anti-individualism  Counter-Enlightenment  intellectual_history  theology  social_theory  article  Catholics-and-politics  France  3rd_Republic  pre-WWI  Thomism  downloaded  laïcité  epistemology  scientific_method  human_nature  Aquinas  19thC  political_culture  Thomism-19thC  cultural_history  Papacy  Durkheim  anti-modernity  religious_history  intelligentsia  Fin-de-Siècle 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Koenraad W. Swart - "Individualism" in the Mid-19thC (1826-1860) | JSTOR - Journal of the History of Ideas (1962)
"Individualism" in the Mid-Nineteenth Century (1826-1860), Koenraad W. Swart, Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1962), pp. 77-90 -- very useful tracing of how many ways it was used, first to attack and then to celebrate -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  individualism  cultural_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  religious_culture  19thC  British_history  France  liberalism  French_Revolution  counter-revolution  Counter-Enlightenment  Romanticism  laisser-faire  bibliography  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
JONATHAN ALLEN GREEN -- FRIEDRICH GENTZ'S TRANSLATION OF BURKE'S "REFLECTIONS" (2014). | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 639-659. - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
JONATHAN ALLEN GREEN - Trinity Hall, Cambridge -- In his influential work on German Romanticism, Isaiah Berlin suggested that Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) catalysed the growth of the nineteenth-century counter-Enlightenment. This causal thesis, however, ignored the extent to which the Reflections' German translator, Friedrich Gentz (1764–1832), altered the meaning of the text to suit his own philosophical agenda. Although Burke saw rationalism and revolution as natural allies, Gentz – a student of Immanuel Kant – used the Reflections to articulate a conservative form of rationalism that, he believed, could stand up to the philosophes' radicalism. Through his selective translation, numerous in-text annotations, and six long interpretive essays, Gentz pressed Burke's Reflections into a Kantian epistemological paradigm – carving out a space for a priori right in the logic of the text, and demoting traditional knowledge from a normative to a prudential role. In Gentz's translation, Burke thus appeared as a champion, not a critic, of Enlightenment. -- * Many thanks to John Robertson, Joachim Whaley, and William O'Reilly for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this article.
article  paywall  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  Counter-Enlightenment  18thC  Burke  French_Revolution  translation  Germany  German_Idealism  Kant  rationalist  Enlightenment  Enlightenment-conservative  philosophes  French_Enlightenment  Berlin_Isaiah  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenneth R Westphal - Hegel's Critique of Jacobi in the 'Third Attitude of Thought towards Objectivity' - The Southern Journal of Philosophy (1989) | Academia.edu
Looks at Hegel's critique of Jacobi in the setup of the Encyclopedia Logic - Jacobi attack on discursive reason and pro "direct knowledge" (also of interest to Hamann) -Hegel's Critique sees Jacobi's importance in opening the need for a new or revised logic (leading to Hegel's own project) - Westphal looks at the critique extracted from Hegel's historical teleology -- Downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  Jacobi  Hegel  Kant  epistemology  objectivity  Romanticism  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  German_Idealism  logic-Hegelian  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Den Hartog - Trans-Atlantic Anti-Jacobinism: Reaction and Religion | Project MUSE - Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal Volume 11, Issue 1, Winter 2013 pp. 133-145
This article identifies an important transnational political ideology and identity in the Atlantic world in the 1790s-1810s: trans-Atlantic Anti-Jacobinism. Opposition to the French Revolution, although present in individual nations, gained force and variety through connections forged between individuals from the European Continent to Great Britain, Canada, and the United States. Lines of communication that were formed through the practices of writing and printing, correspondence, diplomacy, and travel kept the movement unified against a common enemy. The two most salient elements of this Anti-Jacobinism were concerns over political reaction and religion or, stated differently, vigorous defenses of the established political order and the received religious belief, Protestant or Catholic Christianity. Interlocked, these two main concerns of Anti-Jacobins inspired active response. Ironically, a desire to defend individual nations, political arrangements, and faith traditions led to a political alignment that crossed national boundaries and bound individuals together in a common cause. The formation and operation of Anti-Jacobinism thus occurred simultaneously on subnational and supranational levels, demonstrating the multiple valences of political opinion in the Age of Revolutions. -- paywall
article  Project_MUSE  paywall  18thC  19thC  political_history  political_culture  politics-and-religion  political_press  counter-revolution  Counter-Enlightenment  anti-Jacobin  networks-information  networks-policy  diplomatic_history  Atlantic  public_sphere  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
John Seed - The Spectre of Puritanism: Forgetting the 17thC in Hume's "History of England" | JSTOR: Social History, Vol. 30, No. 4 (Nov., 2005), pp. 444-462
The seventeenth century was not finished in eighteenth-century England. The ghosts of the 'Great Rebellion' continued to haunt Hanoverian England as political groupings struggled for some kind of control of representations of the past. One of the explicit purposes of Hume's "History of England" (1752-64) was to exorcize these ghosts of the past and to delegitimize the political memories of Whigs, Tories and Jacobites, churchmen and dissenters. This article focuses on the account of the puritans in the "History of England." In significant ways this contravenes Hume's own agenda. Out of his anti-puritan history there emerges the negative figure of the radical political intellectual which was subsequently appropriated by Burke and by wider forces of political reaction in England in the 1790s. Far from escaping the obsolete antagonisms of the past which continued to shape Hanoverian political hostilities, Hume in his "History of England" contributed to their reproduction and even intensification from the 1770s. -- begins by contrasting Bolingbroke's upfront treatment of the power of collective memory to enflame party conflict with Hume's attempt to reframe the memories themselves -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  17thC  18thC  1770s  1790s  British_history  British_politics  historiography-18thC  Hume-historian  Hume-politics  Bolingbroke  Dissertation_on_Parties  Remarks_on_History_of_England  history_of_England  historians-and-politics  historiography-Whig  counter-revolution  Counter-Enlightenment  dissenters  Whigs-Radicals  Burke  French_Revolution  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Linda Kirk, historiographical review - The Matter of Enlightenment | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 43, No. 4 (Dec., 2000), pp. 1129-1143
Recent work on the Enlightenment continues to bear out the importance of context in shaping both what is written and how it is read. In the case of the French Revolution, largely thanks to the work of Robert Darnton, studies have come to focus on how, if at all, different layers and styles of dissidence helped to bring down the French monarchy. But not all writing has, or need be suspected of, such an obvious or immediate outcome. This period, for instance, sees the birth of `philosophical' history, as John Pocock and others have made us aware. Here again, contexts and individual experience shape what is studied and written, but it is clear that the project common to the best-selling work of, for instance, Gibbon, Hume and Robertson was to explain how civil society emerged and thrived. This inquiry, and what it says about the separate states and common principles of Europe then and now, is unfinished business; so, too, is determining what historical knowing is, and cannot be. What the eighteenth century undeniably saw, even from the slightly educated, was a growing appetite for understanding and for improvement: these have proved necessary, if not sufficient, conditions for modernity. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  18thC  intellectual_history  cultural_history  historiography  historiography-18thC  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  historians  public_sphere  publishing  improvement  French_Revolution  Radical_Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Graeme Garrard - Nietzsche for and against the Enlightenment | JSTOR: The Review of Politics, Vol. 70, No. 4 (Fall, 2008), pp. 595-608
This essay explores Nietzsche's attitude to the Enlightenment, which the author argues underwent a major reversal between his so-called middle works and his later writings. The author examines the nature of this change and considers some of the reasons behind it. In the process, some of Nietzsche's "postmodern" admirers are taken to task for appropriating his criticisms of the Enlightenment without acknowledging his ambivalence toward it. Furthermore, the radical change in Nietzsche's view of the Enlightenment is taken as evidence of the periodization of his thought, which some prominent Nietzsche scholars (e.g. Walter Kaufmann) have disputed. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  Nietzsche  Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  Counter-Enlightenment  postmodern  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Matthew Kaldane: Anti-Trinitarianism and the Republican Tradition in Enlightenment Britain | Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts
Citation: Kadane, Matthew. “Anti-Trinitarianism and the Republican Tradition in Enlightenment Britain.” Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 2, no. 1 (December 15, 2010): http://rofl.stanford.edu/node/68.-- In "Limits of Atlantic Republican Tradition" issue -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Writing in the opening months of the French Revolution and in response to the accusation of anti-monarchical republicanism, Joseph Priestley explained in self-defense that if he was a “unitarian in religion” he remained “a trinitarian in politics” The republican-leaning Priestley was making a subtle distinction, but if the image of a political Trinitarian who held faith in Commons, Lords, and monarch could concisely illustrate what was surprising, if not paradoxical, about the political outlook of a religious Unitarian, it was because the link between republicanism and anti-Trinitarianism was so common.  By the end of the century, in the paranoid 1790s—when, whatever his subtle outlook, “Gunpowder Joe” Priestley could be construed as a Guy Fawkes style terrorist—Edmund Burke helped defeat the Unitarian Relief Bill of 1792 in the Commons by comparing Unitarians to “insect reptiles” that “fill us with disgust” and “if they go above their natural size . . . become objects of the greatest terror.” Given the republican implications in the Glorious Revolution and the century of Enlightenment it helped set in motion, anti-Trinitarianism therefore presents something of a paradox: republicans were drawn to it in great enough numbers to make it an unofficial religious outlook of the republican tradition, but it was explicitly criminalized in the state that was more republican, at least up to 1776, than any other major Atlantic state apart from the Dutch Republic.
article  intellectual_history  political_history  religious_history  political_culture  religious_culture  republicanism  anti-Trinitarian  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  British_politics  theology  Church_of_England  dissenters  tolerance  Priestley  Burke  divine_right  monarchy  heterodoxy  Wilkes  Glorious_Revolution  French_Revolution  Counter-Enlightenment  anti-Jacobin  middle_class  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Paul Schuurman : Determinism and Causal Feedback Loops in Montesquieu's Explanations for the MilitaryRise and Fall of Rome (2013) | T & F Online
British Journal for the History of Philosophy, Volume 21, Issue 3, 2013, pages 507- 528, Available online: 23 May 2013, DOI: 10.1080/09608788.2013.771612 -- Montesquieu's Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (1733/1734) is a methodological exercise in causal explanation on the meso-level applied to the subject of the military rise and fall of Rome. Rome is described as a system with contingent initial conditions that have a strong path-determining effect. Contingent and plastic initial configurations become highly determining in their subsequent operation, thanks to self-reinforcing feedback loops. Montesquieu's method seems influenced by the ruthless commitment to efficient causality and the reductionism of seventeenth-century mechanicist philosophy; but in contrast to these predecessors, he is more interested in dynamic processes than in unchangeable substances, and his use of efficient causality in the context of a system approach implies a form of holism that is lacking in his predecessors. The formal and conceptual analysis in this article is in many ways complementary with Paul Rahe's recent predominantly political analysis of the Considérations. At the same time, this article points to a problem in the works on the Enlightenment by Jonathan Israel: his account stresses a one-dimensional continuum consisting of Radical, Moderate and Counter-Enlightenment. This invites Israel to place the combined religious, political and philosophical views of each thinker on one of these three points. His scheme runs into trouble when a thinker with moderate religious and political views produces radical philosophical concepts. Montesquieu's Considérations is a case in point.
article  paywall  intellectual_history  18thC  Montesquieu  ancient_Rome  Roman_Republic  Roman_Empire  military_history  lessons-of-history  determinism  causation  social_theory  mechanism  path-dependency  historiography  Enlightenment  Radical_Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  find  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
John H. Zammito. and Karl Menges. and Ernest A. Menze: Johann Gottfried Herder Revisited: The Revolution in Scholarship in the Last Quarter Century (2010)
Project MUSE - John H. Zammito. and Karl Menges. and Ernest A. Menze. "Johann Gottfried Herder Revisited: The Revolution in Scholarship in the Last Quarter Century." Journal of the History of Ideas 71.4 (2010): 661-684.  -- A veritable tidal shift in Herder scholarship has taken place over the last quarter century, primarily but not exclusively in German. This review essay seeks to evoke the richness and vitality of this revival with the hope of persuading American academics that some ill-founded opinions still circulating concerning Herder's "irrationalism" and chauvinistic, even racist nationalism, and his philosophical naivety and literary effrontery, might at last be put to rest. The recent revival has brought sharply to the fore two crucial aspects of Herder. First, there is the contribution of Herder's thought to the emergent cultural and social sciences. Second, for Herder the "science of man" was also a natural science: the division between the humanities and the natural sciences that has been such a hallmark of the age from Kant until very recently did not exist for Herder. -- not yet open access on jstor
article  Project_MUSE  intellectual_history  historiography  18thC  Germany  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  Herder  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
John R. Betz: Reading "Sibylline Leaves": J. G. Hamann in the History of Ideas (2009)
JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 70, No. 1 (Jan., 2009), pp. 93-118 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- needless to say, Betz doesn't think much of either Berlin's Counter-Enlightenment or his treatment of Hamann
article  jstor  18thC  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  Germany  German_Idealism  Kant  Herder  intellectual_history  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
JGA Pocock: Enlightenment and counter-enlightenment, revolution and counter-revolution; a eurosceptical enquiry | History of Political Thought (1999) - ingentaconnect
As part of a programme of disintegrating and re-assembling the concept or concepts of ‘Europe’, there is offered (1) a revision of Franco Venturi's exceptionalist account of England's place in Enlightenment, (2) an alternative to Isaiah Berlin's account of the movement through Enlightenment to historicism. The objective is to enhance the British and English role in European intellectual history, while showing that we must rewrite the concept of ‘Europe’ in order to do so. There persists the ‘Eurosceptical enquiry’ whether ‘Europe’ is interested in history at all.
article  historiography  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  18thC  British_history  Britain  Scottish_Enlightenment  paywall  find  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
James Noggle: Literary Taste as Counter-Enlightenment in Hume's "History of England" (2004)
JSTOR: Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Summer, 2004), pp. 617-638.....
In David Hume's History of England, cultural achievement plays an ambiguous role in a larger narrative framework meant to demonstrate the nation's gradual progress toward refinement, liberty, and commercial success. Not only does culture, especially literary culture, seem oddly independent of political and economic advancement, it also exposes points where the dichotomies that organize what we understand as Enlightenment history itself-rationality versus irrationality, the modern versus the archaic, the general versus the particular, theory versus anomaly-break down. Hume's literary achievement in the History is to allow his understanding of England's progress to be conditioned by these collapses.

Downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  18thC  British_history  historiography  cultural_history  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  Hume  history_of_England  English_lit  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader

related tags

3rd_Republic  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  1740s  1750s  1770s  1790s  agency-structure  alienation  Ancients-and-Moderns  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  anthropology  anti-Communist  anti-individualism  anti-Jacobin  anti-modernity  anti-Trinitarian  Aquinas  article  Atlantic  authority  autonomy  Berlin_Isaiah  bibliography  Blumenberg  Bolingbroke  Britain  British_history  British_politics  Burke  Cartesians  Catholics-and-politics  causation  change-social  church_history  Church_of_England  civilizing_process  classes  Coleridge  communication  communitarian  community  comparative_anthropology  constructivism  consumerism  cosmology  Counter-Enlightenment  Counter-Reformation  counter-revolution  cultural_critique  cultural_history  declinism  democracy  democracy_deficit  Descartes  determinism  diplomatic_history  dissenters  Dissertation_on_Parties  divine_right  downloaded  Durkheim  Early_Christian  EF-add  English_lit  Enlightenment  Enlightenment-conservative  Enlightenment_Project  enthusiasm  epistemology  Europe-Early_Modern  evolution-as-model  evolution-social  Fin-de-Siècle  find  France  French_Enlightenment  French_intellectuals  French_Revolution  French_Revolution-impact  Germany  German_Idealism  Glorious_Revolution  Habermas  Hegel  Hegelian  Heidegger  Herder  heterodoxy  historians  historians-and-politics  historicism  historiography  historiography-18thC  historiography-19thC  historiography-Whig  history_of_England  history_of_science  Hobbes  human_nature  Hume  Hume-historian  Hume-politics  identity  ideology  improvement  individualism  intellectual_history  intelligentsia  irrationalism  Jacobi  jstor  Kant  laisser-faire  laïcité  lessons-of-history  liberalism  liberty  lit_survey  Locke  logic-Hegelian  MacIntyre  masses-fear_of  mass_culture  mechanism  metaphysics  middle_class  military_history  mobility  modernity  modernity-emergence  modernization  monarchy  Montesquieu  moral_philosophy  multiculturalism  networks-information  networks-policy  Nietzsche  objectivity  oral_culture  Papacy  path-dependency  paywall  periodization  phenomenology  philosophes  philosophy_of_history  philosophy_of_language  political_culture  political_economy  political_history  political_philosophy  political_press  political_science  politico-theology  politics-and-religion  popular_culture  popular_politics  post-Cold_War  postmodern  poststructuralist  pre-WWI  Priestley  progress  Project_MUSE  psychoanalysis  psychology  public_sphere  publishing  Radical_Enlightenment  rationalist  rationality  reason  Reformation  relativism  religious_culture  religious_history  Remarks_on_History_of_England  Renaissance  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  Romanticism  Roman_Empire  Roman_Republic  scholastics  scientific_method  Scottish_Enlightenment  secularism  secularization  self  social_capital  social_history  social_sciences-post-WWII  social_theory  stadial_theories  Stoicism  structuralism  subjectivity  theology  Thomism  Thomism-19thC  tolerance  translation  universalism  Vico  Whigs-Radicals  Wilkes 

Copy this bookmark:



description:


tags: