dunnettreader + agriculture   51

Bruce Campbell: The Great Transition, Lecture 1 of 4 - Ellen McArthur Lectures 2013, Faculty of History, University of Cambridge
See his 2016 book with CUP - The Great Transition: Climate, Disease and Society in the Medieval World - kindle-available
Lecture schedule
Lecture 1 - The 14th century as tipping point: From one socio-ecological status quo to another
Lecture 2 - The enabling environment: The Medieval Solar Maximum and Latin Christendom's high-medieval efflorescence
Lecture 3 - A precarious balance: Mounting economic vulnerability in an era of increasing climatic instability
Lecture 4 - Disease intervenes: The Black Death and the 'Great Transition' to an alternative socio-ecological equilibrium
video  lecture  economic_history  social_history  environmental_history  disease  Black_Death  medieval_history  12thC  13thC  14thC  15thC  Italy  urbanization  foreign_trade  Mongols  Mamluks  spice_trade  Central_Asia  genetics  weather  agriculture  demography  economic_growth  climate-history  climate_change  Little_Ice_Age  Italy-cities  international_finance 
november 2017 by dunnettreader
Karaman
Theoretical work on taxation and state-building borrows heavily from early modern European experience. While a number of European states increased centralized tax revenues during this period, for others revenues stagnated or even declined and these variations have motivated alternative arguments for the determinants of fiscal and state capacity. This study reviews the arguments concerning the three determinants that have received most attention, namely warfare, economic structure, and political regime, and tests them by making use of a new and comprehensive tax revenue dataset. Our main finding is that these three determinants worked in interaction with each other. Specifically, when under pressure of war, it was representative regimes in more urbanized-commercial economies and authoritarian regimes in more rural-agrarian economies that tended to better aggregate domestic interests towards state-building. - Downloaded via iphone
tax_collection  taxes  state-building  nation-state  urban_politics  competition-interstate  political_culture  political_participation  agriculture-surplus  Absolutism  government_finance  fiscal-military_state  agriculture  Europe-Early_Modern  economic_history  article  bibliography  political_sociology  central_government  19thC  financial_instiutions  downloaded  18thC  15thC  urban_elites  military_history  political_economy  17thC  governing_class  constitutional_regime  local_government  fiscal_policy  16thC  government-forms  jstor  Crown_finance  financial_system 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Peter Solar - Poor Relief and English Economic Development before the Industrial Revolution (1995) | Economic History Review on JSTOR
The English system of poor relief helped to shape the country's distinctive pre-industrial economy. English relief, when set against continental experience, stands out as uniform and comprehensive in coverage; as reliant on local property taxation for funding; and as generous and reliable in benefits. The insurance provided by relief underpinned the growth of a mobile wage-labour force and facilitated changes inland tenure and use. The fiscal impact of relief expenditure gave taxpayers incentives to put labourers to work and to keep local demographic and economic development in balance.
agriculture-productivity  Labor_markets  economic_history  welfare  Industrial_Revolution  local_government  downloaded  jstor  agriculture  18thC  British_history  17thC  Poor_Laws  article  Europe-Early_Modern  19thC  demography  unemployment 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Does Welfare Spending Crowd Out Charitable Activity? Evidence from Historical England Under the Poor Laws - Boberg-Fazlić - 2015 - The Economic Journal - Wiley Online Library
This study examines the relationship between government spending and charitable activity. We present a novel way of testing the ‘crowding out hypothesis’, making use of the fact that welfare provision under the Old Poor Laws was decided at the parish level, thus giving heterogeneity within a single country. Using data on poor relief spending combined with data on charitable incomes by county before and after 1800, we find a positive relationship: areas with more public provision also enjoyed higher levels of charitable income. These results are confirmed when instrumenting for Poor Law spending and when looking at first differences.
See the LSE blog post that summarizes this study.
bad_economics  British_politics  British_history  Poor_Laws  18thC  budget_deficit  Industrial_Revolution  agriculture  fiscal_policy  Wiley  welfare  Tories  philanthropy  UK_economy  Labor_markets  UK_politics  unemployment  paywall  article  Brexit  19thC  landowners 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Paolo Malanima - The long decline of a leading economy: GDP in central and northern Italy, 1300–1913 (2013) - European Economic History Review
The long decline of a leading economy: GDP in central and northern Italy, 1300–1913 PAOLO MALANIMA Institute of Studies on Mediterranean Societies (Naples) Italian National Research Council (CNR), malanima@issm.cnr.it The purpose of the article is to present the statistical reconstruction of a series of per capita output in central–northern Italy between 1300 and 1913. The various phases of both the statistical procedure and the results are presented and discussed. From the Renaissance until the 1880s, when modern growth starts, the curve of per capita GDP is downward bent. Output series together with three robustness tests, are collected in the Appendices.
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
productivity  economic_growth  17thC  agriculture  18thC  16thC  Renaissance  economic_history  14thC  stats  urbanization  Italy  GDP  manufacturing  GDP-per_capita  economic_decline  downloaded  article  proto-industry  agriculture-productivity  19thC  commerce  15thC 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Paolo Malanima - Serfdom in Eastern Europe after the Revisions (2013), in S. Cavaciocchi (ed.), Serfdom and Slavery in the European Economy 11th-18th Centuries
Serfdom in Eastern Europe after the Revisions, in S. Cavaciocchi (ed.), Serfdom and Slavery in the European Economy 11th- 18th Centuries, Firenze, Firenze University Press, 2014, II, pp. 677-88. - Multi-day conference - pdf of the paper contains schedule and Table of Contents - Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
wages  social_order  legal_system  agriculture-surplus  downloaded  Eastern_Europe  labor  jurisdiction  elite_culture  prices  agriculture  nobility  Black_Death  agriculture-productivity  landowners  medieval_history  property_rights  peasants  Europe-Early_Modern  Western_Europe  conference  serfs  agriculture-markets  dispute_resolution  rural  economic_history  access_to_courts  feudalism  contract_law  Labor_markets  tenants  social_history  improvement  food  chapter  political_economy 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Lemin Wu - Home - If Not Malthusian, Then Why? A Darwinian Explanation of the Malthusian Trap (July 2015)
His site with links to other work, CV etc - This paper shows that the Malthusian mechanism alone cannot explain the pre-industrial stagnation of living standards. Improvement in luxury technology, if faster than improvement in subsistence technology, would have kept living standards growing. The Malthusian trap is essentially a puzzle of balanced growth between the luxury sector and the subsistence sector. The author argues that balanced growth is caused by group selection in the form of biased migration. It is proven that a tiny bit of bias in migration can suppress a strong growth tendency. The theory re-explains the Malthusian trap and the prosperity of ancient market economies such as Rome and Sung. It also suggests a new set of factors triggering modern economic growth. - work up of his dissertation at Berkeley -- downloaded via Air, attached to Evernote
paper  economic_history  economic_growth  ancient_Rome  Chinese_history  Sung_dynasty  ancient_China  Malthusian_trap  demography  technology  agriculture  markets  elites  luxury  standard-of-living  migration  downloaded 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Philip Ball, The Water Kingdom: A Secret History of China – review - The Guardian - August 2016
Tourists watch floodwaters gushing out of the Xiaolangdi dam during a sand-washing operation of the Yellow river in Jiyuan, China, 2010.Photograph: Miao… Useless review the only thing mentioned is "thorough" - since the reviewer was only interested in China's history of millenia dominated by water politics, one assumes that if Ball had made a hash of it, the faults would have been mentioned - and since Ball is an excellent writer of non-fiction, the assumption is the book must be pretty good
Instapaper  books  kindle-available  Chinese_history  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Confucianism  Daoism  Asian_philosophy  China-governance  political_culture  political_economy  ancient_history  Chinese_politics  China  water  infrastructure  agriculture  economic_sociology  economic_history  social_order  hierarchy  institutions  institutional_capacity  transport  rivers  environment  pollution  industrialization  from instapaper
august 2016 by dunnettreader
Failed states and the paradox of civilisation - Ernesto Dal Bó, Pablo Hernandez-Lagos, Sebastián Mazzuca | Vox.EU - July 2016
While cases of state failure have risen in the last decade, most notably in the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa, they are not a new phenomenon. Historical evidence from the early modern period, and even the Bronze Age, shows that the majority of formed states have failed rather than thrived. This column introduces the ‘paradox of civilisation’ to characterise the obstacles settlements face in establishing civilisations. The paradox defines the success of a civilisation as a trade-off between the ability to produce economic surplus and to protect it. It is therefore important to correctly balance military and economic support when providing aid. - Summary of NBER paper- downloaded vox version to Tab S2
paper  downloaded  ancient_history  civilization-concept  state-building  institutional_capacity  institution-building  failed_states  military  economic_growth  historical_sociology  agriculture  ancient_Near_East  ancient_Egypt  Sub-Saharan_Africa  MENA  Iraq  Syria  ISIS 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Dietrich Vollrath - The Early Transformation of Britain's Economy | Growth Economics
On Wallis et al WP - Structural Change in the British economy 1500-1800 - Your Bayesian prior on “the probability the Great Divergence had its origins prior to the Industrial Revolution” should get updated to a higher number. - These numbers are bad news if you have “Glorious Revolution” in the “monocausal origins of economic growth” office pool. The data reinforce the argument that the Glorious Revolution was as much a response to economic change, as it was a cause of economic change.Britain experiencing a structural change from 1550 to 1750 does not mean it was already experiencing sustained growth. The growth experienced in that period may well have been snuffed out by Malthusian forces of population growth in time. But perhaps that structural change helped bring on the changes in demographic behavior that allowed sustained growth to occur? This structural shift bleeds directly into the Industrial Revolution, which bleeds directly into the demographic shifts involved with sustained growth. Whether this implies a chain of causality is too much to make of this evidence. - downloaded paper to Tab S2
paper  Great_Divergence  16thC  17thC  18thC  British_history  economic_history  agriculture  economic_growth  Malthusian  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  downloaded 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
William F. Maloney, Felipe Valencia Caicedo - Economic Activity in the Americas- A landscape that Columbus would recognise | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal -June 2016
14 June 2016
The persistence of economic fortune over the long run has been the subject of intense research. This column investigates the persistence of patterns of economic activity in the Americas at the sub-national level over the last half millennium. The location of today’s prosperous cities and regions within each country is closely correlated with the location of indigenous population centres before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. Policymakers seeking to make radical changes in the spatial distribution of economic activity should be mindful of the centuries-old, even pre-colonial, forces working against them. - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
21stC  North_America  transport  geography  18thC  economic_history  paper  indigenous_peoples  agriculture  17thC  urbanization  19thC  downloaded  Latin_America  20thC  16thC  colonial_era  transport-overland 
june 2016 by dunnettreader
Menzie Chin - Thinking about The Great Leap Forward - April 2016
When Technocrats Are Pushed Aside Nearly 56 years ago, with the beginning of the second Five-Year Plan, Chairman Mao called for a “Great Leap Forward”. The…
Instapaper  China  Chinese_history  China-governance  China-economy  Cultural_Revolution  20thC  post-WWII  industrialization  agriculture  from instapaper
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Paul Slack - Material Progress and the Challenge of Affluence in Seventeenth-Century England (2009)| JSTOR
Material Progress and the Challenge of Affluence in Seventeenth-Century England
Paul Slack
The Economic History Review
New Series, Vol. 62, No. 3 (Aug., 2009), pp. 576-603
Downloaded via iPhone to Sente
trade-policy  British_foreign_policy  17thC  British_Empire  inequality  article  agriculture  moral_economy  British_history  economic_growth  transport  downloaded  labor  trade  property_rights  progress  colonialism  mercantilism  ports  jstor  political_arithmetick  Sente  political_economy  improvement  economic_history  infrastructure 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Price V. Fishback - How Successful Was the New Deal? The Microeconomic Impact of New Deal Spending and Lending Policies in the 1930s | NBER January 2016
NBER Working Paper No. 21925 -- The New Deal during the 1930s was arguably the largest peace-time expansion in federal government activity in American history. Until recently there had been very little quantitative testing of the microeconomic impact of the wide variety of New Deal programs. Over the past decade scholars have developed new panel databases for counties, cities, and states and then used panel data methods on them to examine the examine the impact of New Deal spending and lending policies for the major New Deal programs. In most cases the identification of the effect comes from changes across time within the same geographic location after controlling for national shocks to the economy. Many of the studies also use instrumental variable methods to control for endogeneity. The studies find that public works and relief spending had state income multipliers of around one, increased consumption activity, attracted internal migration, reduced crime rates, and lowered several types of mortality. The farm programs typically aided large farm owners but eliminated opportunities for share croppers, tenants, and farm workers. The Home Owners’ Loan Corporation’s purchases and refinancing of troubled mortgages staved off drops in housing prices and home ownership rates at relatively low ex post cost to taxpayers. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation’s loans to banks and railroads appear to have had little positive impact,although the banks were aided when the RFC took ownership stakes. -- paywall on SSRN
paper  SSRN  paywall  economic_history  20thC  Great_Depression  New_Deal  entre_deux_guerres  Keynesianism  housing  mortgages  banking  agriculture  demand-side  government-roles  government_finance  microeconomics 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Monetary history - rural finance in northwest Europe from c 1400 | Real-World Economics Review Blog
a) Since at least 1400 rural lending and borrowing was at least in some regions common and tied to the life cycle of households and families, which (though…
Instapaper  economic_history  15thC  16thC  17thC  Europe-Early_Modern  financial_innovation  rural  Netherlands  agriculture  family  inheritance  marriage  households  collateral  banking  from instapaper
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Robert P. Irvine - Labor and Commerce in Locke and Early 18thC English Georgic (2009) | JSTOR - ELH
ELH, Vol. 76, No. 4 (Winter, 2009), pp. 963-988 -- importance of (agricultural) labor from Locke’s 2nd Treatise to "naturakize" money not just within the economy but within politics of the mercantilist imperial state - comparing Virgil use of georgics to encompass the Roman imperial state. Contrasts political agendas of Philips (Cyder 1707) and Pope (Windsor Forest 1713) in their use of georgics, both working within the Lockean framework of property. Extensive lit survey - lots of recent work on 18thC georgics to say nothing of cultural dimensions of political economy of expanding trade, commercialization and imperialism. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  literary_history  English_lit  18thC  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  Locke-2_Treatises  property  mercantilism  imperialism  trade  commerce  commerce-doux  civility-political  politeness  civil_society  public_sphere  nature  parties  partisanship  Whigs  Whig_Junto  City  Tories  gentry  landed_interest  national_ID  national_interest  War_of_Spanish_Succession  Queen_Anne  Spectator  Addison  political_culture  economic_culture  British_politics  British_Empire  poetry  poetics  nature-poetry  nature-mastery  Virgil  Pope  1700s  1710s  peace  Peace_of_Utrecht  labor_theory_of_value  labor  agriculture  Davenant  political_economy  bibliography  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Joram Mayshar, Omer Moav, Zvika Neeman, Luigi Pascali - The Neolithic roots of economic institutions | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal - 11 September 2015
Conventional theory suggests that hierarchy and state institutions emerged due to increased productivity following the Neolithic transition to farming. This column argues that these social developments were a result of an increase in the ability of both robbers and the emergent elite to appropriate crops. Hierarchy and state institutions developed, therefore, only in regions where appropriable cereal crops had sufficient productivity advantage over non-appropriable roots and tubers. -- I.e. Eurasia, not Sub-Saharan Africa
paper  economic_history  pre-historical_people  development  institutional_economics  institutions  state-building  state-roles  agriculture  elites  violence  hierarchy  Sub-Saharan_Africa  geography  geography-and-economics 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Noeleen McIlvenna - The Short Life of Free Georgia: Class and Slavery in the Colonial South | UNC Press
For twenty years in the eighteenth century, Georgia--the last British colony in what became the United States--enjoyed a brief period of free labor, where workers were not enslaved and were paid. The Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia created a "Georgia experiment" of philanthropic enterprise and moral reform for poor white workers, though rebellious settlers were more interested in shaking off the British social system of deference to the upper class. Only a few elites in the colony actually desired the slave system, but those men, backed by expansionist South Carolina planters, used the laborers' demands for high wages as examples of societal unrest. Through a campaign of disinformation in London, they argued for slavery, eventually convincing the Trustees to abandon their experiment. In The Short Life of Free Georgia, Noeleen McIlvenna chronicles the years between 1732 and 1752 and challenges the conventional view that Georgia's colonial purpose was based on unworkable assumptions and utopian ideals. Rather, Georgia largely succeeded in its goals--until self-interested parties convinced England that Georgia had failed, leading to the colony's transformation into a replica of slaveholding South Carolina. -- Noeleen McIlvenna is associate professor of history at Wright State University and author of A Very Mutinous People
books  British_history  US_history  British_politics  18thC  1730s  1740s  1750s  Georgia  colonialism  settler_colonies  slavery  labor_history  labor_standards  wages  Tories  Board_of_Trade  Parliament  planters  plantations  agriculture  hierarchy  elites  philanthropy  political_culture  economic_culture  American_colonies 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Cormac Ó Gráda - Eating People Is Wrong, and Other Essays on Famine, Its Past, and Its Future | Princeton University Press
Famines are becoming smaller and rarer, but optimism about the possibility of a famine-free future must be tempered by the threat of global warming. (...) this wide-ranging book, which provides crucial new perspectives on key questions raised by famines around the globe between the 17thC and 21stC. The book begins with a taboo topic. Ó Gráda argues that cannibalism, while by no means a universal feature of famines and never responsible for more than a tiny proportion of famine deaths, has probably been more common during very severe famines than previously thought. (...) new interpretations of two of the 20thC’s most notorious and controversial famines, the Great Bengal Famine and the Chinese Great Leap Forward Famine. Ó Gráda questions the standard view of the Bengal Famine as a perfect example of market failure, ...primary cause was the unwillingness of colonial rulers to divert food from their war effort. (...) the role played by traders and speculators during famines more generally, invoking evidence from famines in France, Ireland, Finland, Malawi, Niger, and Somalia since the 1600s, and overturning Adam Smith’s claim that government attempts to solve food shortages always cause famines. Cormac Ó Gráda is professor emeritus of economics at University College Dublin. His books include Famine: A Short History and Black '47 and Beyond: The Great Irish Famine in History, Economy, and Memory (both Princeton). -- introduction downloaded as pdf to Note
books  economic_history  economic_theory  markets-failure  markets-structure  markets-psychology  famine  agriculture  Ireland  Chinese_history  China-economy  India  British_Empire  imperialism-critique  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Peter Draper, Andreas Freytag, and Sarah Al Doyaili - Why Should Sub-Saharan Africa Care about the Doha Development Round? — Economics E-Journal - May 08, 2013
(Published in Special Issue Multilateral Trade Liberalization and Regional Integration under Stress – Workshop in Honor of Prof. Dr. Rolf J. Langhammer) -- In recent years sub-Saharan Africa, notwithstanding the global financial crisis, has increased its share in global trade and investment flows. This has led to an appreciable improvement in development levels, albeit off a small base. However, these patterns are still dominated by commodity flows and investment, and remain marginal on the global stage. Increased trade and investment flows, particularly related to network services, would be of great benefit to the sub-continent. Yet many domestic regulatory constraints remain. Furthermore, substantial international market distortions, particularly in agricultural trade, inhibit economic diversification into more value-adding activities. The Doha development round could, if concluded, go a long way towards addressing these barriers. Ultimately it could prove more consequential to the sub-continent’s development trajectory than regional economic integration. The latter, whilst important, is shallow and too reliant on institution-intensive forms mimicking the European Union. Overall therefore this paper motivates for an African trade agenda focused on concluding the Doha round.-- didn't download
paper  e-journal  economic_growth  regional_blocs  Sub-Saharan_Africa  trade-policy  trade-agreements  WTO  FDI  agriculture  development  economic_policy 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Susan Campbell, Walled Kitchen Gardens | Shire Publications
Walled kitchen gardens were found in the grounds of most large country houses in Britain and Ireland. They were designed to provide a continual supply of fruit, flowers and vegetables. The remains of these gardens can still be seen, some converted to other uses, some simply abandoned. This book examines the history of these old kitchen gardens. -- Paperback; August 2006; 56 pages; ISBN: 9780747806578
books  Britain  Ireland  British_history  cultural_history  elite_culture  country_homes  gardens  agriculture  architecture  Bolingbroke-family 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Claire Masset, Orchards (2012 | Shire Publications
Some of Britain’s surviving orchards are almost six hundred years old, and whether laden with summer fruit or stripped bare by the winter are places of great beauty. Throughout history, they have played an important role in life both rural and urban, providing not just food and drink but also a haven for wildlife and a setting for age-old customs and social gatherings. But when did orchards first appear? What is wassailing and who did it? Why has England lost almost two-thirds of its orchards since 1950 – and what is being done about it today? This beautifully illustrated book reveals the engaging story and rich diversity of Britain’s apple, pear and cherry orchards. **--** Origins and Developments *-* Heyday and Decline. *-* Flora and Fauna. *-* Pastimes and Practices. *-* A Fruitful Future? *-* Further Reading. *-* Places to Visit. **--** Paperback; June 2012; 56 pages; ISBN: 9780747808381
books  Medieval  Europe-Early_Modern  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  British_history  cultural_history  social_history  economic_history  agriculture  botany  leisure  Bolingbroke-family 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Richard Cantillon, An Essay on Economic Theory, Chantal Saucier, trans., Mark Thornton, ed. (2010) Books | Mises Institute
Mark Thornton and Chantal Saucier have accomplished the arduous task of bringing forth a new and improved translation of Cantillon’s famous work. Heretofore the only English translation of the Essai available has been the 1931 edition produced by Henry Higgs for the Royal Economic Society. Though competent, it has become less serviceable over time, as more and more of its shortcomings devolved (not the least of which is the antiquated use of “undertaker” in place of “entrepreneur”). Saucier provides a more accurate and lucid account, better suited to the 21st century. Thornton’s hand shows not only in competent guidance of the translator but in the inclusion of numerous explanatory footnotes that add historical context. Robert F. Hébert writes the foreword. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  intellectual_history  18thC  France  Cantillon  political_economy  economic_theory  value-theories  systems_theory  business_cycles  financial_system  interest_rates  FX  capital_flows  banking  profit  risk  entrepreneurs  agriculture  demography  natural_resources  labor  capital  money  money_supply  money_market  mercantilism  trade-policy  trade-theory  downloaded 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Liam Brunt - Mechanical Innovation in the Industrial Revolution: The Case of Plough Design | JSTOR - The Economic History Review Vol. 56, No. 3 (Aug., 2003), pp. 444-477
Variations in levels of embodied technology generated variations in English plough prices in 1770. Using plough prices as a quality index, this article explains size and daily output of plough teams. It shows that variations in plough technology were due to technological change-not static optimization-and village plough technology was influenced by neighbouring villages. But technological advance was not constrained on the demand size: farmers purchased the best ploughs available. Rather, local supply of technology was the limiting factor. Technological change, urbanization, and information networks are rejected as explanations of local supply of technology. The key factor was market density. -- excellent bibliography on agrarian "revolution" in England and comparative -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  economic_history  Europe-Early_Modern  18thC  19thC  British_history  agriculture  agrarian_capitalism  technology  technology_transfer  technology-adoption  Innovation  Industrial_Revolution  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Robert C. Allen - Progress and Poverty in Early Modern Europe | JSTOR - The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 56, No. 3 (Aug., 2003) , pp. 403-443
An econometric model of economic development is estimated with data from leading European countries between 1300 and 1800. The model explores the impact of population, enclosure, empire, representative government, technology, and literacy on urbanization, agricultural productivity, proto-industry, and the real wage. Simulations show that the main factors leading to economic success in north-western Europe were the growth of American and Asian commerce and, especially, the innovations underlying the export of the new draperies in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The enclosure of the open fields, representative government, and the spread of literacy did not play major roles. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  economic_history  Europe-Early_Modern  Great_Divergence  North-Weingast  agrarian_capitalism  literacy  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  British_Empire  Dutch  colonialism  trade  Asia  textiles  Innovation  agriculture  urbanization  wages  labor_history  manufacturing  productivity  export-led  Industrial_Revolution  proto-industry  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Branko Milanovic: Can Black Death explain the Industrial Revolution? | globalinequality - Jan 11 2015
re presentation by a young scholar at Santa Fe suggesting that Why England (and Dutch) due to higher wages in Northern Europe post Black Death in contrast with South where non market repression or property arrangements were able to push adjustment costs inti agricultural workers without impact on wage rates. Milanovic compares with other theoretical approaches ie Pomerantz, Acemoglu & Robinson, Robert Allen etc. Link to 2007 paper by Pamuk Milanovic thinks may be 1st work to seriously look at differential impact of Black Death on northern & southern Europe as distinct from the common story if Western vs Central and Eastern Europe.
economic_history  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  Black_Death  North-Weingast  landowners  demography  economic_sociology  labor  agriculture  wages  productivity  colonialism  medieval  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  institutional_economics  capital  capitalism  China  Japan  ancient_Rome  slavery  bibliography 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Nassim Nicholas Taleb, et al - The Precautionary Principle (with Application to the Genetic Modification of Organisms) | arxiv.org - Oct 2014 [1410.5787]
Nassim Nicholas Taleb, Rupert Read, Raphael Douady, Joseph Norman, Yaneer Bar-Yam -- Abstract -- We present a non-naive version of the Precautionary (PP) that allows us to avoid paranoia and paralysis by confining precaution to specific domains and problems. PP is intended to deal with uncertainty and risk in cases where the absence of evidence and the incompleteness of scientific knowledge carries profound implications and in the presence of risks of "black swans", unforeseen and unforeseable events of extreme consequence. We formalize PP, placing it within the statistical and probabilistic structure of ruin problems, in which a system is at risk of total failure, and in place of risk we use a formal fragility based approach. We make a central distinction between 1) thin and fat tails, 2) Local and systemic risks and place PP in the joint Fat Tails and systemic cases. We discuss the implications for GMOs (compared to Nuclear energy) and show that GMOs represent a public risk of global harm (while harm from nuclear energy is comparatively limited and better characterized). PP should be used to prescribe severe limits on GMOs. -- see summary from arxiv Medium blog, saved via Instapaper
paper  risk  uncertainty  risk-systemic  biology  genetics  agriculture  GMOs  probability  precautionary_principle  risk-mitigation  global_system  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Who lobbies most on TTIP? | Corporate Europe Observatory - July 2014
Do you wonder which businesses are pushing most for the proposed EU-US trade deal TTIP? Or where they come from? And who has most access to EU negotiators? CEO’s at-a-glance info-graphics shine a light on the corporate lobby behind the TTIP talks. -- downloaded pdf to Note
Transatlantic_Trade_and_InvestmentPartnership  big_business  MNCs  interest_groups  trade-agreements  trade-policy  EU_governance  EU-foreign_policy  investor-State_disputes  FDI  agriculture  pharma  IP  regulation-harmonization  civil_society  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
John Locke, Encouragement of Irish Linen Manufacture (August 1697) - Online Library of Liberty
John Locke, H.B. Fox Bourne, The Life of John Locke. In Two Volumes (London: Henry S. King, 1876). Vol. 2 pp. 363-372. 07/16/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2332> -- Available as Facsimile PDF 352 KB This is a facsimile or image-based PDF made from scans of the original book -- Locke’s detailed proposals to encourage the Irish linen industry which was quoted in full in Fox Bourne’s The Life of John Locke (1876), vol. 2, pp. 363-372.
etexts  17thC  intellectual_history  British_history  British_politics  political_economy  Locke  biography  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  industry  agriculture  protectionism  development  interest_groups  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  Irish_Parliament  1690s  Whig_Junto  Board_of_Trade  UK_government-colonies  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Forum - “Deirdre McCloskey and Economists’ Ideas about Ideas” (July, 2014) - Online Library of Liberty
Deirdre McClosky is over the halfway point of her 4 volume work on The Bourgeois Era. Two volumes have already appeared, Bourgeois Virtues (2006) and Bourgeois Dignity (2010), and a third is close to appearing [2015]. This Liberty Matters online discussion will assess her progress to date with a Lead Essay by Don Boudreaux and comments by Joel Mokyr and John Nye, and replies to her critics by Deirdre McCloskey. The key issue is to try to explain why “the Great Enrichment” of the past 150 years occurred in northern and western Europe rather than elsewhere, and why sometime in the middle of the 18th century. Other theories have attributed it to the presence of natural resources, the existence of private property and the rule of law, and the right legal and political institutions. McCloskey’s thesis is that a fundamental change in ideas took place which raised the “dignity” of economic activity in the eyes of people to the point where they felt no inhibition in pursuing these activities which improved the situation of both themselves and the customers who bought their products and services.
intellectual_history  cultural_history  economic_history  economic_growth  Medieval  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  Great_Divergence  British_history  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Industrial_Revolution  bourgeoisie  political_economy  France  Germany  Prussia  China  development  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  legal_history  property  property_rights  commerce  trade  trading_companies  free_trade  improvement  technology  Innovation  agriculture  energy  natural_capital  nature-mastery  transport  capitalism  colonialism  industry  industrialization  social_order  Great_Chain_of_Being  consumers  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  equality  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  liberalism  incentives  microeconomics  historical_sociology  historical_change  social_theory  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Thomas D. Wilson - The Oglethorpe Plan: Enlightenment Design in Savannah and Beyond: (2012) | Amazon.com: Books
The statesman and reformer James Oglethorpe was a significant figure in the philosophical and political landscape of 18thC British America. His social contributions—all informed by Enlightenment ideals—included prison reform, the founding of the Georgia colony on behalf of the "worthy poor," and stirring the founders of the abolitionist movement. He also developed the famous ward design for the city of Savannah, a design that became one of the most important planning innovations in American history. Multilayered and connecting the urban core to peripheral garden and farm lots, the Oglethorpe Plan was intended by its author to both exhibit and foster his utopian ideas of agrarian equality. The professional planner Thomas D. Wilson reconsiders the Oglethorpe Plan, revealing that Oglethorpe was a more dynamic force in urban planning than has generally been supposed -- the Oglethorpe Plan embodies all of the major themes of the Enlightenment, including science, humanism, and secularism. The vibrancy of the ideas behind its conception invites an exploration of the plan's enduring qualities. In addition to surveying historical context and intellectual origins, this book aims to rescue Oglethorpe’s work from its relegation to the status of a living museum in a revered historic district, and to demonstrate instead potential links with New Urbanism and other more naturally evolving and socially engaged modes of urban development. -- only hdbk
books  18thC  British_history  Atlantic  American_colonies  Georgia  Enlightenment  cultural_history  social_history  intellectual_history  egalitarian  civic_humanism  civic_virtue  slavery  abolition  poverty  Poor_Laws  debtors  agriculture  urban_development  urbanization  prisons  improvement  secularism  republicanism  farmers  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Some Considerations of the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest and the Raising the Value of Money, by John Locke 1691
Part 1: Whether the Price of the Hire of Money can be regulated by Law *--* Part 2: Interest makes not Money Exchange for less of any Commodity. *--* Part 3: The Price of Land. -**- Part 4: An infallible sign of your decay of Wealth is the falling of Rents. *--* Part 5: This business of Money and Coinage is by some Men thought a great Mystery
etexts  Locke  monetary_policy  economic_history  economic_theory  17thC  1690s  currency  landowners  rents  agriculture  prices  interest_rates  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Understanding Society: The Brenner debate revisited - Jan 2010
Very useful summary of the various causal theories re transition to capitalist agriculture and difference between England and France - though couched as Brenner debate it is much broader and slides into Great Divergence, rise of the West, etc -- But it seems clear in hindsight that these are false dichotomies. We aren't forced to choose: Malthus, Marx, or Smith. Economic development is not caused by a single dominant factor -- a point that Guy Bois embraces in his essay (Aston and Philpin, 117). Rather, all these factors were in play in European economic development -- and several others as well. (For example, Ken Pomeranz introduces the exploitation of the natural resources, energy sources, and forced labor of the Americas in his account of the economic growth of Western Europe (The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy). And I suppose that it would be possible to make a climate-change argument for this period of change as well.) Moreover, each large factor (population, prices, property relations) itself is the complex result of a number of great factors -- including the others on the list. So we shouldn't expect simple causal diagrams of large outcomes like sustained economic growth.
social_theory  economic_history  feudalism  capitalism  British_history  France  medieval_history  16thC  17thC  18thC  Great_Divergence  agriculture  industrialization  Industrial_Revolution  property_rights  entrepreneurs  class_conflict  economic_growth  causation-social  links  bibliography  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Johan van der Zande - Statistik and History in the German Enlightenment | JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 71, No. 3 (July 2010), pp. 411-432
Not statistics but the collection and study of information about the states of Europe - connected to cameralism and focus on political economy rather than military -though clearly how to survive and thrive as an independent state in the European system a major impetus. Van der Zande uses analogy of Venetian ambassadors. Gets launched in a big way in 1750s and has ceased to be a separate important discipline by the early 19thC, the apparent victim of Germany's historical age. Interesting view of motives, academic and bureaucratic resources German states within and without the HRE, the European system, alternative philosophies of human nature, happiness, commerce and the roles of the state. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  Germany  Enlightenment  Austria  historiography-18thC  political_arithmetick  governance  enlightened_absolutism  cameralism  commerce  agriculture  trade  manufacturing  trading_companies  taxes  social_sciences  nation-state  bureaucracy  public_health  demography  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Frances Coppola - Experiment with Basic Income: The Speenhamland System |Pieria Jan 2014
In 1795, the parish of Speen, in Berkshire, England, embarked on a radical new system of poor relief. Due to the ruinous French wars and a series of poor harvests, grain prices were rising sharply. As bread was the staple food of the poor, rising grain prices increased poverty and caused unrest. Concerned by the possibility of riots, the parish decided to provide subsistence-level income support to the working poor. -- Discusses Poor Laws pre 1832, Bentham attitude to work, Ricardo concern with labor supply, Malthus contrihution to debate - and Deidre McCloskey studies - and post 1834 workhouse system
18thC  19thC  British_history  British_politics  social_history  economic_history  political_economy  Poor_Laws  poverty  Bentham  Ricardo  Malthus  agriculture  taxes  landowners  wages  Labor_markets  Industrial_Revolution  prices  Napoleonic_Wars  Victorian  market_integration  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
The 1662 Settlement Act | Victorian Web
Explains Settlement Certificate, how it affected population migration, segregation of labor markets and impact on wages, parish governance - legislative text
17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Parliament  local_government  Poor_Laws  poverty  parish  migration  agriculture  landowners  labor  Labor_markets  wages  legislation  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard W. Unger, review - Jan de Vries and Ad van der Woude, The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500–1815 | JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 72, No. 1 (March 2000), pp. 239-241
Reviewed work(s): The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500–1815. By Jan de Vries and Ad van der Woude. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Pp. xx+767. $89.95. -- Richard W. Unger, University of British Columbia -- The final sixty pages do serve to draw together what has gone before and offer not only an overview of economic and social developments but also a tentative theory about patterns of the rise and fall of modern economies. The authors launch a sustained attack on traditional periodization of economic and, indeed, all history. They find in the Netherlands in the seventeenth century many of the features of nineteenth- and twentieth-century economic growth. They see no reason to look on the English Industrial Revolution as a cataclysmic event. -- There seems to be no doubt that the massive debt run up by the Dutch government in fending off the French threat from 1672 to 1713 burdened the economy so much that it could neither recover earlier levels of growth nor engage in restructuring like that which occurred in the years from 1660 to 1700 in the face of falling food prices, rising real incomes of laborers and craftsmen, and declining land values. Too many people in the eighteenth century—such as government officials and bondholders—lived well thanks to the need to service the debt; these people resisted necessary fiscal reform.
books  reviews  jstor  economic_history  political_economy  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  Dutch  development  modernization  urbanization  agriculture  industry  Industrial_Revolution  foreign_policy  sovereign_debt  rentiers  trading_companies  trade  colonialism  shipping  entrepôts  periodization  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
David Rollison - Exploding England: The Dialectics of Mobility and Settlement in Early Modern England | JSTOR: Social History, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Jan., 1999), pp. 1-16
Movement, change, uncertainty and unpredictability, the most obvious characteristics of English life between the Reformation and the execution of Charles Stuart, have been lost in the recent historiography of early modern England. From a post-colonial perspective, it is obvious that something very dramatic must have happened to turn three million English speakers into six hundred million and convert entire cultures to English ways of organising and thinking. Viewed from the colonies, England exploded during this period, and continued to explode for at least 350 years. Something very revolutionary must have been going on in England to make this happen. This paper explores the dialectics of movement and settlement in early modern England for signs of contradiction. -- impact on doing social history of postmodernism on thinking about geography, territory, "governmentality" reflected in archives that doesn't match lived experience, post-colonial insights -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  social_history  historiography  postmodern  postcolonial  social_theory  geography  territory  migration  social_mobility  political_economy  middle_class  peasants  labor  agriculture  gentry  colonialism  British_Empire  demography  emigration  population  urbanization  British_history  16thC  17thC  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Raymond Williams - "Nature's Threads" | JSTOR: Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Autumn, 1968), pp. 45-57
Special Issue: Literary and Artistic Change in the 18thC -- downloaded pdf to Note -- tension, contradiction in celebra of productivity of the land and rural industry, emerging awareness of agricultural labor by elites, sense of loss (eg Goldsmith) -- interesting tracking of more socially aware and more mixed sense of Nature in later revisions by Thomson of The Seasons
article  jstor  social_history  cultural_history  literary_history  18thC  English_lit  poetry  agriculture  lower_orders  nature  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Michael Slezak: Fall of USSR locked up world's largest store of carbon - environment - 02 October 2013 - New Scientist
The fall of the Soviet Union created the largest ever human-made carbon sink – abandoned farmland.

In 1991, the USSR formally split into separate republics. The subsequent collapse of industry reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emissions Russia produced – helping it to easily meet the climate targets set by the Kyoto protocol.

But as well as cutting emissions, the fall had another effect. The privatisation of land led to one of the biggest land-use changes of the 20th century. Huge tracts of farmland were abandoned when the collectivised farming system introduced by Stalin collapsed, and farmers simply left the land and headed for the cities.

Ever since, plants have been reclaiming the land and locking in carbon as they grow.
20thC  21stC  Russia  Russian_economy  agriculture  post-Cold_War  transition_economies  climate  energy 
october 2013 by dunnettreader
Carbon cost of collective farming collapse in Russia - Kurganova - Global Change Biology - Wiley Online Library
The collapse of collective farming in Russia after 1990 and the subsequent economic crisis led to the abandonment of more than 45 million ha of arable lands (23% of the agricultural area). This was the most widespread and abrupt land use change (LUC) in the 20th century in the northern hemisphere. The withdrawal of land area from cultivation led to several benefits including carbon (C) sequestration. Here, we provide a geographically complete and spatially detailed analysis of C sequestered in these abandoned lands. The average C accumulation rate in the upper 20 cm of mineral soil was 0.96 ± 0.08 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 for the first 20 years after abandonment and 0.19 ± 0.10 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 during the next 30 years of post-agrogenic evolution and natural vegetation establishment. The amount of C sequestered over the period 1990-2009 accounts to 42.6 ± 3.8 Tg C per year. This C sequestration rate is equivalent to ~10% of the annual C sink in all Russian forests. Furthermore, it compensates all fire and post-fire CO2 emissions in Russia and covers about 4% of the global CO2 release due to deforestation and other land use changes. Our assessment shows a significant mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO2 by prolonged C accumulation in Russian soils caused by collective farming collapse.
paper  Wiley  climate  agriculture  Russia  Russian_economy  post-Cold_War 
october 2013 by dunnettreader
David Hancock: "A World of Business to Do": William Freeman and the Foundations of England's Commercial Empire, 1645-1707 (2000)
JSTOR: The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Jan., 2000), pp. 3-34 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- records of an early colonial commission agent shows how institutions of the transatlantic commission merchandising system grew organically to address principal-agent problems -- illustrates differences between agriculturally oriented production and commercial British Atlantic empire from Spanish extractive bureaucratic and the French and Dutch commercial empires. Each mercantilist but in distinctive manner. Implications of differences for settlement, governance, center and periphery relations, and cross periphery relations.
article  jstor  economic_history  institutional_economics  economic_sociology  political_economy  17thC  18thC  British_Empire  Atlantic  West_Indies  American_colonies  center-periphery  commerce  agriculture  trade  merchants  entrepreneurs  planters  landowners  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
GEORGE GRANTHAM: The French cliometric revolution: A survey of cliometric contributions to French economic history (1997)
JSTOR: European Review of Economic History, Vol. 1, No. 3 (DECEMBER 1997), pp. 353-405 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- This article surveys cliometric research on the development of the French economy, with special emphasis on the fiscal and monetary history of the Revolution, the alleged retardation of the French economy in the nineteenth century, and the question of agricultural productivity in the early modern and industrial age.
article  jstor  economic_history  statistics  17thC  18thC  19thC  France  fiscal-military_state  fiscal_policy  monetary_policy  sovereign_debt  agriculture  demography  industrialization  modernization  lit_survey  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Lawrence Stone: Social Mobility in England, 1500-1700 (1966)
JSTOR: Past & Present, No. 33 (Apr., 1966), pp. 16-55 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- work connected with his Crisis of the Aristocracy heavily cited and people have been working to revise Stone's approach and conclusions -- look for updated articles etc on status and mobility debates
article  jstor  Britain  16thC  17thC  social_history  economic_history  economic_sociology  political_economy  status  social_order  aristocracy  elites  landowners  labor  agriculture  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
E. A. Wrigley: The Divergence of England: The Growth of the English Economy in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: The Prothero Lecture (2000)
JSTOR: Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, Vol. 10 (2000), pp. 117-141 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- though it's part of Great Divergence debates, Wrigley focus on Britain during 17thC and 18thC and his economic_history work is worth special attention
article  jstor  Great_Divergence  economic_history  Britain  Europe-Early_Modern  economic_growth  political_economy  population  agriculture  trade  industry  colonialism  British_Empire  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
 Ann Kussmaul: A General View of the Rural Economy of England, 1538–1840 :: Cambridge University Press 1990
PUBLISHED: June 1990 LENGTH: 230 pages ...... In rural England prior to the Industrial Revolution people generally married when they were not busy with work. Parish registers of marriage therefore form an important and innovative source for the study of economic change in this period. Dr Kussmaul employs marriage dates to identify three main patterns of work and risk (arable, pastoral and rural industrial) and more importantly to show the long-term changes in economic activities across 542 English parishes from the beginning of national marriage registration in 1538. No single historical landscape emerges. Instead A General View of the Rural Economy of England, 1538–1840 maps the changes in economic orientation from arable through regional specialization to rural industrialization and explores how these changes had implications for the extent of population growth in the early modern period. Dr Kussmaul's study presents a view of early modern English economic history from a unique standpoint.
books  British_history  economic_history  social_history  rural  agriculture  industry  marriage  population  Industrial_Revolution  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader

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