dunnettreader + smith   58

Robert S. Taylor - Market Freedom as Antipower (2013) | American Political Science Review on JSTOR
Historically, republicans were of different minds about markets: some, such as Rousseau, reviled them, while others, like Adam Smith, praised them. The recent republican resurgence has revived this issue. Classical liberals such as Gerald Gaus contend that neorepublicanism is inherently hostile to markets, while neorepublicans like Richard Dagger and Philip Pettit reject this characterization—though with less enthusiasm than one might expect. I argue here that the right republican attitude toward competitive markets is celebratory rather than acquiescent and that republicanism demands such markets for the same reason it requires the rule of law: because both are essential institutions for protecting individuals from arbitrary interference. I reveal how competition restrains—and in the limit, even eradicates— market power and thereby helps us realize "market freedom," i.e., freedom as nondomination in the context of economic exchange. Finally, I show that such freedom necessitates "Anglo-Nordic" economic policies. - downloaded via iphone to dbox
Pettit  capitalism-alternatives  downloaded  markets_in_everything  capitalism-varieties  republicanism  bibliography  political_economy  Rousseau  Smith  market_failure  markets-dependence_on_government  jstor  commerce-doux  freedom  domination  market_fundamentalism  Gaus_Gerald  markets  political_theory  capitalism  article  competition  markets-structure 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Anna Foy - Grainger and the ‘Sordid Master’: Plantocratic Alliance in The Sugar-Cane and Its Manuscript (2017) | The Review of English Studies | Oxford Academic
Scholarship on James Grainger’s perceived alliance with the West Indian plantocracy in The Sugar-Cane has so far not assimilated relevant information from the poem’s extant manuscript. In an unpublished comment on Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments, Grainger rejects Smith’s characterization of planters as ‘sordid masters’ and plans his ‘vindication’ of planters accordingly. The published poem largely fulfils this plan: it argues that planters are not heritably incapable of moral sentiment, even as it accepts the Enlightenment’s institutional critique of slavery as a political system that cultivates bad moral habits in slave masters. Grainger relies on conjectural-historical reasoning then typical of Enlightenment moral philosophy, and he posits ‘probity’ as a bulwark against Creole degeneration. Manuscript evidence suggests further that Grainger sought probity in his own philosophical outlook. Although modern scholars have sometimes seen the poem as an attempt to win plantocratic favour, political references confirm that he took a position in the Canada-Guadeloupe controversy opposed to that of the powerful West India Interest. Moreover, during the course of composition, Grainger altered his portraits of planters to make them less flattering and more satirical—an editing process consistent with his apparent desire for philosophical impartiality. -- Downloaded via iPhone to Dbox
Enlightenment  English_lit  Virgil  Scottish_Enlightenment  Kames  poetry  moral_philosophy  article  downloaded  West_Indies  imitation  British_Empire  slavery  18thC  civic_virtue  Smith 
april 2017 by dunnettreader
R Kingston, review - Duncan Kelly, The Propriety of Liberty. Persons, Passions and Judgment in Modern Political Thought (2012) | Political Theory - jstor
The Propriety of Liberty. Persons, Passions and Judgment in Modern Political Thought by Duncan Kelly -- Review by: Rebecca Kingston -- Political Theory, Vol. 40, No. 4, August 2012 (pp. 524-527)
Downloaded via Air
article  downloaded  jstor  books  bookshelf  reviews  political_philosophy  liberty  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  Locke  Locke-2_Treatises  Smith 
january 2017 by dunnettreader
Emily Nacol - An Age of Risk: Politics and Economy in Early Modern Britain (2016) | Princeton University Press (eBook and Hardcover)
In An Age of Risk, Emily Nacol shows that risk, now treated as a permanent feature of our lives, did not always govern understandings of the future. Focusing on the epistemological, political, and economic writings of Hobbes, Locke, Hume, and Adam Smith, Nacol explains that in 17th-18thC Britain, political and economic thinkers reimagined the future as a terrain of risk, characterized by probabilistic calculation, prediction, and control. Nacol contends, we see 3 crucial developments in thought on risk and politics. While thinkers differentiated uncertainty about the future from probabilistic calculations of risk, they remained attentive to the ways uncertainty and risk remained in a conceptual tangle, a problem that constrained good decision making. They developed sophisticated theories of trust and credit as crucial background conditions for prudent risk-taking, and offered complex depictions of the relationships and behaviors that would make risk-taking more palatable. They also developed 2 narratives that persist in subsequent accounts of risk—risk as a threat to security, and risk as an opportunity for profit. Nacol locates the origins of our own ambivalence about risk-taking. By the end of the 18thC, a new type of political actor would emerge from this ambivalence, one who approached risk with fear rather than hope. -- Emily C. Nacol is assistant professor of political science at Vanderbilt University.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 “Experience Concludeth Nothing Universally” - Hobbes and the Groundwork for a Political Theory of Risk 9
Chapter 3 The Risks of Political Authority - Trust, Knowledge, and Political Agency in Locke’s Politics and Economy 41
Chapter 4 Hume’s Fine Balance - On Probability, Fear, and the Risks of Trade 69
Chapter 5 Adventurous Spirits and Clamoring Sophists - Smith on the Problem of Risk in Political Economy 98
Chapter 6 An Age of Risk, a Liberalism of Anxiety 124
Notes 131 -- References 157 -- Index 167
Downloaded Chapter 1 to Tab S2
books  kindle-available  downloaded  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  British_history  Hobbes  Locke  Locke-Essay  Locke-2_Treatises  Hume  Hume-causation  Hume-politics  Smith  political_economy  trade  commerce  commercial_interest  epistemology  epistemology-history  probability  risk  risk_assessment  uncertainty  insurance  risk_shifting  political_discourse  economic_culture 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Donald Kelley & David Hams Sacks, eds - The Historical Imagination in Early Modern Britain: History, Rhetoric & Fiction 1500-1800 (1997) | Cambridge University Press
These essays by some of the most distinguished historians and literary scholars in the English-speaking world explore the overlap, interplay, and interaction between supposedly truthful history and fact-based fiction in British writing from the Tudor period to the Enlightenment. -- downloaded intro via Air
1. Introduction Donald Kelley and David Harris Sacks
2. Example and truth: Deggory Wheare and the ars historica J. H. M. Salmon
3. Truth, lies and fiction in sixteenth-century Protestant historiography Patrick Collinson
4. Thomas More and the English Renaissance: history and fiction in Utopia Joseph Levine
5. Ancestral and antiquarian: Little Crosby and early modern historical culture Daniel Woolf
6. Murder in Faversham: Holinshed's impertinent history Richard Helgerson
7. Foul, his Wife, the Mayor, and Foul's Mare: anecdote in Tudor historiography Annabel Patterson
8. Thomas Hobbes' Machiavellian moments David Wooton
9. The background of Hobbes' Behemoth Fritz Levy
10. Leviathan, mythic history, and natural historiography Patricia Springborg
11. Adam Smith and the history of private life Mark Phillips
12. Protesting fiction, constructing history Paul Hunter
13. Contemplative heroes and Gibbon's historical imagination Patricia Craddock
14. Experience, truth, and natural history in early English gardening books Rebecca Bushnell.
books  downloaded  kindle-available  historiography  historiography-17thC  historiography-18thC  rhetoric-writing  belle-lettres  literary_history  fiction  epistemology-history  exemplarity  moral_philosophy  Hobbes  Machiavelli  Smith  Gibbon  Cicero  Foxe-Book_of_Martyrs  English_lit 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Robert Waldmann - DeLong on Hayek, Smith, and Smith - May 2016
Brad answers a question raised by Noah with thoughts on Friedrich and Adam. I totally lost all self control in his comments section and waste even more pixels…
Instapaper  economic_theory  macroeconomics  markets  market_fundamentalism  Hayek  Friedman_Milton  Keynes  Smith  emergence  knowledge  information-markets  prices  Popper  from instapaper
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Leo Damrosh - The Enlightenment: Invention of the Modern Self | The Great Courses
Enlightenment Invention of the Modern Self - from opening views in 17thC, through stages of the Enlightenment - a road to its (inevitable?) backlash in Romanticism
24 lectures
Only available as Audio download (and streaming) - list price $130
Rave reviews
Uses literary works and philosophical texts together
Frex completes the 2 lectures on British empiricism (focus on Locke and Hume re the self) with how Pope struggles with capturing complex psychology within the empiricist framework
After an introduction of 17thC religious and secular conceptions of the self, starts with 2 on La Princesse de Clèves
After empiricism, 2 on Voltaire and theodicy in Candide
3 lectures on Diderot and Jacques le fataliste
A lot of Rousseau - not the novels but the autobiographical works - how he analyzes himself in Confessions and Solitary Walker
Lots of biography, with Boswell's Johnson the vehicle
Some Franklin and Smith
Finishes with Laclos and Blake
Romanticism  bibliography  reason-passions  poetry  Boswell  self  moral_psychology  French_Enlightenment  Enlightenment  English_lit  French_Revolution-impact  Rousseau  free_will  Locke-education  buy  human_nature  Diderot  Blake_William  Locke  Hume-causation  autobiography  17thC  Rousseau-self  Hume-ethics  altruism  Johnson  Voltaire  novels  empiricism  18thC  moral_philosophy  Locke-Essay  intellectual_history  cultural_history  Pope_Alexander  courses  French_lit  Smith  Hume  determinism  epistemology  emotions  character  audio  psychology 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Davide Panagia - Theory Syllabus, Winter 2016, UCLA (Political Theory) graduate study| Academia.edu
Two guiding themes in our investigations and readings will be that theories of affect are (1.) a radicalization of modern moral sentimental theories of sociality (think David Hume on associationism, Adam Smith on sympathy, and Jane Austen on agreeableness); and (2.) a response to the hermeneutic turn in literary and political analysis. Thus, an important site of consideration will be the contributions that theories of affect make to issues of political equality, solidarity, mediation, and language.

The first half of the course is dedicated to selected writings of Gilles Deleuze and Gilbert Simondon, to Simondon’s influence on Deleuze’s account of assemblages (agencement), and to the latter’s unique articulation of a process theory of difference and repetition. The idea here is that Deleuze on repetition and Simondon on disparation offer the ontological grounds for affect theory.

The second half of the course is dedicated to the exploration of diverse writers in/around affect theory and their critics – all of whom, in direct or indirect ways, take up some of the ideas articulated and explored in the first half of the course. Important to this second half of the course will be the function of political and aesthetic judgment to affect theory.
Downloaded 2 versions with somewhat different reading lists and class schedules
syllabus  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  moral_sentiments  affect_theory  cultural_studies  downloaded  Spinoza  Deluze  Hume  Smith  Simondon  cultural_critique  cultural_change 
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Richard Tuck - István Hont and Rousseau and Smith’s radical resemblances | TLS
Rousseau and Smith’s radical resemblances -- RICHARD TUCK -- István Hont, POLITICS IN COMMERCIAL SOCIETY Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Smith Edited by Béla Kapossy and…
Instapaper  books  reviews  kindle-available  intellectual_history  18thC  Rousseau  Smith  political_economy  commerce  protectionism  economic_growth  community  market-size_of  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  human_nature  from instapaper
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Spencer J. Pack, Eric Schliesser - Smith's Humean Criticism of Hume's Account of the Origin of Justice (2006) | Project MUSE
From: Journal of the History of Philosophy, Volume 44, Number 1, January 2006 pp. 47-63 | 10.1353/hph.2006.0004 *--* It is argued that Adam Smith criticizes David Hume's account of the origin of and continuing adherence to the rule of law for being not sufficiently Humean. ["Humean" is used for his tendency to use proto-evolutionary explanations of social phenomena in terms of psychological and material factors acting on individuals rather than rationalistic explanations] Hume explained that adherence to the rule of law originated in the self-interest to restrain self-interest. [Treatise 3.2.2,13-14, 316] [Smith says Hume's account is "too refined - TMS II, ii.3.5 ] According to Smith, Hume does not pay enough attention to the "unsocial" passion of resentment and the passion of admiration, which have their source in the imagination. Smith's offers a more naturalistic and evolutionary account [more Humean than Hume] of the psychological pre-conditions of the establishment and morality of justice. Yet, Smith's account also makes room for a thin conception of Lockean natural right to property, while rejecting the contractualist and rationalistic elements in Locke. It emerges that Smith severs the intimate connection that Hobbes and Hume made between justice and property. - paywall
article  paywall  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  human_nature  18thC  Smith  Hume  justice  passions  imagination  resentment  property  property_rights  self-interest  Hobbes  self-protection  Locke-2_Treatises  natural_law  natural_rights 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Symposium on Jack Russell Weinstein’s "Adam Smith’s Pluralism: Rationality, Education And The Moral Sentiments" | Cosmos + Taxis, Vol2, Issue 3, 2015
Rather than a classic intellectual_history of Adam Smith, Weinstein’s aim is to use Smith to reinvigorate modern liberalism -- Introduction to Symposium - Nathaniel Wolloch *--* Context-dependent Normativity and Universal Rules of Justice - María Alejandra Carrasco. **--** “… but one of the multitude”. Justice, Pluralism and Rationality in Smith and Weinstein… - Lisa Herzog. **--** The Dynamics of Sympathy and the Challenge of Creating New Commonalities - Dionysis Drosos. **--** The “Spectator” and the Impartial Spectator in Adam Smith’s Pluralism - Spiros Tegos **--** Was Adam Smith an Optimist? - Maria Pia Paganelli. **--** The Political Hypotheses of Adam Smith’s Pluralism: A response to my commentators - Jack Russell Weinstein -- downloaded pdf to Note
journal  article  political_philosophy  political_economy  moral_psychology  moral_philosophy  liberalism  Smith  justice  pluralism  emergence  social_order  sympathy  empathy  morality-conventional  moral_sentiments  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Richard Bourke and Raymond Geuss, eds. - Political Judgement: Essays for John Dunn (2009) | Cambridge University Press
From Plato to Max Weber, the attempt to understand political judgement took the form of a struggle to define the relationship between politics and morals. (...) explores a series of related problems in philosophy and political thought, raising fundamental questions about democracy, trust, the nature of statesmanship, and the relations between historical and political judgement. (...) reconsiders some classic debates in political theory – about equality, authority, responsibility and ideology – Introduction **--** Part I. The Character of Political Judgement: *-* 1. What is political judgement? Raymond Geuss *-* 2. Sticky judgement and the role of rhetoric Victoria McGeer and Philip Pettit *-* 3. Theory and practice: the revolution in political judgement Richard Bourke **--** Part II. Trust, Judgement and Consent: *-* 4. On trusting the judgement of our rulers Quentin Skinner *-* 5. Adam Smith's history of law and government as political theory Istvan Hont *-* 6. Marxism in translation: critical reflections on Indian radical thought Sudipta Kaviraj **--** Part III. Rationality and Judgement: *-* 7. Pericles' unreason Geoffrey Hawthorn
8. Accounting for human actions: individual agency and political judgement in Montaigne's Essais Biancamaria Fontana *-* 9. Nehru's judgement Sunil Khilnani **--** Part IV. Democracy and Modern Political Judgement: *-* 10. Democracy, equality and redistribution Adam Przeworski *-* 11. Democracy and terrorism Richard Tuck -- excerpt from Intro downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  political_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  judgment-political  public_policy  political_culture  ancient_Greece  Europe-Early_Modern  16thC  18thC  Montaigne  Smith  agency  decision_theory  democracy  equality  redistribution  political_participation  public_opinion  rhetoric-political  Marxism  India  colonialism  post-colonial  terrorism  legitimacy  authority  moral_philosophy  responsibility  accountability  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
John Dunn, ed. - The Economic Limits to Modern Politics (1992) | Cambridge University Press
The central problem of modern government and political action is how to choose and implement effective economic policies. For this reason, the economic considerations of public policy have assumed a more prominent place in contemporary political thought. Despite efforts among political scientists, economists, and sociologists to fathom the complexities of this added dimension, none of these solid sciences offers a satisfying approach to the problem. This volume attempts to display the historical novelty and intellectual importance of this dilemma, to uncover its origins, and to procure a remedy through a clearer and steadier focus. The book's contributors range from historians of ideas to economic theorists, who bring the approach of their own intellectual discipline to bear upon the issue. **--** Introduction, John Dunn *-* 1. The economic limits to modern politics, John Dunn *-* 2. The wealth of one nation and the dynamics of international competition, Istvan Hont *-* 3. The political limits to pre-modern politics, J. G. A. Pocock *-* 4. The economic constraints on political programs, Frank H. Hahn *-* 5. International liberalism reconsidered, Robert O. Keohane *-* 6. Capitalism, socialism, and democracy: compatibilities and contradictions John Dunn. -- ebook Adobe Reader - not clear whether in kindle format -- excerpt (10 ogs Intro) downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  intellectual_history  economic_history  political_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  judgment-political  public_policy  capitalism  competition-interstate  economic_growth  development  raison-d'-état  British_history  British_politics  British_Empire  trade  trade-policy  Great_Divergence  economic_theory  political_culture  economic_culture  macroeconomic_policy  Innovation  innovation-government_policy  collective_action  property_rights  Labor_markets  redistribution  fiscal_policy  fiscal-military_state  Davenant  Smith  social_order  social_democracy  liberalism  elites-political_influence  IR_theory  globalization  international_political_economy  public_finance  public_goods  class_conflict  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Michael Kwass, review essay - Reassessing Enlightenment Economics - Reinert's "Translating Empire" | Books & ideas - 25 March 2013
Reviewed: Sophus A. Reinert, Translating Empire: Emulation and the Origins of Political Economy. Harvard University Press, 438 pp - Resurrecting the life of John Cary’s Essay on the State of England, a book which travelled all over Europe throughout the 18th century, S.A. Reinert challenges our understanding of Enlightenment economics, while calling for a more nuanced and historically-informed understanding of political economy in general. (..) By resurrecting the life of a text that scholars have dismissed as “mercantilist” and repositioning that work at the center of 18th-century political economy, Reinert challenges our basic understanding of Enlightenment economics, so often reduced to the free-trade doctrines of the physiocrats and Adam Smith. He argues that the diffusion of Cary’s work demonstrates that state-centered approaches to the creation of wealth enjoyed wide resonance at the very moment when discussions of economic policy were expanding beyond state chambers to engage a broader public. Far from being eclipsed by theories of laissez-faire economics, as conventional histories of economic thought would have us believe, such approaches became “the absolute mainstream in Europe” by the late 18th century -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  kindle  18thC  economic_history  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  political_economy  Enlightenment  economic_theory  mercantilism  laisser-faire  Physiocrats  Smith  British_history  British_foreign_policy  nation-state  economic_growth  development  public_policy  public_goods  government-roles  Italy  Austria  Germany  readership  history_of_book  print_culture  information-intermediaries  networks-information  networks-business  networks-policy  Republic_of_Letters  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Raymond Boudon - Utilité ou Rationalité (2002) | Scribd
21 page article -- Explains why "rational choice" fails as explanatory theory in lots of collective action, public opinion, game theory, etc. -- domains where decisions to act aren't based exclusively on instrumental, consequentialist, cost-benefit calculative, and egoistic (directly concerned with impact on self) forms of, and context for, reasoning. Boudon finds "rational choice" superior to hand-wavy explanations that are speculative "black boxes" -- e.g. (1) sociobiology or evo-devo that we're hardwired, (2) Kahneman and Tversky heuristics and biases -- fascinating observations but aren't explanatory, (3) social/cultural explanations such as "socialization" which are tautological or a black box that provide no mechanisms that can differentiate situations or variations in outcomes. E.g. in Roman Empire peasants were more likely to remain pagan and soldiers were more likely to be attracted to the new religion. "Socialization" doesn't explain why soldiers raised in the traditional religious milieu and belief system were more likely to change their beliefs. Great examples of how rationality includes cognitive processes dealing with (1) non-instrumental contexts - e.g. identification with communitarian concerns ranging from voting to immigration policies, (2) aligning actions with one's judgment of what's more likely "true" based on core beliefs and how one has learned to evaluate "evidence" [e.g. Swedes are even more likely to reject "lump of labor" than Americans!] (3) axiological reasoning, including norms of fairness that may be fairly universal (e.g. reaction to Antigone, ultimatum game) or specific to a culture (e.g. due process in political application of "rule of law") -- see article for his tripartite classification of rationality and types of cognition that "rational choice" rejects in its definition. He thinks Weber and Adam Smith got there before, and better than, Becker.
article  Scribd  social_theory  mechanisms-social_theory  evolutionary_biology  evo_psych  rational_choice  rationality-economics  rationality-bounded  rationality  reasons  Weber  Smith  Becker_Gary  Simon_Herbert  fairness  community  identity  norms  epistemology-social  game_theory  altruism  cognitive_bias  cognition  cognition-social  democracy  citizens  voting  political_participation  collective_action  political_culture  public_choice  public_opinion  common_good  socialization  social_psychology  cost-benefit  self-interest  self-interest-cultural_basis  self-and-other  EF-add 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Lisa Herzog Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel, and Political Theory (OUP 2013) | The Book Depository
Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel, and Political Theory analyses the constructions of the market in the thought of Adam Smith and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and discusses their relevance for contemporary political philosophy. Combining the history of ideas with systematic analysis, it contrasts Smith's view of the market as a benevolently designed 'contrivance of nature' with Hegel's view of the market as a 'relic of the state of nature.' The differences in their views of the market are then connected to four central themes of political philosophy: identity, justice, freedom, and history. The conceptualization of the labour market as an exchange of human capital or as a locus for the development of a professional identity has an impact on how one conceptualizes the relation between individual and community. Comparing Smith's and Hegel's views of the market also helps to understand how social justice can be realized through or against markets, and under what conditions it makes sense to apply a notion of desert to labour market outcomes. For both authors, markets are not only spaces of negative liberty, but are connected to other aspects of liberty, such as individual autonomy and political self-government, in subtle and complex ways. Seeing Smith's and Hegel's account of the market as historical accounts, however, reminds us that markets are no a-historical phenomena, but depend on cultural and social preconditions and on the theories that are used to describe them. The book as a whole argues for becoming more conscious of the pictures of the market that have shaped our understanding, which can open up the possibility of alternative pictures and alternative realities. -- see 3AM interview April 2015
books  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  Smith  Hegel  political_philosophy  political_economy  economic_history  economic_theory  economic_sociology  economic_culture  social_theory  liberty  liberty-negative  autonomy  labor  Labor_markets  social_order  justice  identity  self-government  self-development  self-interest  self-fashioning  state-of-nature  Providence  invisible_hand 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Andy Denis - A Century of Methodological Individualism - 2010 UK History of Economic Theory Conference
Draft -- He has been writing a series looking at what he describes as reductionist vs holistic ontologies, focusing on different usages of Methodological Individualism. Reductionists include Malthus (later writings), Ricardo, utilitarians, early marginalists, Menger (the "grand-daddy" though he didn't use the term), Schumpeter (who introduces the term in 1908), Mises, Friedman and Lucas et al. Holistic includes Smith, Keynes and Hayek. The full-blown reductionists make the heroic (but usually inexplicit) assumption that when each individual acts in his own interests ("properly understood" adds Mises) maximizing his own utility, that since society is nothing but the sum of individuals, the aggregate *social interests* will be maximized. Those who take a holistic view can't employ this sleight of hand, so they need another mechanism at the society level operating to ensure unintended consequences will be socially beneficial (Smith's invisible_hand, Hayek's evolutionary selection) Or their Keynes, facing the fact that there's no mechanism that ensures socially beneficial outcomes from the actions of self-interested individuals. Interesting bibliography as well as textual analysis. Note that Schumpeter embraces an atomistic version of MI for "pure theory" of economics, but following Weber would assign to other social sciences the links between individual behavior and social structures.
Scribd  social_theory  ontology-social  equilibrium  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  Smith  Malthus  Ricardo  Menger  Austrian_economics  Schumpeter  Mises  Hayek  Friedman_Milton  Keynes  Weber  Marxist-analytical  individualism-methodology  emergence  bibliography 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Thornton, Mark. "Cantillon and the Invisible Hand." - Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics (2009) | Mises Institute
The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 12, No. 2 (2009) 27–46. -- from the blurb, looks like he thinks Adam Smith was using the metaphor in a theoretically significant sense which theorists should take seriously -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  18thC  France  Cantillon  Scottish_Enlightenment  Smith  invisible_hand  economic_history  economic_theory  political_economy  social_order  equilibrium  prices 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Anna Plassart - The Scottish Enlightenment and the French Revolution (to be released April 2015) | Ideas in Context series | Cambridge University Press
Historians of ideas have traditionally discussed the significance of the French Revolution through the prism of several major interpretations, including the commentaries of Burke, Tocqueville and Marx. This book argues that the Scottish Enlightenment offered an alternative and equally powerful interpretative framework for the Revolution, which focused on the transformation of the polite, civilised moeurs that had defined the 'modernity' analysed by Hume and Smith in the 18thC. The Scots observed what they understood as a military- and democracy-led transformation of European modern morals and concluded that the real historical significance of the Revolution lay in the transformation of warfare, national feelings and relations between states, war and commerce that characterised the post-revolutionary international order. This book recovers the Scottish philosophers' powerful discussion of the nature of post-revolutionary modernity and shows that it is essential to our understanding of 19thC political thought. **--** Part I. The Burke–Paine Debate and Scotland's Science of Man: 1. The Burke–Paine debate and the Scottish Enlightenment *-* 2. The heritage of Hume and Smith: Scotland's science of man and politics **--** Part II. The 1790s: 3. Scotland's political debate *-* 4. James Mackintosh and Scottish philosophical history *-* 5. John Millar and the Scottish discussion on war, modern sociability and national sentiment *-* 6. Adam Ferguson on democracy and empire **--** Part III. 1802–15: 7. The French Revolution and the Edinburgh Review *-* 8. Commerce, war and empire
books  find  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  18thC  19thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Revolution  Smith  Hume  Hume-politics  civil_society  civilizing_process  commerce  commerce-doux  science_of_man  social_sciences  IR_theory  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars  nationalism  national_ID  historiography-18thC  historiography-Whig  military  Military_Revolution  mass_culture  levée_en_masse  conscription  sociability  social_order  empires  empire-and_business  imperialism  Great_Powers  balance_of_power  philosophy_of_history  progress  social_theory  change-social  change-economic  Burke  Paine  Mackintosh_James  Millar_John  Edinburgh_Review  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  Scottish_politics  1790s  1800s  1810s  international_political_economy  international_system  international_law  democracy  morality-conventional  norms  global_economy  mercantilism 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Scott Montgomery - The Shape of the New: Four Big Ideas and How They Made the Modern World:Amazon:Books
Princeton U Press - release May 2015 - A testament to the enduring power of ideas, The Shape of the New offers unforgettable portraits of Adam Smith, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Charles Darwin, and Karl Marx--heirs of the Enlightenment who embodied its highest ideals about progress--and shows how their thoughts, over time and in the hands of their followers and opponents, transformed the very nature of our beliefs, institutions, economies, and politics. Yet these ideas also hold contradictions. They have been used in the service of brutal systems such as slavery and colonialism, been appropriated and twisted by monsters like Stalin and Hitler, and provoked reactions against the Enlightenment's legacy by Islamic Salafists and the Christian Religious Right. The Shape of the New argues that it is impossible to understand the ideological and political conflicts of our own time without familiarizing ourselves with the history and internal tensions of these world-changing ideas. With passion and conviction, it exhorts us to recognize the central importance of these ideas as historical forces and pillars of the Western humanistic tradition. It makes the case that to read the works of the great thinkers is to gain invaluable insights into the ideas that have shaped how we think and what we believe.
19thc  books  kindle-available  modernity  political_philosophy  ideology  totalitarian  right-wing  fundamentalism  culture_wars  humanism  anti-humanism  postmodern  sociology_of_religion  science-and-religion  politics-and-religion  social_epistemology  20thc  Smith  Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  counter-Enlightenment  18thc  21stc  political_economy  intellectual_history  Smoth  Jefferson  Hamilton  Marx  Darwin 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Colin Kidd - Civil Theology and Church Establishments in Revolutionary America | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Dec., 1999), pp. 1007-1026
The discourse of America's founding generation, it is now widely recognized, was rich and variegated in its composition, drawing upon the commonwealth tradition, the English common law, Montesquieu, Locke, Scottish moral philosophy, and the classics. These sources yield significant clues as to how eighteenth-century Americans viewed religious liberty and church-state relations, subjects of the First Amendment to the Constitution. Supplementing the work of legal historians on the religious provisions of the early state constitutions, the study of political ideas suggests the parameters of the eighteenth-century debate over the effects which various types of religious belief and ecclesiastical establishment had upon manners and institutions. It also reveals the ideological underpinnings of the apparently inconsistent legal provisions for religion at the state level, and, far from settling the elusive question of `original intent', highlights the nature of the divisions within the founding generation. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  theology  religious_history  church_history  religious_culture  religion-established  civil_religion  civil_liberties  tolerance  US_constitution  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  US_history  Founders  bill_of_rights  ancient_Rome  ancient_Greece  Commonwealthmen  Locke-religion  Hutcheson  Smith  Montesquieu  civic_virtue  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  US_legal_system  US_politics  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Lapavitsas, Costas - Banks and the Design of the Financial System: Underpinnings in Steuart, Smith and Hilferding (2002) - SOAS Research Online (School of Oriental and African Studies)
Banks in bank-based financial systems tend to engage in long-term lending that requires substantial own capital to guarantee solvency. In market-based systems, in contrast, they tend to undertake short-term lending that requires adequate reserves to guarantee liquidity. Theoretical support for these two approaches to banking can be found in, respectively, Steuart and Smith. The innovative Marxist analysis of banking by Hilferding combined elements of both. Banks in the early stages of development are Smith-like but, as the scale of fixed investment in industry grows, they lend long-term and become Steuart-like, also developing ‘commitment’ relations with enterprises. However, Hilferding also implied, erroneously, that financial systems historically evolve in a bank-based direction. Based on Hilferding but also drawing on Japanese Marxist analysis of finance, it is suggested instead that bank behaviour in bank-based systems results from institutional changes imposed by policy-makers in order to achieve ‘catching up.’ -- Item Type: Monographs (Working Paper) -- Keywords: Adam Smith, James Steuart, Rudolf Hilferding, banking theory, Marxist theory of finance -- SOAS Departments & Centres: Faculty of Law and Social Sciences > Department of Economics -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  intellectual_history  economic_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  financial_system  finance_capital  banking  financial_economics  Marxist  leverage  credit  money_market  industrialization  investment  liquidity  financial_crisis  capital_adequacy  financial_sector_development  financial_innovation  Smith  Steuart_James  Hilferding  downloaded  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Thomas R. Wells, “Recovering Adam Smith’s ethical economics”| real-world economics review, issue no. 68, 21 August 2014, pp. 90-97 | Real-World Economics Review Blog
Justice was thus central to Smith’s critique of the crony capitalism of his time, and to his alternative proposal of a “system of natural liberty” characterised both by a level playing field (the responsibility of political institutions) and a commitment to “fair play” (the moral responsibility of economic actors). The quotation above is often taken to indicate Smith’s rejection of the interests of the poor by ruling out the kind of redistributive policies found in a modern welfare state as akin to a referee changing the results of a game to favour one “team” over another. Yet that misses Smith’s commitment to procedural fairness, which introduces a concern that the rules of the game—the institutional arrangements that decide who should get what share of the gains of economic activity—should themselves be fair. If a country’s economy creates great wealth but the share going to the workers versus the owners of capital is kept artificially low by unfair institutions—such as restrictions on workers’ ability to bargain (WN I.viii.13)—that is a gross injustice which keeps the country less prosperous than it ought to be. Smith thus appears a more radical critic of the structural origins of economic inequality than many today on the political left. In Smith’s time no less than in our own, a political commitment to a free society and a free economy does not imply that we should simply accept our existing socio-economic institutional arrangements (cf Grusky 2012). On the contrary, it implies rigorous scrutiny and reform.
article  intellectual_history  political_economy  Smith  busisness-ethics  justice  Labor_markets  rent-seeking  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Eric Schliesser - Toland and Adam Smith’s Posthumous Work | Diametros
In this paper I offer a speculative answer to the question why Adam Smith, who burned nearly all of his papers, arranged for posthumous publication for a number of his essays. I rely on a number of hints in those essays and put them in the context of eighteenth century natural philosophy. I argue that those hints trace back to John Toland and Spinozism. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  natural_philosophy  Spinozism  Toland  Smith  Scottish_Enlightenment  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Alfred Marshall - Industry and Trade (Vol 2) [1919] | Google Books
Vol 2 appears to be available only as a commercial ebook (price c $4) - Vol 1 is a full Google Books copy added to my Google_Books library -- Vol 2 looks interesting in his treatment of the English economy from at least the Black Death -- remarks on "mercantilism" and the economic policies of the British government in the mid 18thC (following Adam Smith characterized as"bad" and "selfish") -- Though the bulk of his work was completed before the turn of the 20th century, the global ramifications of World War I prompted him to reconsider his theories on international economics, and in 1919 he published the two-volume Industry and Trade. Here, in Volume II, he discusses. . how monopolies and competition impact prices . trusts and cartels in the American and German economies . the decline of class differences and advantages in industrial systems . unions, co-opts, and business federations . and much more.
books  etexts  Google_Books  economic_history  British_history  UK_economy  Germany  Prussia  mercantilism  merchants  international_political_economy  international_economics  trading_companies  trade-policy  trade  trade-agreements  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  German_unification  monopolies  corporations  corporate_finance  labor  Labor_markets  wages  unions  imperialism  empire-and_business  US_economy  protectionism  Hamilton  Smith  free_trade  laisser-faire  institutional_economics  institution-building  firms-theory  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
A. M. C. Waterman - Economics as Theology: Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations | JSTOR: Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 68, No. 4 (Apr., 2002), pp. 907-921
Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations may be read as a work of natural theology similar in general style to Newton's Principia. Smith's ambiguous use of the word "nature" and its cognates implies an intended distinction between a positive sense in which "natural" means "necessary" and a normative sense in which "natural" means "right." The "interest" by which humans are motivated is "natural" in the first sense, but it may not bring about social outcomes that are "natural" in the second sense. It will do so only if the social institutions within which agents seek their own "interest" are well formed. Smith provides a large-scale, quasi-historical account of the way in which well-formed institutions gradually develop as unintended consequences of private "interest." In so doing, he provides a theodicy of economic life that is cognate with St. Augustine's theodicy of the state as remedium peccatorum. -- interesting bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  theology  political_economy  18thC  Scottish_Enlightenment  Smith  theodicy  institutions  political_culture  economic_culture  economic_history  stadial_theories  self-interest  Augustine  natural_religion  moral_philosophy  moral_sentiments  commerce-doux  common_good  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Ryan Patrick Hanley - Enlightened Nation Building: The "Science of the Legislator" in Adam Smith and Rousseau | JSTOR: American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 52, No. 2 (Apr., 2008), pp. 219-234
Rousseau is famous as an advocate of the politics of "denaturing." But attention to his conception of the "science of the legislator," as developed in the Geneva Manuscript and his writings on Poland and Corsica, reveals a more moderate approach to statecraft. Here Rousseau claims that legislative science requires tempering commitment to principles of political right with sensitivity to actual political conditions-a claim that importantly and unexpectedly parallels the better known account of the science of the legislator developed by Adam Smith. In comparing these conceptions, this article draws three conclusions: first, Smith's and Rousseau's shared moderation reveals their common commitment to accommodating the passions and prejudices of modernity; second, their fundamental difference concerns not practical legislative methods but rather differing conceptions of natural justice and political right; and finally, their prudential approach to legislation helps clarify the specific types of "moderation" and "intelligence" required of contemporary nation builders. -- see bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  18thC  Smith  Rousseau  nation-state  institution-building  political_culture  political_science  political_economy  modernity  natural_law  natural_rights  liberty  justice  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Deborah Boucoyannis - The Equalizing Hand: Why Adam Smith Thought the Market Should Produce Wealth Without Steep Inequality | Cambridge Journals Online - Perspectives on Politics - Dec 2013
For long overview of the article, see her post from the LSE blog -- Perspectives on Politics, 11, pp 1051-1070. doi:10.1017/S153759271300282X. - That the market economy inevitably leads to inequality is widely accepted today, with disagreement confined to the desirability of redistributive action, its extent, and the role of government in the process. The canonical text of liberal political economy, Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, is assumed even in the most progressive interpretations to accept inequality, rationalized as the inevitable trade-off for increasing prosperity compared to less developed but more equal economies. I argue instead that Smith's system, if fully implemented, would not allow steep inequalities to arise. In Smith, profits should be low and labor wages high, legislation in favor of the worker is “always just and equitable,” land should be distributed widely and evenly, inheritance laws liberalized, taxation can be high if it is equitable, and the science of the legislator is necessary to put the system in motion and keep it aligned. Market economies are made in Smith's system. Political theorists and economists have highlighted some of these points, but the counterfactual “what would the distribution of wealth be if all the building blocks were ever in place?” has not been posed. Doing so encourages us to question why steep inequality is accepted as a fact, instead of a pathology that the market economy was not supposed to generate in the first place. --Deborah Boucoyannis is Assistant Professor at the University of Virginia (dab5fw@virginia.edu). Her interests lie in the historical preconditions for the emergence of the liberal order and of constitutionalism.
paper  paywall  political_economy  intellectual_history  economic_theory  Smith  18thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  inequality  wages  taxes  landowners  monopolies  rent-seeking  luxury  consumer_demand  competition  profit  regulation  power  investment  capital  neoliberalism  Labor_markets  EF-add 
april 2014 by dunnettreader
Deborah Boucoyannis - For Adam Smith, inequality was contrary to the Wealth of Nations | British Politics and Policy at LSE – Feb 2014
Overview of her article in Perspectives on Politics - see Cambridge Journals bookmark - The assumption that Adam Smith accepted inequality as the necessary trade-off for a more prosperous economy is wrong, writes Deborah Boucoyannis. In reality, Smith’s system precluded steep inequalities not out of a normative concern with equality but by virtue of the design that aimed to maximise the wealth of nations. Much like many progressive critics of current inequality, Smith targets rentier practices by the rich and powerful as distorting economic outcomes.
paper  political_economy  intellectual_history  economic_theory  Smith  18thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  inequality  wages  taxes  landowners  monopolies  rent-seeking  luxury  consumer_demand  competition  profit  regulation  power  investment  capital  neoliberalism  Labor_markets  EF-add 
april 2014 by dunnettreader
Ruth Leyes - “Both of Us Disgusted in My Insula”: Mirror Neuron Theory and Emotional Empathy | nonsite.org March 2012
Attacks mirror neuron experiments and conclusions - ... the presuppositions of Wicker and his team can be traced most directly to the work of the American psychologist Silvan S. Tomkins, and especially to that of his follower, Paul Ekman, both of whom have proposed an evolutionary-classificatory approach to the affects. Key features of their approach include the claim that there exists a small number of basic emotions, such as disgust, which can be defined in evolutionary terms as universal or pancultural, adaptive responses of the organism; that these emotions are discrete, innate, reflex-like “affect programs” located in subcortical parts of the brain; that the basic emotions manifest themselves in distinct patterns of physiological arousal and especially in characteristic facial expressions; that according to Ekman’s “neurocultural” model for explaining commonalities and variations in human facial displays, socialization and learning may determine the range of stimuli that can “trigger” the emotions and... “display rules,” ...and that the more complex or “higher” emotions are made up of blends of the basic emotions. A further claim associated with the Basic Emotions View, ..., is that although the emotions can and do combine with the cognitive systems in the brain, they are essentially separate processes. For Freud and the “appraisal theorists” such as Richard Lazarus, Robert Solomon, Martha Nussbaum, Phoebe Ellsworth and others, emotions are embodied intentional states that are directed toward objects and depend on our beliefs and desires. But the Basic Emotion View denies this by interpreting the affects as non-intentional responses. It thus posits a constitutive disjunction between our emotions on the one hand and our knowledge of what causes and maintains them on the other, because feeling and cognition are two separate systems.
article  neuroscience  cognition  evolutionary_biology  cognition-social  epistemology-social  empathy  emotions  Smith  Nussbaum  bibliography  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey Church, review - Lisa Herzog, Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel, and Political Theory // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Feb 2014
In recent years several excellent studies of Adam Smith have appeared which examine the relationship between his moral and economic thought. Scholars have also extensively analyzed Hegel's views of political economy, and have documented the influence of the Scottish Enlightenment on his thought. Herzog, however, provides the first systematic comparison of Smith's and Hegel's conceptions of commercial society. Her book, in line with recent literature, corrects the persisting, one-sided interpretations of Smith as a proto-libertarian and of Hegel as a statist central-planner. One of Herzog's contributions is to show that the two philosophers share much more in common on economic matters than is often thought, and hence that their views are more nuanced than the one-sided interpretations suggest.

Since much of the recent literature has already corrected the misperceptions about Smith's and Hegel's philosophies of the market, ... the strength of the book lies in her application of Smith's and Hegel's views to contemporary debates in political theory concerning personal identity and communal responsibility, social justice, and the nature of freedom. She argues that Smith and Hegel represent two rival visions of commercial society that have animated and divided contemporary theorists on these issues. Herzog demonstrates that by returning to Smith and Hegel, we can bring greater sophistication to contemporary discussions. -- see review for books on Smith and Hegel and recent articles on Hegel interest in political economy and poverty problem
books  reviews  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  Scottish_Enlightenment  Germany  Smith  Hegel  commerce-doux  economic_growth  luxury  recognition  poverty  inequality  industrialization  working_class  bibliography  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Vivienne Brown - Dialogism, the Gaze, and the Emergence of Economic Discourse | JSTOR: New Literary History, Vol. 28, No. 4 (Autumn, 1997), pp. 697-710
Follows up on some Bakhtin suggestions in the New Literary History issue from prior year organized around articles by Todorov on self and the other, sociability etc -- she's a Smith scholar and develops the complex sociality of Smith in his moral and economic views -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  moral_philosophy  social_theory  political_economy  sociability  Smith  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert Wokler - Todorov's Otherness | JSTOR: New Literary History, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Winter, 1996), pp. 43-55
From dedicated issue organized around two essays by Todorov -- A Symposium on "Living Alone Together" Wokler is responding to the opening essay, which was organized around one work each by Rousseau, Adam Smith and Hegel. Todorov appreciates the Enlightenment engagement with the other, through travel literature and history, as a reflection of universalist values of humanism, contra the stereotypes and caricatures of the Enlightenment_Project. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Rousseau  Smith  Hegel  moral_philosophy  culture  diversity  self-and-other  human_nature  humanism  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Pagina Web del Prof. Fabio Petri [papers, draft textbook, class materials] - heterodox microeconomics, Sraffa capital debates, intellectual history, political economy
Links to pdfs and docs -- Lecture On Economic Policy *--* (downloaded to Note) Comment on Gintis (with E. Bilancini) with Appendix *--*- Una prospettiva disincantata sulla crisi e sulla teoria contemporanea *--* (downloaded to Note) On the current debate on capital theory *--*- On the relevance of reswitching. *--* (downloaded to Note) *--* (downloaded to Note)-Investment depends on output. *--* (downloaded to Note and reformatted for spacing, converted to pdf)- Capital Theory: a synthetic introduction to its historical development. *--* - Investment depends on output - a new critique of Say's Law ('Neglected Implications...') *--* (downloaded to Note)- Blaug Versus Garegnani on the Formalist Revolution and the Evolution of Neoclassical Capital Theory ***---*** Advanced Microeconomics Textbook "Microeconomics for the critical mind" - Some Provisional Chapters ***---*** Advanced Microeconomics Petri Ch0, Contents and Preface *--*
Advanced Microeconomics Petri Ch1, The Classical or Surplus Approach *--*
Advanced Microeconomics Petri Ch2, The Classical Approach: Formal Treatment. *--*
Advanced Microeconomics Petri Ch3, The Marginal or Neoclassical Approach: A Simple Description. *--*
Advanced Microeconomics Petri Ch4 , Neoclassical Consumer Theory, and Exchange General Equilibrium. *--*
Advanced Microeconomics Petri Ch5, Neoclassical Theory of the Firm, and GE of Production and Exchange. *--*
Advanced Microeconomics Petri Ch6, Uniqueness and Stability of Atemporal Acapitalistic GE. *--* .
Advanced Microeconomics Petri Ch7, Long-Period General Equilibrium, and Reswitching. *--*
Advanced Microeconomics Petri Ch8, Intertemporal and Temporary General Equilibrium (new version) *--*
Advanced Microeconomics Petri Ch9PartFirst Uncertainty and Insurance. *--*
Advanced Microeconomics Petri References - Very Incomplete
books  courses  paper  website  economic_theory  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  Physiocrats  Smith  Ricardo  Marx  Sraffa  classical_economics  marginalists  capital  profit  investment  Labor_markets  wages  heterodox_economics  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Frederick G. Whelan - Church Establishments, Liberty & Competition in Religion | JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 23, No. 2 (Winter, 1990), pp. 155-185
Most supporters of the established church in eighteenth-century England defended it with arguments consistent with their Whiggish or Lockean liberalism, which required respect for liberty of conscience. This article surveys a number of such arguments, among them that of David Hume, who, despite his notorious anticlericalism, advocated the establishment of religion as necessary for social stability. It then explores several opposing arguments for religious liberty, focusing on Adam Smith's contention that free competition will lead to improvement and progress in religion as in other areas. Finally, the author asks why Hume should have disagreed with Smith on this issue, given his general acceptance of the free market doctrine.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  politics-and-religion  18thC  political_philosophy  Church_of_England  Kirk  Hume-politics  Smith  religion-established  social_order  freedom_of_conscience  tolerance  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
James Farr - Political Science and the Enlightenment of Enthusiasm | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 82, No. 1 (Mar., 1988), pp. 51-69
I provide a narrative of the emergence of an expressly articulated @'political science@' in the Scottish Enlightenment. Political science was designed by Hume, Smith, and others to advance both a Newtonian method for the study of politics and a politics of moderation whose tasks included a critique of enthusiasm. In this way, poltiical science, moderation, and (anti)enthusiasm were conceptually connected. The emergence of political science, understood in this way, required a number of conceptual changes in a structure of argument shaped largely by Locke. These conceptual changes, in turn, fixed a rhetorical framework for persistent debates over the methodological and political identity of political science, even as ideology literally replaced enthusiasm. These persistent debates reveal the relevance of the history of political science as a forum for remembrance, reflection, and critique. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  18thC  social_theory  sociology_of_knowledge  science_of_man  social_sciences  Scottish_Enlightenment  Hume  Smith  enthusiasm  Newtonian  ideology  Locke  rhetoric-political  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Boyd - Reappraising the Scottish Moralists and Civil Society | JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Autumn, 2000), pp. 101-125
Michael Sandel and others have faulted liberal constitutionalism for its "proceduralism," its "bracketing" of divisive moral issues, and its pursuit of the "unencumbered self." As a contemporary diagnosis, there is much to be said on behalf of these criticisms. Yet in recounting the story of liberalism's development as the deliberate and inevitable pursuit of moral individuality, these accounts fail to consider the anticipated benefits-as well as the costs-of modern constitutionalism that were evident to eighteenth-century thinkers like David Hume and Adam Smith. We will see that classical liberals like Hume and Smith did not defend liberal constitutionalism in the name of the "unencumbered self." Instead they saw liberal neutrality, the separation between public and private, and the relegation of religion to a private matter of civil society as the best way to accommodate sectarianism, ethical pluralism and the religious conflicts of the post-Reformation world. Only by challenging contemporary presumptions of liberal teleology and by understanding classical liberalism's development as the product of eighteenth-century encounters with the perils of pluralism can we fully reckon the advantages and disadvantages of liberal constitutionalism. These lessons of classical liberalism suggest both the presumptive virtues of liberalism and the dangers of communitarian efforts to encourage shared purposes and a thicker public life in the modern polity. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_philosophy  liberalism  communitarian  pluralism  constitutionalism  18thC  Scottish_Enlightenment  civil_society  public_sphere  individualism  religious_wars  politics-and-religion  political_culture  Hume  Smith  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Gowdy et al - Economic cosmology and the evolutionary challenge | Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization Special Issue 2013
2nd lead articl5 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- The intellectual histories of economics and evolutionary biology are closely intertwined because both subjects deal with living, complex, evolving systems. Because the subject matter is similar, contemporary evolutionary thought has much to offer to economics. In recent decades theoretical biology has progressed faster than economics in understanding phenomena like hierarchical processes, cooperative behavior, and selection processes in evolutionary change. This paper discusses three very old “cosmologies” in Western thought, how these play out in economic theory, and how evolutionary biology can help evaluate their validity and policy relevance. These cosmologies are: (1) “natural man” as a rational, self-sufficient, egotistical individual, (2) competition among individuals can lead to a well-functioning society, and (3) there exists an ideal optimal state of nature. These correspond to Colander et al. (2004) “holy trinity of orthodox economics”, rationality, greed, and equilibrium. It is argued below that current breakthroughs in evolutionary biology and neuroscience can help economics go beyond these simple cosmologies.

They equate Pope’s Essay (self love and social are the same) with Mandeville Fable of the Bees
paper  journal  intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  Western_civ  natural_law  cosmology  Providence  self-interest  competition  markets  economic_theory  economic_sociology  economic_culture  evolution-social  biocultural_evolution  evo_psych  evolution-as-model  reason  rationality-economics  rational_choice  downloaded  EF-add  equilibrium  complexity  Smith  Pope  Mandeville 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Maria Pia Paganelli, review - Donald Rutherford: In the Shadow of Adam Smith: Founders of Scottish Economics, 1700-1900 | EH.net
Donald Rutherford, In the Shadow of Adam Smith: Founders of Scottish Economics, 1700-1900. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. vii + 344 pp. $40 (paperback), ISBN: 978-0-230-25210-3. - not on Kindle

Reviewed for EH.Net by Maria Pia Paganelli, Department of Economics, Trinity University. Smith is generally such an immense figure that we may be tempted to think of him as the only voice of eighteenth century Scotland as far as economics is concerned. Attempts to moderate Smith?s grandeur remind us that he may have just systematized previous knowledge. Rutherford offers us the context in which Smith?s presence grew and his legacy developed. He offers us insight into the wide economic knowledge that Smith used (or did not use), added to (or not), and of which he is (just a) part.

The scholarship present in the book is remarkable, even more so because the book is organized by topic, rather than by time or by authors. The topics covered are trade (international trade, exchange economy, value); money (functions of money, paper credit, banking); public finance (functions of government, taxation, national debt); condition of the people (population, property rights and rent, profits and wages, poverty); condition of the economy (economic growth, economic development); and economic ideology (natural liberty, socialism). And to this, Rutherford adds an appendix with biographical sketches of the major Scottish writers.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  economic_history  18thC  19thC  Scotland  Scottish_Enlightenment  Smith  Hutcheson  economic_theory  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  political_economy  trade-theory  poverty  population  Poor_Laws  unemployment  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Sam Fleischacker, Economics and the Ordinary Person: Re-reading Adam Smith (2004) | Library of Economics and Liberty
Far more important to Smith's work is the belief that ordinary people normally understand their own interests without help from politicians or professional philosophers. The distinctive mark of Smith's thought is his view of human cognition, not of human motivation: he is far more willing than practically any of his contemporaries to endorse the ability of ordinary people to know what they need to know in life. ......Smith's distrust of the ability of "systems"—whether philosophical, religious, or political—to improve human beings goes with a belief that what really provides us with moral education are the humble institutions of everyday social interaction, including the market. The foundation of all virtue for Smith is "self-command,"......The point of these famous lines is not that my butcher and baker are self-interested but that I know how to "address" that self-interest, that I know how to "shew them that it is for their own advantage" to do something that will help me. But my ability to address their interests takes me beyond myself, whatever it does to them; I must go beyond my own self-love in order to enlist theirs in my aid. And it is that ability to restrain our own self-love, and understand and further the interests of others, Smith says, that distinguishes human beings from other animals. -- downloaded pdf
article  18thC  Britain  Scottish_Enlightenment  Smith  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  political_economy  egalitarian  cognition  lower_orders  self-interest  self-love  cooperation  downloaded 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Paul A. Rahe: Republicanism Modernized - review of A Kalyvas & I Katznelson, Liberal Beginnings: Making a Republic for the Moderns
Project MUSE - Reviews in American History Volume 37, Number 2, June 2009 pp. 205-210 | 10.1353/rah.0.0100 -- This slim volume consists of 7 chapters: an intro situating its argument with regard to the 2ndry lit on republicanism and liberalism; substantive chapters on A Smith, A Ferguson, T Paine and J Madison, G de Staël, and B Constant; and a five-page concluding chapter suggesting what these figures have in common. It is in the subdtantive chapters, taken individually, that the value of the book lies...... Had they read more widely in the 2ndry lit, had they taken the trouble to study with care the writings of Nedham, Harrington, Henry Neville, John Wildman, Algernon Sidney, Moyle, Trenchard, Gordon, and James Burgh (among others), [they] would have seen that the analytical accounts of the history of republicanism provided by [ Pocock and Skinner] are fundamentally at odds; they would have been forced to consider whether there was not a profound difference between the early modern republicanism inspired by Machiavelli and that of the Greeks and Romans; and they would have been driven to ponder whether the liberal beginnings to which the title of this book refers do not, in fact, go back to the 1650s. Moreover, had they done so, they would have been in a better position to define with precision what they mean by republicanism and liberalism. .... [and] whether constitutional monarchies should be regarded as republics and, if so, why; and whether there were any liberals in the second half of the eighteenth century and the first two decades of the nineteenth century who were not also republicans and what would define them as such. Alternatively, [they] could have dismissed the republicanism-liberalism debate as beside the point.... [Rather it's] the distinction drawn by Montesquieu (whom they mention only in passing) between the democratic republics of classical antiquity and the strange, new commercial republic disguised as a monarchy that he discovered during the months he spent in England. It was, after all, The Spirit of Laws that inspired the ruminations of Smith, Ferguson, Paine, Madison, de Staël, and Constant; and it was in response to his political typology that they framed their arguments. Montesquieu was the superintending spirit of the age.
books  bookshelf  reviews  intellectual_history  historiography  political_philosophy  liberalism  republicanism  17thC  18thC  19thC  French_Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Revolution  American_Revolution  US_constitution  Founders  Napoleonic_Wars  Constant  de_Staël  Madison  Paine  Smith  Ferguson  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  Montesquieu  civic_virtue  commerce  monarchy  limited_monarchy  Britain  France  British_politics  French_politics  paywall  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
William D. Grampp: The Liberal Elements in English Mercantilism (1952)
JSTOR: The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 66, No. 4 (Nov., 1952), pp. 465-501......Downloaded pdf to Note..... I. The goal of full employment, 467.--II. The means to full employment, 473.--III. Economic freedom in mercantilist doctrine, 486.--IV. The exceptions to free exchange, 492.--V. The historical roots of mercantilism, 496.--VI. Economists on mercantilism, 499.
article  jstor  economic_history  mercantilism  British_history  British_politics  British_Empire  political_economy  17thC  18thC  unemployment  Labor_markets  trade  FX  Navigation_Acts  Smith  Hume  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Economic history: What was mercantilism? | The Economist
See linked paper by Grampp..... Grampp argues that, on the whole, we should stop confusing mercantilism and bullionism. Few mercantilists were slaves to the balance of payments. In fact, they were alarmed by the idea of hoarding gold and silver. This is because many mercantilist thinkers were most concerned with maximising employment. Nicholas Barbon—who pioneered the fire insurance industry after the Great Fire of London in 1666—wanted money to be invested, not hoarded. As William Petty—arguably the first “proper” economist—argued, investment would help to improve labour productivity and increase employment. And almost all mercantilists considered ways of bringing more people into the labour force.Mr Grampp even suggests that Keynesian economics "has an affinity to mercantilist doctrine”, given their shared concern with full employment. Keynes, in a short note to his “General Theory”, approvingly quotes mercantilists, noting that an ample supply of precious metals could be key in maintaining control over domestic interest rates, and therefore to ensuring adequate resource utilisation. In some sense the Keynesian theory of underconsumption—that is, inadequate consumer demand—as a cause of recessions was presaged by mercantilist contributions.
economic_history  17thC  18thC  mercantilism  Smith  Keynes  macroeconomics  FX  unemployment  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Antonella Stirat: The Theory Of Wages In Classical Economics: A Study of Adam Smith, David Ricardo and their Contemporaries | Edward Elgar Publishing
1994 240 pp Hardback 978 1 85278 710 3

Antonella Stirati argues that the wage-fund theory played no part in the theory of wages expounded by Ricardo and his predecessors. Classical wage theory is shown to be analytically consistent but very different from contemporary theory, particularly as it did not envisage an inverse relationship between employment and the real wage level, and hence a spontaneous tendency to full employment of labour. The author bases her approach not only on a reinterpretation of Smith and Ricardo, but also on the writings of Turgot, Necker, Steuart, Hume, Cantillon and other pre-classical economists.Historians of economic thought as well as other economists will welcome Dr Stirati’s careful analysis of classical writings on economics which includes simple but rigorous explanations of phenomena, central to current economic debate, such as the occurrence of persistent unemployment.
books  find  economic_history  economic_models  classical_economics  18thC  19thC  Smith  Hume  Physiocrats  Cantillon  Ricardo  Labor_markets  unemployment  intellectual_history  political_economy  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Adam Smith's Theory of Probability and the Roles of Risk and Uncertainty in Economic Decision Making by Michael Emmett Brady :: SSRN
International Journal of Applied Economics and Econometrics,Volume 19, No.4,October -December 2011,pp. 86-111. 

Adam Smith rejected the use of the mathematical laws of the calculus of probabilities because the basic information-data-knowledge provided in the real world of decision making did not allow a decision maker to specify precise, definite, exact, numerical probabilities or discover the probability distributions. This means that Smith rejected the classical interpretation of probability of La Place and the Bernoulli brothers, the limiting frequency-relative frequency interpretation of probability, and the personalist, subjectivist, psychological Bayesian approach used by all neoclassical schools of thought because all of these approaches to probability claim that ALL probabilities can be represented by a single numeral between 0 and 1 and the decision maker knows the probability distributions. Smith, like Keynes, rejects this immediately. 

An important conclusion of this paper is that it was Adam Smith who first explicitly recognized that the mathematical concept of probability is not applicable, in general, in real world decision making. Smith also rejects the normative and prescriptive roles of mathematical probability in decision making. 

Downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  political_economy  economic_models  risk  probability  uncertainty  cognition  rational_choice  neoclassical_economics  investment  Smith  Keynes  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
A Comparison-Contrast of Adam Smith, JM Keynes and Jeremy Bentham on Probability, Risk, Uncertainty, Optimism-Pessimism and Decision Making with Applications Concerning Banking, Insurance and Speculation by Michael Emmett Brady :: SSRN
Smith and Keynes would reject the Kahneman-Tversky behavioral economist “Heuristics and Biases“ approach that regards mathematical probability as the normative criterion that all decision makers should attempt to emulate since this approach is a more advanced mathematical version of Bentham’s original approach. Mathematical probability, which requires the use of precise or sharp numerical probabilities, can only be normative in the case where the decision maker has a complete information set and/or knows for certain that a specific probability distribution will apply now and in the future. The mathematical laws of the probability calculus only hold as a limiting case whenever humans are part of the equation. Both Keynes and Smith rely on an inexact, interval, non additive, nonlinear approach that directly conflicts with the exact, single number, additive, linear approach recommended by Tversky and Kahneman as being the hallmark of human rationality in decision making.

 On the other hand, Bentham’s approach is an earlier version of the exact, linear and additive approach recommended as being rational by Tversky-Kahneman. Smith and Keynes, however, did emphasize fields that today are called Cognitive Science and Cognitive Psychology. Here pattern recognition, similarity, induction and intuition played an important role.

Downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  financial_system  financial_regulation  banking  risk  probability  uncertainty  usury  cognition  Smith  Keynes  Bentham  rational_choice  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Against War and Empire :Geneva, Britain & France in the 18thC, Richard Whatmore (2012): Kindle Store
Richard Whatmore presents an intellectual history of republicans who strove to ensure Geneva’s survival as an independent state. Whatmore shows how the Genevan republicans grappled with the ideas of Rousseau, Voltaire, Bentham, and others in seeking to make modern Europe safe for small states, by vanquishing the threats presented by war and by empire. The Genevan attempt to moralize the commercial world, and align national self-interest with perpetual peace and the abandonment of empire, had implications for the French Revolution, the British Empire, and the identity of modern Europe.

Review

“Whatmore uncovers the considerable European intellectual impact of a small group of eighteenth-century Genevan reformers, who called themselves the Représentants. . . . In telling their story Whatmore reveals how political Adam Smith’s political economy became in the final decades of the eighteenth century and into the nineteenth century.”—Philippe Steiner, Paris-Sorbonne

“The fate of small states in a world of competing commercial hegemons is a contemporary quandary with Enlightenment roots. Richard Whatmore's deeply researched, tightly written study shows that a surprising number of those roots sprang from Geneva. Scholars of political thought, international relations and the rise and fall of empires in the late eighteenth century will all have to take account of this masterful book.”—David Armitage, Harvard

“Whatmore expertly narrates the attempts of Genevan radicals to transform European power politics and, in so doing, offers fascinating  insights into Rousseau’s Genevan and democratic credentials, emphasizing his relative conservatism and heterodoxy when compared to his Genevan friends and followers.”—Helena Rosenblatt, CUNY
books  kindle-available  18thC  Britain  France  Geneva  intellectual_history  political_economy  commerce  IR  political_philosophy  Rousseau  Smith  British_Empire  imperialism  Great_Powers  democracy  French_Revolution  radicals  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader

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