dunnettreader + access_to_services   11

Rafael La Porta and Andrei Shleifer - "Informality and Development" (2014) Journal of Economic Perspectives
In developing countries, informal firms account for up to half of economic activity. They provide livelihood for billions of people. Yet their role in economic development remains controversial with some viewing informality as pent-up potential and others viewing informality as a parasitic organizational form that hinders economic growth. In this paper, we assess these perspectives. We argue that the evidence is most consistent with dual models, in which informality arises out of poverty and the informal and formal sectors are very different. It seems that informal firms have low productivity and produce low- quality products; and, consequently, they do not pose a threat to the formal firms. Economic growth comes from the formal sector, that is, from firms run by educated entrepreneurs and exhibiting much higher levels of productivity. The expansion of the formal sector leads to the decline of the informal sector in relative and eventually absolute terms. A few informal firms convert to formality, but more generally they disappear because they cannot compete with the much more-productive formal firms.
Citation -La Porta, Rafael and Andrei Shleifer. 2014. "Informality and Development." Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(3): 109-26.
structural_adjustment  informal_economy  LDCs  access_to_finance  article  Labor_markets  doing_business  productivity  tax_avoidance  regulation  poverty_reduction  poverty  tax_policy  access_to_services  conditionality  entrepreneurs  economic_growth  aid  development  formal_economy  industrialization  downloaded 
august 2016 by dunnettreader
New Deal Demodrat - Do rising child care costs & stagnant wages explain the decline in the Labor Force Participation Rate? - August 2015
Sure looks like it -- may be affecting participation rate of men as well -- stay-at-home dads increasingly accepted cultural option where wife making a better salary, but the additional income from the stay-at-home spouse won't cover the child care costs, which have been rising while wages have flat-lined or fallen at the lower and lower middle class segments
Pocket  US_economy  labor_history  unemployment  work-life_balance  child_care  access_to_services  wages  labor-service_sector  from pocket
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Is the Glass Half Empty Or Half Full? : Issues in Managing Water Challenges and Policy Instruments | IMF Staff Discussion Notes No. 15/11, June 08, 2015
Author/Editor: Kalpana Kochhar ; Catherine A. Pattillo ; Yan Sun ; Nujin Suphaphiphat ; Andrew Swiston ; Robert Tchaidze ; Benedict J. Clements ; Stefania Fabrizio ; Valentina Flamini ; Laure Redifer ; Harald Finger -- Summary: This paper examines water challenges, a growing global concern with adverse economic and social consequences, and discusses economic policy instruments. Water subsidies provided through public utilities are estimated at about $456 billion or 0.6 percent of global GDP in 2012. The paper suggests that getting economic incentives right, notably by reforming water pricing, can go a long way towards encouraging more efficient water use and supporting needed investment, while enabling policies that protect the poor. It also discusses pricing reform options and emphasizes an integrated and holistic approach to manage water, going beyond the water sector itself. The IMF can play a helpful role in ensuring that macroeconomic policies are conducive to sound water management. -- Subject(s): Water resources | Economic policy | Subsidies | Water supply | Supply and demand | Policy instruments | Fund role -- paper summary in F&D issue, June 2015 (downloaded to Note) -- didn't download Staff Discussion Note
paper  IMF  water  development  LDCs  emerging_markets  aid  public_finance  economic_policy  economic_reform  economic_sociology  subsidies  sustainability  poverty  access_to_services  utilities  incentives  incentives-distortions  investment  infrastructure  public-private_partnerships  public_goods  downloaded  Aiviq 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Montfort Mlachila, René Tapsoba, and Sampawende Tapsoba - A Quest for Quality [of economic growth] -- Finance & Development, June 2015, Vol. 52, No. 2
Despite consensus in the economics profession that growth alone does not lead to better social outcomes (Ianchovichina and Gable, 2012), quality growth still lacks a rigorous definition or formal quantification. In a recent paper, we develop a quality of growth index (QGI) that captures both the intrinsic nature of growth and its social dimension. Our premise is that not all growth produces favorable social outcomes. How growth is generated is critical to its sustainability and ability to create decent jobs, enhance living standards, and reduce poverty. We aim in our design of the QGI to capture these multidimensional features of growth by focusing on its very nature and desired social outcomes. -- in F&D issue downloaded as pdf to Note
article  development  economic_growth  political_economy  LDCs  emerging_markets  GDP  GDP-alternatives  inequality  participation-economic  inclusion  marginalized_groups  access_to_services  access_to_finance  SMEs  micro-enterprises  Innovation  innovation-government_policy  rent-seeking  informal_sectors  living_standards  poverty  health_care  education  sustainability  unemployment  common_good  statistics  economic_policy  economic_sociology  economic_reform  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Nicola Lacey - Jurisprudence, History, and the Institutional Quality of Law (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 919 (2015)
A cri de coeur for putting legal theory and history back together with social theory and empirical social sciences,. -- In the early part of my career, legal history and the history of legal ideas were closed books to me, as I made my way in a field of criminal law scholarship dominated by doctrinal scholarship and by concept-focused philosophical analysis of the foundations of criminal law. These 2 very different paradigms have 1 big thing in common: They tend to proceed as if the main intellectual task is to unearth the deep logic of existing legal doctrines, not infrequently going so far as to read them back onto history, as if things could never have been other than they are. (..)I have increasingly found myself turning to historical resources (1) [to examine] the contingency of particular legal arrangements, and (2) ...to develop causal and other theses about the dynamics which shape them and hence about the role and quality of criminal law as a form of power in modern societies. So, in a sense, I have been using history in support of an analysis driven primarily by the social sciences. (..) it is no accident that all of the great social theorists, from Marx to Foucault via Weber, Durkheim, and Elias, ..have incorporated significant historical elements into their interpretations .... Indeed, without the diachronic perspective provided by history (or the perspective offered by comparative study) we could have no critical purchase on social theory’s characterizations of or causal hypotheses about the dynamics of social systems. Hence, (...) my boundless gratitude to the historians whose meticulous research makes this sort of interpretive social theory possible). -- Lacey is not over-dramatizing -- see the "commentary" from a "legal philosopher" who believes the normative basis of criminal responsibility can be investigated as timeless "moral truths". -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  social_theory  historical_sociology  historical_change  institutions  institutional_change  philosophy_of_law  philosophical_anthropology  philosophy_of_social_science  jurisprudence  legal_theory  analytical_philosophy  concepts  morality-conventional  morality-objective  criminal_justice  responsibility  mind  human_nature  norms  power-asymmetric  power-symbolic  power  Neoplatonism  neo-Kantian  a_priori  historiography  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_culture  moral_philosophy  evidence  mental_health  social_order  epistemology  epistemology-moral  change-social  change-intellectual  comparative_law  comparative_anthropology  civil_liberties  women-rights  women-property  rights-legal  rights-political  access_to_services  discrimination  legal_culture  legal_system  legal_reasoning  Foucault  Marx  Weber  Durkheim  metaethics  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Frank Pasquale - Four Futures of Legal Automation | Balkinization: June 2015
http://balkin.blogspot.com/2015/06/four-futures-of-legal-automation.html -- overview of new article dealing with different scenarios for "disruption" promised by "innovators" and venture capitalists, which is likely to take the new fashion of arbitraging "inefficiencies" without any thoughts as to consequences for unraveling the "logic" of the current systems of legal services, re both content and access -- Instapaper has a number of links -- also downloaded pdf to Note
Instapaper  article  legal_system  legal_culture  automation  Innovation  technology  access_to_services  corporate_law  criminal_justice  family_law  property_rights  rights-legal  contracts  links  downloaded  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Georges Gloukoviezoff - Les banques face à leurs clients: Salariés de banque et inclusion bancaire | La Vie des idées - 28 janvier 2013
English translation March 2014 -- http://www.booksandideas.net/When-French-Banks-Encounter-their.html -- Most banks have now abandoned their previous function of providing advice. Instead, they view their services as products designed to maximize profits. They have started invoking the client’s autonomy as a way of passing on the risk of financial exclusion to their customers. In what ways have bank employees reacted to these new circumstances? -- Georges Gloukoviezoff est docteur en économie et spécialiste des questions d’inclusion financière des particuliers. Il est membre de l’Observatoire national de la pauvreté et de l’exclusion sociale. Il a publié en octobre 2010 aux Presses Universitaires de France "L’Exclusion bancaire. Le Lien social à l’épreuve de la rentabilité". Il tient également un blog sur la page d’Alternatives Economiques. -- downloaded French version as pdf to Note
article  France  financial_system  banking  access_to_finance  access_to_services  labor  labor-service_sector  consumer_protection  risk_management  risk_shifting  knowledge_economy  knowledge_workers  financial_innovation  advisory_services  business_practices  business-norms  profit  profit_maximization  financial_regulation  customer_relations  exclusion  exclusion-economic  economic_sociology  poverty  workforce  know-how  services  services-worker_autonomy  managerialism  productivity  incentives-distortions  consumer-know-how  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Thorsten Beck, Ralph De Haas, Steven Ongena - Understanding Emerging Market Banks: A new eBook | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal - 06 November 2013
New micro-level data sets allow better testing of existing and new hypotheses on how banks operate in the often challenging environment of emerging markets. This column introduces an eBook that reports on the findings of a recent conference in London on using different research methodologies and data sources in banking research the way towards an exciting research agenda. The papers presented in the conference and summarised in this eBook point *-* First, more detailed micro-level data help researchers and practitioners understand the impact of innovative products, lending techniques, and delivery channels. *-* Second, micro-level data allow a more careful analysis of the impact of specific financial-sector policies on banks and customers. *'* Third, the data opens the important area of how demand- and supply-side constraints on entrepreneurs affect access to external finance. Applying lessons from behavioural economics will be critical in the third point. -- didn't download
etexts  financial_economics  banking  microfinance  emerging_markets  financial_innovation  property_rights  rule_of_law  accounting  methodology-quantitative  methodology-qualitative  SMEs  investment  entrepreneurs  access_to_finance  access_to_services  behavioral_economics 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Special Issue: Microfinance -- AEAweb: American Economic Journal: Applied Economics Vol. 7 No.1, Jan 2015
Abstract of introductory article -- Causal evidence on microcredit impacts informs theory, practice, and debates about its effectiveness as a development tool. The six randomized evaluations in this volume use a variety of sampling, data collection, experimental design, and econometric strategies to identify causal effects of expanded access to microcredit on borrowers and/or communities. These methods are deployed across an impressive range of locations—six countries on four continents, urban and rural areas—borrower characteristics, loan characteristics, and lender characteristics. Summarizing and interpreting results across studies, we note a consistent pattern of modestly positive, but not transformative, effects. We also discuss directions for future research. -- broad conclusion to be expected contra the hype -- but focus still seems to be on *credit* (with assumptions re micro and SME entrepreneurs and business formation) rather than access to services -- also question whether the former Yugoslavia study really dealt with "micro", likely the sort of labeling of SMEs as micro like Aftab's programs
journals-academic  article  paywall  microfinance  access_to_finance  development  economic_growth  economic_sociology  development-impact  RCT  econometrics  causation  causation-social  financial_sector_development  financial_economics  financial_access  institutional_economics  banking  credit  financial_innovation  SMEs  access_to_services  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Solutions Journalism - Toolkit for Reporting Internationally
Downloaded guide to iPhone -- This meaty guidebook has two objectives: (1) to highlight and dissect the solutions-oriented work of four Pulitzer Center grantees; and (2) to offer general guidance about howto report on solutions stories internationally – and how to get your story idea funded. This guidebook has been produced in partnership with the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, which supports international journalism across media platforms.
report  downloaded  journalism  narrative  public_sphere  public_policy  development  urbanism  family  migration  public_health  education  women-education  public_disorder  racism  civil_wars  environment  climate  poverty  access_to_services  labor  labor_standards  political_participation  gender  violence  norms 
january 2015 by dunnettreader

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