dunnettreader + scientific_revolution   59

Arnaud Esquerre, review - Lorraine Daston et Peter Galison, Objectivité (Fr trans 2012) - La Vie des idées
Recensé : Lorraine Daston et Peter Galison, Objectivité. Préface de Bruno Latour, traduction de Sophie Renaut et Hélène Quiniou. Paris, Les Presses du Réel, 2012, 582 p., 28 €. -- La manière dont nous concevons ce qui est ou non objectif a plusieurs fois changé depuis le XVIIe siècle. Pour explorer ces variations, Lorraine Daston et Peter Galison étudient les « atlas » que formeraient les usages scientifiques de l’image. Ces illustrations de plantes, de planètes, de méduses ou de flocons de neige en disent long, en effet, sur les régimes de l’objectivité – avec à l’horizon du XXIe siècle, la possible disparition des représentations dans les pratiques scientifiques. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  bookshelf  intellectual_history  history_of_science  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  objectivity  representation-epistemology  scientific_method  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  instruments  images  images-scientific  downloaded 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Thierry Hoquet - Paul Feyerabend, anarchiste des sciences (career retrospective) - La Vie des idées - April 2015
Paul Feyerabend ne cessa de critiquer le rationalisme et l’approche abstraite de la philosophie des sciences, enfermée dans son jargon et son logicisme. Quitte à prêter le flanc au relativisme et à passer pour « le pire ennemi de la science » ? -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  French_language  intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  scepticism  methodology  Feyerabend  Popper  Laktos  Wittgenstein  scientific_method  Galileo  physics  astronomy  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Joanna Picciotto - Reforming the Garden: The Experimentalist Eden and "Paradise Lost" (2005) | JSTOR - ELH
ELH, Vol. 72, No. 1 (Spring, 2005), pp. 23-78 -- very long article with vast numbers of references to literary, naturao philosophy, and religious works of 17thC and early 18thC plus lit survey of work on sociology of knowledge, English lit since the cultural turn, and religious culture. Downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  17thC  18thC  British_history  English_lit  experimental_philosophy  Bacon  Boyle  Locke  Milton  Royal_Society  Evelyn  religious_culture  religious_lit  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  microscope  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  science-and-religion  scientific_method  curiosity  Fall  original_sin  Paradise_Lost  improvement  instruments  Hooke  Donne  poetry  virtuosos  epistemology  virtue_epistemology  nature-mastery  bibliography  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Entretien avec Luc Foisneau - Qu’est-ce qu’un [17thC] philosophe français ? - La Vie des idées - September 2015
Entretien avec Luc Foisneaupar Florent Guénard , le 9 septembre -- Le Dictionnaire des philosophes français du XVIIe siècle paraît sept ans après une première édition anglaise remarquée. L’occasion de s’interroger sur le savoir du Grand Siècle, réputé classique mais au fond assez baroque. Et l’occasion de se demander ce que peut bien être un philosophe français au XVIIe siècle. -- Publisher Continuum, now Bloomsbury -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  intellectual_history  17thC  philosophy  Scientific_Revolution  French_intellectuals  French_language  metaphysics  epistemology  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  downloaded 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Newall (2005) - History and Philosophy of Science - Recommended Reading - Recommended Reading - Resources - Resources - The Galilean Library
There are plenty of works in the history and philosophy of science worth studying, but perhaps too many to know where to start. This introduction gives an historical overview, explaining the relevance of some of the better-known tomes. -- A bit dated, and nothing from Shapin et al, though he defends Feyerband, but nice thumbnail on why each on his list was or is important, or accessible -- downloaded page as pdf to Note
books  bibliography  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  Kuhn  Popper  scientific_method  Scientific_Revolution  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Book Announcement: From Aristotle’s teleology to Darwin’s genealogy
see kindle sample - covers why scientific revolution didn't have the sort of impact that mathematization had in physical sciences - claims that yhe cornerstones of thinkijg re human sciences remained essentialist and fixistmore due to late scholastic snd Rensissance incorporation of Aristotelian principles than religiously driven creationusm - they fid converge and, especially in Anglo countries, reinflorced by 18thC "natural theology" - Darwin uses the anomalies that have no adaptationist utility, like sightless moles, to blow up the functionalist teleological foundation of yhe Aristotelian approach to species
Pocket  17thc  18thc  19thc  Darwin  ancient_greece  aristotle  bible-as-history  biology  books  creationist  deism  early_modern  evolution  geology  history_of_science  intellectual_history  kindle-available  medieval  natural_theology  physiology  renaissance  scholasticism  scientific_revolution 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Alan Jacobs - the three big stories of modernity | TextPatterns July 2015
So far there have been three widely influential stories about the rise of modernity: the Emancipatory, the Protestant, and the Neo-Thomist. (..) all these narrators of modernity see our own age as one in which the consequences of 500-year-old debates conducted by philosophers and theologians are still being played out. I think all of these narratives are wrong. They are wrong because they are the product of scholars in universities who overrate the historical importance and influence of other scholars in universities, and because they neglect ideas that connect more directly with the material world. All of these grands recits should be set aside, and they should not immediately be replaced with others, but with more particular, less sweeping, and more technologically-oriented stories. The technologies that Marshall McLuhan called "the extensions of Man" are infinitely more important for Man's story, for good and for ill, than the debates of the schoolmen and interpreters of the Bible. Instead of grand narratives of the emergence of The Modern we need something far more plural: technological histories of modernity.
Instapaper  cultural_history  cultural_capital  modernity  technology  Tech/Culture  social_theory  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  religious_history  Thomism-21stC  Reformation  Renaissance  Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  Enlightenment-ongoing  modernity-emergence  material_culture  economic_history  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  colonialism  Military_Revolution  Scientific_Revolution  consumer_revolution  technology-history  historiography  medicine  public_health  public_sphere  public_goods  media  print_culture  history_of_science  history_of_book  history-and-social_sciences  narrative  narrative-contested  from instapaper
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Justin E.H. Smith - Nature, Human Nature, and Human Difference: Race in Early Modern Philosophy (2015) | Princeton University Press
People have always been xenophobic, but an explicit philosophical and scientific view of human racial difference only began to emerge during the modern period. Why and how did this happen? Surveying a range of philosophical and natural-scientific texts, dating from the Spanish Renaissance to the German Enlightenment, (Smith) charts the evolution of the modern concept of race and shows that natural philosophy, particularly efforts to taxonomize and to order nature, played a crucial role. Smith demonstrates how the denial of moral equality between Europeans and non-Europeans resulted from converging philosophical and scientific developments, including a declining belief in human nature’s universality and the rise of biological classification. The racial typing of human beings grew from the need to understand humanity within an all-encompassing system of nature, alongside plants, minerals, primates, and other animals. While racial difference as seen through science did not arise in order to justify the enslavement of people, it became a rationalization and buttress for the practices of trans-Atlantic slavery. From the work of François Bernier to Leibniz, Kant, and others, Smith delves into philosophy’s part in the legacy and damages of modern racism. -- Smith is university professor of the history and philosophy of science at the Université Paris Diderot—Paris VII. ...author of Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life (PUP), coeditor and cotranslator of The Leibniz-Stahl Controversy -- downloaded introduction to Note -- only hdbk, will be in ebook
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  cultural_history  racism  racialism  16thC  17thC  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  exploration  Spanish_Empire  Spain  Renaissance  natural_philosophy  biology  taxonomies  Latin_America  West_Indies  North_America  Native_Americans  indigenous_peoples  slavery  West_Africa  Africa  African_trade  life_sciences  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  French_Enlightenment  Leibniz  Kant  anatomy  Adam  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  science-and-religion  science-public  science_of_man 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
L'Europe des Lumières - Classiques Garnier - collection directors Michel Delon, Jacques Berchtold et Christophe Martin
De ce qu'on appelle la crise de la conscience européenne à la Révolution française, la littérature et la pensée ont pour espace une Europe, souvent francophone, éprise d'idées nouvelles et d'expérimentations formelles. La collection rend compte de recherches qui sollicitent des disciplines et des méthodes diverses pour mieux connaître et comprendre la vie intellectuelle, scientifique, artistique et littéraire du XVIIIe siècle, ainsi que l'histoire des idées et des représentations. -- From what has been designated as a "crisis of conscience" to the Revolution, literature and thought play in a European space, often French-speaking, entranced by new ideas and formal experiments. The collection covers research which calls on a variety of disciplines and methods in order to better know and understand the intellectual, scientific, artistic and literary life of the 18th century, as well as the history of ideas and representations.
books  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  natural_philosophy  art_history  literary_history  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  philosophes  Republic_of_Letters  public_sphere  publishing 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Caroline Jacot Grapa - Dans le vif du sujet - Diderot, corps et âme ( 2009) | Classiques Garnier - collection L'Europe des Lumières
Ce livre est un essai sur le style du matérialisme de Diderot, sa psychologie, sa métaphysique et sur les figures de l'intériorité des Lumières. La langue de l'intériorité, apanage de la spiritualité, se retrempe au contact sensible des métaphores de l'époque. Elles donnent accès à un savoir nouveau de la vie corporelle. L'actualité de cet essai tient au dialogue qu'il engage avec la phénoménologie et les neurosciences. -- This work is an essay on the style of Diderot's materialism, his psychology and his metaphysics. Its modern pertinence stems from the dialogue established with phenomenology and neurosciences. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-0046-9 -- 504 pages -- looks extremely interesting -- tracking reception of British empiricism, debates over various Cartesian proposals for dealing with animals, and the new directions taken both in life sciences and psychology and the metaphysics of materialism -- downloaded TOC as pdf to Note
books  find  amazon.fr  libraries  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  natural_philosophy  18thC  France  Diderot  d'Alembert  d'Holbach  Cartesian  Locke  Newton  Newtonian  Encyclopédie  Republic_of_Letters  philosophes  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Vitalism  psychology  thinking_matter  anatomy  physiology  scientific_method  organism  subject  subjectivity  phenomenology  neuroscience  materialism  metaphysics  mind  mind-body  soul  human_nature  metaphor  French_language  French_lit  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Joseph Adelson, review essay - What Caused Capitalism? | Foreign Affairs - May 2015
Once upon a time, smart people thought the world was flat. As globalization took off, economists pointed to spreading market forces that… Includes new Cambridge History of Capitalism, Mokyr Enlightened Economy, Acemoglu and Robinson Why Nations Fail, and Beckert Empire of Cotton -- contrasts tales that are, in broad brush, optimistic and internalist re origins (especially Mokyr) vs pessimistic and externalist (especially Cotton) -- copied to Instapaper
books  reviews  bookshelf  economic_history  capitalism  Great_Divergence  ancient_history  global_economy  global_history  global_system  Europe-Early_Modern  city_states  Italy  Spain  France  British_history  India  US_history  colonialism  imperialism  empires  institutional_economics  technology  development  Scientific_Revolution  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  industrial_policy  US_Civil_War  slavery  property  property_rights  mercantilism  mercantilism-violence  Instapaper  markets  political_economy  economic_culture  economic_growth  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Ada Palmer - Reading Lucretius in the Renaissance | JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 73, No. 3 (July 2012), pp. 395-416
In the Renaissance, Epicureanism and other heterodox scientific theories were strongly associated with heresy and atheism, and frequently condemned. Yet, when Lucretius’s Epicurean poem De Rerum Natura reappeared in 1417, these associations did not prevent the poem’s broad circulation. A survey of marginalia in Lucretius manuscripts reveals a characteristic humanist reading agenda, focused on philology and moral philosophy, which facilitated the circulation of such heterodox texts among an audience still largely indifferent to their radical content. Notes in later sixteenth century print copies reveal a transformation in reading methods, and an audience more receptive to heterodox science. Article is on Project MUSE - the jstor archive is open through 2011, closed for 2012, and has no later volumes. The jstor page for articles from 2012 has the advantage of the full set of footnotes. I've copied the footnotes to Evernote. -- update, I've downloaded it to Note
article  jstor  bibliography  intellectual_history  Lucretius  Epicurean  heterodoxy  atheism  15thC  16thC  Renaissance  humanism  philology  moral_philosophy  reading  reader_response  readership  atomism  determinism  cosmology  Scientific_Revolution  cultural_change  cultural_transmission  circulation-ideas  Evernote  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Stéphane Van Damme - Laborieuse Nature: Penser le travail des sciences exactes avec Simon Schaffer | May 2014 - La Vie des idées
English translation March 2015 -- Comment naissent les découvertes et les progrès scientifiques ? Contre une vision idéaliste et triomphaliste de l’histoire des sciences, toute l’œuvre de Simon Schaffer a consisté à observer la science en train de se faire, au plus près des pratiques et des acteurs. Loin de diminuer son prestige, cette approche lui restitue la place centrale qu’elle occupait dans les sociétés d’Ancien Régime. -- downloaded pdf to Note
history_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  16thC  17thC  18thC  historiography  Innovation  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Liggio, Leonard P. "Richard Cantillon and the French Economists: Distinctive French Contributions to J.B. Say." - The Journal of Libertarian Studies ( 1985) | Mises Institute
Liggio, Leonard P. "Richard Cantillon and the French Economists: Distinctive French Contributions to J.B. Say." Journal of Libertarian Studies 7, No. 2 (1985): 295–304. Richard Cantillon's life and his Essai occurred at a time of transition in European political, economic and intellectual history. The late seventeenth century had experienced the crisis in European thought which paralleled the Scientific Revolution. Accompanying the scientific revolution was a revolution in economic thought. Criticisms of mercantilism began to lay the groundwork for the Economic Revolution of the eighteenth century. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  Cantillon  Scientific_Revolution  social_theory  political_economy  IR_theory  mercantilism  economic_theory  economic_growth  methodology-quantitative  political_arithmetick  social_order  financial_system  banking  cross-border  capital_flows  capital_markets  sovereignty  sovereign_debt  downloaded 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Peter Elmer, review - Paul Kleber Monod, Solomon's Secret Arts: the Occult in the Age of Enlightenment (Yale University Press 2013) | Reviews in History
Peter Elmer, University of Exeter -- This important work provides the first informed, well-researched and highly nuanced account of the fortunes of ‘occult’ thought and practice in England from the mid17thC to its demise at the end of the 18thC. Building on the work of a wide range of scholars from various disciplines, (..) the fortunes of the occult are argued to have peaked in the second half of the 17thC, dipped in the period from the Glorious Revolution to 1760, and then re-emerged in the last 4 decades of the 18thC in somewhat different but revitalized form. As Monod shows (..) the occult (defined broadly as alchemy, astrology and natural magic) was rarely perceived as a uniform movement of ideas, its adherents frequently picking and choosing those elements of the ‘occult’ which most appealed to them. It was thus a protean body of ideas, susceptible to frequent re-interpretation according to the personal preoccupations of the initiated. At the same time, while some of its adherents may have (in the earlier period especially) seen it as a body of ideas capable of replacing older systems of science and philosophy, it more often than not was studied and developed alongside other, competing systems of thought. (..) What is invigoratingly original here is Monod’s application of the same accommodating features of occult thinking with regard to Newtonianism and the Enlightenment in the later period. (..) it is hard to disagree with his conclusion that ‘the assumption of many historians, that occult thinking was debunked by experimental science … is essentially wrong’.(..) all the arguments against astrology, alchemy and natural magic had been fully developed long before 1650. This is equally true of witchcraft, (..) The occult was not simply argued out of existence. Only wider factors can help to explain this process. (..) in order to understand this process, we need to pay more heed to the wider social, religious and political context in which these ideas were promoted and debated. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  reviews  kindle-available  17thC  18thC  British_history  cultural_history  religious_history  religious_culture  religious_belief  intellectual_history  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  Enlightenment  natural_philosophy  occult  chemistry  alchemy  medicine  Newtonian  astronomy  astrology  magic  hermeticism  esotericism  publishing  Charles_II  court_culture  Church_of_England  witchcraft  political_culture  Tories  dissenters  Evangelical  Whigs  Defoe  Thompson_EP  rationality  reason  social_history  experimental_philosophy  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Sarah Dry - True or false? Ten myths about Isaac Newton | OUPblog July 2014
She's the author of The Newton Papers which tells the story of the trove of manuscripts Newton left that erten't made part if what he chisr as his official papers for posterity - The mythical Newton abounds in contradictions; he is a semi-divine genius and a mad alchemist, a somber and solitary thinker and a passionate religious heretic. Myths usually have an element of truth to them but how many Newtonian varieties are true? Here are ten of the most common, debunked or confirmed by the evidence of his own private papers, kept hidden for centuries and now freely available online.
books  kindle-available  17thC  18thC  British_history  Newton  Socinian  Bible-as-history  Scientific_Revolution  physics  history_of_science  19thC  20thC  sociology_of_knowledge  fiscal-military_state  intellectual_history 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Richard Andrew Berman - The Architects of Eighteenth Century English Freemasonry, 1720 - 1740 (2010 thesis) | University of Exeter
Advisors: Black, Jeremy & Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas -- Date Issued: 2010-09-22 --
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10036/2999 -- Following the appointment of its first aristocratic Grand Masters in the 1720s and in the wake of its connections to the scientific Enlightenment, ‘Free and Accepted’ Masonry rapidly became part of Britain’s national profile and the largest and arguably the most influential of Britain’s extensive clubs and societies. (..) Freemasonry became a vehicle for the expression and transmission of the political and religious views of those at its centre, and for the scientific Enlightenment concepts that they championed. The ‘Craft’ also offered a channel through which many sought to realise personal aspirations: social, intellectual and financial. Through an examination of relevant primary and secondary documentary evidence, this thesis seeks to contribute to a broader understanding of contemporary English political and social culture, and to explore the manner in which Freemasonry became a mechanism that promoted the interests of the Hanoverian establishment and connected and bound a number of élite metropolitan and provincial figures. A range of networks centred on the aristocracy, parliament, the magistracy and the learned and professional societies are studied, and key individuals instrumental in spreading and consolidating the Masonic message identified. The thesis also explores the role of Freemasonry in the development of the scientific Enlightenment. The evidence suggests that Freemasonry should be recognised not only as the most prominent of the many 18thC fraternal organisations, but also as a significant cultural vector and a compelling component of the social, economic, scientific and political transformation then in progress. -- downloaded pdf to Note
thesis  18thC  1720s  1730s  1740s  Walpole  Whigs-oligarchy  British_history  British_politics  Enlightenment  science-public  Scientific_Revolution  science-and-politics  Freemasonry  cultural_history  intellectual_history  networks-social  networks-political  networks-business  sociology_of_science_&_technology  elites  aristocracy  Parliament  MPs  political_nation  economic_sociology  economic_culture  commerce-doux  finance_capital  banking  capital_markets  capital_as_power  history_of_science  historical_sociology  historical_change  center-periphery  provinces  clubs  social_capital  judiciary  professions  professionalization  religious_culture  science-and-religion  latitudinarian  natural_religion  Newtonian  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Talal Asad - Historical notes on the idea of secular criticism « The Immanent Frame - Jan 2008
I have tried to underline the very different understandings people have had of it in Western history, understandings that can’t be reduced to the simple distinction between secular criticism (freedom and reason) and religious criticism (intolerance and obscurantism). The practice of secular criticism is now a sign of the modern, of the modern subject’s relentless pursuit of truth and freedom, of his or her political agency. It has almost become a duty, closely connected to the right to free expression and communication. But every critical discourse has institutional conditions that define what it is, what it recognizes, what it aims at, what it is destroying – and why. Neither philosophical nor literary criticism can successfully claim to be the privileged site of reason. It matters whether the criticism/critique in question is conducted in the form of parody and satire, confession of sins, political auto-critique, professional criticism, or speech under analysis. One might say that if these are all possible instances of critique/criticism, then what we have here is a family concept for which it is not possible to provide a single theory because the practices that constitute them differ radically. And yet there is, perhaps, something distinctive after all about the historical concept of “critique” that Foucault wanted to identify, something other than the varieties of critical practice to which I have pointed: In some areas of our modern life, there is the insistent demand that reasons be given for almost everything. The relation to knowledge, to action, and to other persons, that results when this demand is taken as the foundation of all understanding, is perhaps what Foucault had in mind when he spoke of critique. “The critical attitude” is the essence of secular heroism. -- downloaded page as pdf to Note
critique  intellectual_history  cultural_history  Europe-Early_Modern  science-and-religion  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_method  Popper  Kant  Foucault  secularism  secular_humanism  concepts-change  Koselleck  rhetoric  rhetoric-moral_basis  epistemology-social  scientific_culture  political_culture  authority  genealogy-method  individualism  agency  Enlightenment-ongoing  Bayle  scepticism  Republic_of_Letters  disciplines  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World, by the Gale Group, Inc. | Answers.com
The history of Europe from the mid-15th century until the French Revolution. Includes notable events such as wars and revolutions as well as broader processes like the Renaissance and the Enlightenment; biographical information on leading figures; individual national histories; and meaningful developments in the arts, religion, politics, exploration and warfare.
books  etexts  reference  Europe-Early_Modern  Renaissance  exploration  colonialism  16thC  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Atlantic  American_colonies  France  Germany  Italy  Spain  Spanish_Empire  British_Empire  Dutch  Dutch_Revolt  Reformation  Counter-Reformation  Netherlands  Holy_Roman_Empire  Austria  Denmark  Sweden  Russia  Poland  Ottomans  commerce  intellectual_history  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Absolutism  Thirty_Years_War  Wars_of_Religion  Louis_XIV  military_history  political_culture  political_history  politics-and-religion  art_history  religious_history 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
David Auerbach - Revenge of the Dryasdusts: Paul Hazard’s “The Crisis of the European Mind” | The Los Angeles Review of Books
Great review of the new issue by NYRB books -- neat last quote re Bayle as a more rigorous model for questioning authority than postmodern heroes like Foucault (and he likes Foucault) -- my theme that 17thC and early Enlightenment, which challenged "reason" as much as championed it, and for whom anti-foundationalism was a live but truly disruptive, not just theoretical option, has lots of kinship with postmodern and post-postmodern -- whether Bayle or Swift or Montaigne, Pascal, Locke, Mandeville or Pope
books  reviews  kindle-available  bookshelf  intellectual_history  cultural_history  17thC  18thC  scepticism  Scientific_Revolution  science-and-religion  Biblical_criticism 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Ian Hacking - Paradigms Regained - Thomas Kuhn's "Structure of Scientific Revolutions" 50 years later | The Los Angeles Review of Books
Excerpts from Hacking's introduction to the 50th anniversary reissue by the University of Chicago Press -- interesting comments re Kuhn's distaste for how some postmodernists and sociologists used his work, claimed him as an ally etc
books  bookshelf  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  20thC  post-WWII  Kuhn  epistemology  anti-foundationalism  truth  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_method  scientific_culture  historiography-Whig  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Forum - “Deirdre McCloskey and Economists’ Ideas about Ideas” (July, 2014) - Online Library of Liberty
Deirdre McClosky is over the halfway point of her 4 volume work on The Bourgeois Era. Two volumes have already appeared, Bourgeois Virtues (2006) and Bourgeois Dignity (2010), and a third is close to appearing [2015]. This Liberty Matters online discussion will assess her progress to date with a Lead Essay by Don Boudreaux and comments by Joel Mokyr and John Nye, and replies to her critics by Deirdre McCloskey. The key issue is to try to explain why “the Great Enrichment” of the past 150 years occurred in northern and western Europe rather than elsewhere, and why sometime in the middle of the 18th century. Other theories have attributed it to the presence of natural resources, the existence of private property and the rule of law, and the right legal and political institutions. McCloskey’s thesis is that a fundamental change in ideas took place which raised the “dignity” of economic activity in the eyes of people to the point where they felt no inhibition in pursuing these activities which improved the situation of both themselves and the customers who bought their products and services.
intellectual_history  cultural_history  economic_history  economic_growth  Medieval  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  Great_Divergence  British_history  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Industrial_Revolution  bourgeoisie  political_economy  France  Germany  Prussia  China  development  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  legal_history  property  property_rights  commerce  trade  trading_companies  free_trade  improvement  technology  Innovation  agriculture  energy  natural_capital  nature-mastery  transport  capitalism  colonialism  industry  industrialization  social_order  Great_Chain_of_Being  consumers  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  equality  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  liberalism  incentives  microeconomics  historical_sociology  historical_change  social_theory  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Nico Voigtländer, Mara Squicciarini, Knowledge elites, enlightenment, and industrialisation | vox 13 July 2014
Although studies of contemporary economies find robust associations between human capital and growth, past research has found no link between worker skills and the onset of industrialisation. This column resolves the puzzle by focusing on the upper tail of the skill distribution, which is strongly associated with industrial development in 18th-century France. -- uses density of subscriptions to the Encyclopédie to analyze spatial distribution of knowledge elites which they find strongly associated with industrialization post 1750.
economic_history  economic_growth  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  18thC  19thC  academies  elite_culture  bourgeoisie  nobility  technology  Innovation  sociology_of_knowledge  knowledge_economy  education  literacy  Encyclopédie  scientific_culture  science-public  Scientific_Revolution  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Lord Kames, Sketches of the History of Man, 3 vols., ed. James A. Harris - Online Library of Liberty
Henry Home, Lord Kames, Sketches of the History of Man Considerably enlarged by the last additions and corrections of the author, edited and with an Introduction by James A. Harris (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2007). 3 Vols. 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2031> -- Written late in his life, this 3 volume work deals with the idea of human progress. Vol. 1 deals with progress in property law, commerce, the treatment of women, and luxury. Vol. 2 deals with the development of states, government, and taxation. Vol. 3 deals with the progress of science.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Kames  historiography-18thC  stadial_theories  progress  civil_society  political_philosophy  human_nature  luxury  property  property_rights  legal_history  legal_culture  commerce  taxes  nation-state  state-building  Scientific_Revolution  Newtonian  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Dale Van Kley, review essay, Where the Rot Started? - Brad S. Gregory, The Unintended Reformation: How a Religious Revolution Secularized Society - | Books and Culture
Excellent essay -- Gregory places almost all blame on the Protestants for the disunity of Christendom, marginalization of religious institutions and thought, and horrors of modern age, including moral relativism and global warming. Like Gillespie, puzzling stress on Dun Scotus ("univocal being") and William of Ockham (nominalism) for (enabling? producing?) a cosmos in which scientific inquiry could dispense with God. Gregory omits a number of factors on the Catholic side (beyond the Lutheran Reformation itself that the Papacy might have handled via reforms instead of confrontation and denial of fallibility). Van Kley's list of factors (especially French) that Gregory omits -- (1) splits in Catholicism throughout middle ages, e.g. frequent appearance of latent heresies if reformers couldn't get a new order founded; (2) Papal alliance with secular rulers to stamp out conciliar movement and reinforce papal infallibility - made compromise with Luther etc impossible and still inhibits any meaningful ecumenism; (3) Counter-Reformation shift from assessing theological grounds of specific doctrines to asserting absolute unchallengable authority based on external marks (as defined by Catholics) of the true church - a style of argument that wasn't going to survive sola scriptura, new science, Enlightenment etc; (4) Papal overreaction that stamped out Gallican and liberal Catholicism, which in turn stimulated anticlericalism and anti-regime sentiments from both left and right, thereby reducing the flexibility of the Ancien Regime to address social and economic problems or reform institutions; (5) a counter-revolutionary anti-intellectual unholy alliance between Papacy and Jansénistes that produced the uncompromising radicalism of laïcité. And that's not all Van Kley covers.
books  reviews  kindle-available  historiography  religious_history  church_history  intellectual_history  theology  ecclesiology  Christianity  Reformation  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Catholics  Papacy  Protestants  modernity  relativism  science-and-religion  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Jansenists  Counter-Enlightenment  Counter-Reformation  counter-revolution  politics-and-religion  secularization  secularism  heterodoxy  heresy  Gallican  Absolutism  liberalism  self  morality-divine_command  morality-Christian  natural_law  nominalism  Duns_Scotus  medieval_philosophy  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik - THE SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENT AND ITS SOUL | Pandaemonium - May 2014
The science writer Philip Ball recently published a post on his blog Homunculus in which he wondered why modern scientific instruments seem to lack the beauty and soul of those of centuries past. Stephen Curry, professor of structural biology at Imperial College, wrote in response, on Occam’s Corner, the Guardian-hosted science blog, a wonderful little essay, in which he questioned some of Philip’s assumptions but made also a case for scientists to have more than an instrumental relationship to their instruments. Philip Ball then wrote an equally insightful reply in which he argued that scientific instruments are made not simply to do a job but also to express a certain image of science, to ‘employ a particular visual rhetoric’ in his words. The changing character of scientific instruments, he suggested, reflects the changing image of science that scientists wish to covey. -- Ball re visual rhetoric - what, and who, these instruments were for. Even for Galileo, the scientific experiment was still at least as much a demonstration as it was an exploration: it was a way of showing that your ideas were right. ...And in the earliest of the early modern era, during the late Renaissance, scientific instruments were objects of power. They were used by the virtuosi to delight and entertain their noble patrons, and thereby to imply a command of the occult forces of nature. For such a display, it was important that a device be impressive to look at: elegance was the key attribute of the courtly natural philosopher.
intellectual_history  cultural_history  Renaissance  16thC  17thC  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  science-public  virtuosos  patrons  scientific_method  experimental_philosophy  Galileo  Hooke  links  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Marshall interview with Lisa Downing - Early Mod philosophy » 3:AM Magazine - May 2014
Lisa Downing is the philosopher who thinks all the time about the early modern philosophers of Europe, especially 17th and 18th century philosophy, about how philosophical analysis and historical exactitude compliment each other, on adding to the canonical philosophers of the period, on why Malebranch is the closest to re-entry, and Robert Boyle, on Descartes vs Newton, on avoiding anachronism, on the dynamism of the period, on primary and secondary qualities, on resisting the idea that historical views have to be relevant, on Berkeley, on tensions in Locke, on women philosophers of the time and on rejecting the occult. This one is kick-ass! Yo!
intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  Descartes  Cartesian  Malebranche  Locke  Boyle  Berkeley  Newton  Clarke  Leibniz  Hobbes  mind-body  causation  God-attributes  Providence  mechanism  substance  metaphysics  Aristotelian  qualia  perception  natural_philosophy  free_will  Scientific_Revolution  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Francis Bacon And The Modern Dilemma : Loren Eiseley (1962) - Internet Archive
Charming collection of lectures on how extraordinary Bacon was -- lots of lovely quotes from across his works -- corrects dismissal of his inductive method since he recognized the Interplay of both induction and deduction -- also stresses two sided promise and threat of both man's nature and science/technology. Great answer to the Enlightenment_Project folks. Stresses his anthropology and impact of custom I.e. culture -- as well as education for "common man" for both his division of labor and for the culture required for man to use his growing knowledge for good rather than narrow self interest.
books  etexts  intellectual_history  Bacon  17thC  British_history  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_method  science-public  education-higher  technology  morality-conventional  anthropology  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
J. V. Golinski - A Noble Spectacle: Phosphorus and the Public Cultures of Science in the Early Royal Society | JSTOR: Isis, Vol. 80, No. 1 (Mar., 1989), pp. 11-39
Huge bibliography of both primary and secondary literature -- chemistry and link to medicine were important for experimental_philosophy, but the flashiness of experiments for the public could both attract public interest and provide ammunition for enemies -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  17thC  British_history  Royal_Society  sociology_of_knowledge  experimental_philosophy  natural_philosophy  medicine  chemistry  magic  alchemy  Boyle  Hooke  Harvey  science-public  scientific_culture  Scientific_Revolution  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Jessica Riskin, review essay - Newton and Monotheism | JSTOR: Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences, Vol. 40, No. 3 (Summer 2010), pp. 399-408
Reviewed work(s): (1) Peter Dear. The Intelligibility of Nature: How Science Makes Sense of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. xii + 242 pp., illus., index. ISBN 978-0-226-13949-4. $17.00 (paper). ; *--* (2) Stephen Gaukroger. The Emergence of a Scientific Culture: Science and the Shaping of Modernity 1210–1685. Oxford: Clarendon, 2006. ix + 563 pp., illus., index. ISBN 978-0-199-55001-2. $39.95 (paper). ; *--* (3) Peter Harrison. The Fall of Man and the Foundations of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. xi + 300 pp., index. ISBN 978-0-521-87559-2. $43.00 (paper). ; *--* (4) George Saliba. Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007. xi + 315 pp., illus., index. ISBN 978-0-262-19557-7. $43.00 (hardcover).
books  reviews  jstor  bookshelf  kindle-available  intellectual_history  history_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  science-and-religion  Scientific_Revolution  Biblical_criticism  Bible-as-history  Islam  monotheism  Newtonian  original_sin  Fall  epistemology  cultural_history  scientific_culture  religious_culture  intelligentsia  intellectual_freedom  Islamic_civilization  Renaissance  Islam-Greek_philosophy  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Simon Schaffer - Dévots et philosophes mécanistes: Ames et esprits dans la philosophie de la Nature, à l'époque de la Restauration anglaise | JSTOR: Ethnologie française, nouvelle serie, T. 23, No. 3 (Septembre 1993), pp. 316-335
Recent historiography of the Scientific Revolution has challenged the assumption that the achievements of seventeenth-century natural philosophy can easily be described as the mechanization of the world-picture. The clock-work world was triumphant and inevitably so. However, a close examination of one key group of natural philosophers working in England during the 1670s shows that their program necessarily incorporated souls and spirits, attractions and congruities, within both their ontology and their epistemology. Any natural philosophical strategy which excluded spirits and sympathies from its world was condemned as tending to subversion and irreligion. Through a description of the historical context of experimental work, the present article sets out to show how a philosophy of matter and spirit was deliberately constructed by the end of the seventeenth century. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  Scientific_Revolution  science-and-religion  17thC  British_history  natural_philosophy  experimental_philosophy  mechanism  soul  mind-body  Boyle  More_Henry  scepticism  atheism_panic  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Adrian Johns - Identity, Practice, and Trust in Early Modern Natural Philosophy | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Dec., 1999), pp. 1125-1145
Historians of early modern science face a serious problem, in that there was no science in early modern society. There were, however, other enterprises in the early modern period devoted to the understanding and manipulation of the physical world. This review identifies important trends in historians' attempts to comprehend those enterprises. In particular, it identifies four leading currents. The first is the move to characterize these different enterprises themselves, and in particular to understand natural philosophy and the mathematical sciences as distinct practical endeavours. The second is the attention now being paid to the social identity of the investigator of nature. The third is the attempt to understand the history of science as a history of practical enterprises rather than propositions or theories. The fourth, finally, is the understanding of natural knowledge in terms of systems of trust, and in particular in terms of the credit vested in rival claimants. In a combination of these, the review suggests, lies a future for a discipline that has otherwise lost its subject. -- didn't download
article  jstor  historiography  intellectual_history  history_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  historical_sociology  17thC  18thC  Scientific_Revolution  science-and-religion  technology  Innovation  Royal_Society  Republic_of_Letters  natural_philosophy  mathematics  mechanism  corpuscular  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Rhoda Rappaport - Hooke on Earthquakes: Lectures, Strategy and Audience | JSTOR: The British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Jul., 1986), pp. 129-146
Separating Hooke's prescient geology and fossil theories from his other speculative evidence, his manner of presentation etc -- an interesting angle on the scientific culture and social processes of knowledge production and communication
article  jstor  17thC  British_history  cultural_history  intellectual_history  history_of_science  Scientific_Revolution  Hooke  geology  paleontology  cosmology  sociology_of_knowledge  Royal_Society  virtuosos  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Roger Hahn, review - Margaret C. Jacob, Scientific Culture and the Making of the Industrial West | JSTOR: The American Historical Review, Vol. 105, No. 5 (Dec., 2000), pp. 1793-1794
Good look at how Jacob theories re importance of Newtonianism, its spread, the Republic of Letters and freemasonry had profound effects on mentalities beyond the scientific and philosophical elites - in this narrative linking it to technology and industrial innovation. -- didn't download
books  reviews  intellectual_history  sociology_of_knowledge  17thC  18thC  Scientific_Revolution  experimental_philosophy  Newtonian  technology  Innovation  Industrial_Revolution  Republic_of_Letters  Freemasonry  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard F. Jones: Science and Criticism in the Neo-Classical Age of English Literature | JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Oct., 1940), pp. 381-412
Develops ideas from his 1936 book on the Ancients v Moderns and background to Battle of the Books - contrasting Baconian scepticism and mentality of experimental discovery with the purported iron rules of Aristotle and English literature as influenced by French neoclassical criticism. Dryden as major example of tension between the two mentalities. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  literary_history  lit_crit  Scientific_Revolution  British_history  English_lit  Royal_Society  Dryden  poetry  neoclassical  French_lit  Ancients_v_Moderns  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
John Fea - The Way of Improvement Leads Home: Is There a Lack of Scholarship on the American Enlightenment? - Dec 2013
Eric Herschtal, in his review of James MacGregor Burns's Fire and Light: How the Enlightenment Transformed Our World, laments the lack of "good recent scholarship" on the Enlightenment "that American historians can readily incorporate into their work."

I respectfully disagree. Although there have not been many general overviews of the Enlightenment in America since the publication of Henry May's The Enlightenment in America, the last two decades have seen some excellent reassessments of the Enlightenment in America. Here are some
bibliography  American_colonies  Early_Republic  US_history  intellectual_history  cultural_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Franklin_Ben  Founders  Scientific_Revolution  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
E. A. J. Johnson: The Place of Learning, Science, Vocational Training, and "Art" in Pre-Smithian Economic Thought - JSTOR: The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Jun., 1964), pp. 129-144
The Place of Learning, Science, Vocational Training, and "Art" in Pre-Smithian Economic Thought
E. A. J. Johnson
The Journal of Economic History
Vol. 24, No. 2 (Jun., 1964) (pp. 129-144)
Page Count: 16
Downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  17thC  18thC  economic_culture  classes  British_history  education  Labor_markets  professions  Scientific_Revolution  status  downloaded  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Robert B. Ekelund, Jr., review - Germano Maifreda: From Oikonomia to Political Economy: Constructing Economic Knowledge from the Renaissance to the Scientific Revolution | EH.net
Ashgate, 2012. vii + 304 pp. $135 (hardcover), ISBN: 978-1-4094-3301-9.

The transition from the culturally and religiously oriented era of Oikonomia to the political economy of, say, Smith and Hume, was not linear.? Culture, science and religion evolved and helped shape conceptions of economic functioning. (It would appear that medieval Christianity was not productive of ?economy.?)? Secularism also evolved and searches for constancy in value, in exchange and in entrepreneurship were shaped by culture and psychology.? Epistemology affected the scaffolding and functioning of the economic superstructure at any point in time.?

[H]e raises intriguing links between culture, psychology, medicine, biology and economic categories. In Chapters 5 through7 (plus an epilogue), Maifreda weaves together exceptionally interesting material on the manner in which the principles of other sciences and studies used what we now call economic reasoning and motivations.? The whole question of how the idea that labor ?caused? or ?represented? or ?was involved with? value is the subject of Chapters 5 and 6.? Maifreda highlights (properly) how Locke?s analysis of private property is the ?essential element? in productive economy (p. 167).? Also examined is how labor and the concept of equilibrium are related to both theological and physiological reasoning, the concept of equilibrium prominent in the writings of Hales and Boisguilbert He concludes that ?powerful metaphors formed within diverse fields of knowledge … lent their assistance to ways of thinking about phenomena and drawing up models and generalizations? (p. 253) that, later, became an independent science of economics and economic reasoning.? One small complaint is that he does not extend his discussion into exactly how and through whom the transition was finally made (e.g., possibly Cantillon and others).? But that may be the subject for another study.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  economic_history  Renaissance  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  16thC  17thC  18thC  political_economy  economic_theory  economic_culture  commerce  values  labor  Locke  property  currency  prices  cultural_history  theology  Providence  moral_philosophy  moral_economy  Foucault  Physiocrats  Linnaeus  biology  physiology  equilibrium  metaphor  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Gregory Lynall: Swift and Science: The Satire, Politics and Theology of Natural Knowledge, 1690-1730 (2012) Kindle Store
It is often thought that Jonathan Swift was vehemently opposed to the new science that heralded the beginning of the modern age, but this book interrogates that assumption, bringing new perspectives to his most famous works, and making a case for the intellectual importance of some of his more neglected poems and prose satires. Lynall's study traces the theological, political, and socio-cultural resonances of scientific knowledge in the early eighteenth century, and considers what they can reveal about the growth of Swift's imagination. Taking us to a universe made from clothes, to a place where flowers can talk and men are only trees turned upside down, to an island that hovers high in the clouds, and to a library where a spider predicts how the world will end, the book shows how satire can be an active and unique participant in cultural debates about the methods and purposes of scientific enquiry.
books  kindle-available  18thC  history_of_science  intellectual_history  cultural_history  scientism  Scientific_Revolution  Royal_Society  epistemology  imagination  satire  Swift  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Paula Findlen: Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan | Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts
Citation: Findlen, Paula. “Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan.” Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1, no. 1 (May 1, 2009): http://rofl.stanford.edu/node/33. IN "Rethinking the Republic of Letters" issue -- downloaded pdf to Note -- By the eighteenth century the Cimento was as a symbolic point of departure for the idea of founding an academy that would restore Italy’s greatness through the pursuit of modern knowledge..... as the great librarian, historian, and guardian of Italy’s intellectual heritage Ludovico Antonio Muratori (1672-1750) noted with disgust in 1704, in his day virtually every Italian city had “an academy, indeed two, three or sometimes even more”—but to what end? In his famous account of the Italian republic of letters, First Sketches of the Republic of Letters of Italy, written under the pseudonym of Lamindio Pritanio, Muratori described the decline of Italy’s academies since the era of the Cimento. .... [Queen Christina] was widely regarded as a great patron of science. Yet these activities had been eclipsed by the creation of the Accademia degli Arcadi, a literary academy founded in Rome in 1690 which claimed Queen Christina as its posthumous patron and rapidly established colonies throughout the Italian peninsula...... The success of Arcadia at the expense of other kinds of scholarly initiatives at the dawn of the eighteenth century was the focal point of Muratori’s condemnation of the current state of the Italian academies and his call for the emergence of a new kind of patron. Grillo Borromeo’s decision to create an academy in Palazzo Borromeo was an attempt to redress this imbalance while also highlighting the prominent role that learned women might play in this new vision of the republic of letters.
article  intellectual_history  cultural_history  17thC  18thC  Enlightenment  academies  Royal_Society  Italy  Milan  Florence  Rome  patronage  Republic_of_Letters  women-intellectuals  Scientific_Revolution  natural_philosophy  poetry  belles-lettres  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
John V. Pickstone: Working Knowledges Before and After circa 1800: Practices and Disciplines in the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine (2007)
JSTOR: Isis, Vol. 98, No. 3 (September 2007), pp. 489-516 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Historians of science, inasmuch as they are concerned with knowledges and practices rather than institutions, have tended of late to focus on case studies of common processes such as experiment and publication. In so doing, they tend to treat science as a single category, with various local instantiations. Or, alternatively, they relate cases to their specific local contexts. In neither approach do the cases or their contexts build easily into broader histories, reconstructing changing knowledge practices across time and space. This essay argues that by systematically deconstructing the practices of science and technology and medicine (STM) into common, recurrent elements, we can gain usefully “configurational” views, not just of particular cases and contexts but of synchronic variety and diachronic changes, both short term and long. To this end, we can begin with the customary actors’ disciplines of early modern knowledge (natural philosophy, natural history, mixed mathematics, and experimental philosophy), which can be understood as elemental “ways of knowing and working,” variously combined and disputed. I argue that these same working knowledges, together with a later mode—synthetic experimentation and systematic invention—may also serve for the analysis of STM from the late eighteenth century to the present. 
article  jstor  historiography  sociology_of_knowledge  history_of_science  intellectual_history  natural_philosophy  medicine  physiology  technology  industry  Scientific_Revolution  Industrial_Revolution  17thC  18thC  19thC 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
John V. Pickstone: Sketching Together the Modern Histories of Science, Technology, and Medicine (2011)
JSTOR: Isis, Vol. 102, No. 1 (March 2011), pp. 123-133 -- roundup and looking forward article in issue Focus: Between and Beyond “Histories of Science” and “Histories of Medicine” -- downloaded pdf to Note -- This essay explores ways to “write together” the awkwardly jointed histories of “science” and “medicine”—but it also includes other “arts” (in the old sense) and technologies. It draws especially on the historiography of medicine, but I try to use terms that are applicable across all of science, technology, and medicine (STM). I stress the variety of knowledges and practices in play at any time and the ways in which the ensembles change. I focus on the various relations of “science” and “medicine,” as they were understood for a succession of periods—from mainly agricultural societies, through industrial societies, to our biomedical present—trying to sketch a history that encompasses daily practices and understandings as well as major conceptual and technical innovations. The model is meant to facilitate inquiry across topics and across times, including those to come.
article  jstor  historiography  sociology_of_knowledge  history_of_science  medicine  technology  biology  chemistry  physiology  natural_philosophy  mathematics  communication  IT  evolution  university  academies  education  industry  Industrial_Revolution  Renaissance  Enlightenment  Scientific_Revolution  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Harold J. Cook: The History of Medicine and the Scientific Revolution (2011)
JSTOR: Isis, Vol. 102, No. 1 (March 2011), pp. 102-108 -- Issue Focus: Between and Beyond “Histories of Science” and “Histories of Medicine” -- downloaded pdf to Note -- The “new philosophy” of the seventeenth century has continued to be explained mainly on its own terms: as a major philosophical turn. Twentieth-century modernism gave pride of place to big ideas and reinforced the tendency to explain the rise of science in light of new ideas. Such orientations subordinated medicine (and technology) to sciences that appeared to be more theoretical. In attempts to persuade historians of science of the importance of medicine, then, many authors took an approach arguing that the major changes in the history of medicine during the so-called scientific revolution arose from philosophical commitments. Yet because medicine is also intimately connected to other aspects of life, its histories proved to be recalcitrant to such reductions and so continue to offer many possibilities for those who seek fresh means to address histories of body and mind united rather than divided.
article  jstor  historiography  history_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  medicine  biology  natural_philosophy  metaphysics  17thC  18thC  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  mind-body  psychology  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  cultural_history  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Charles W. J. Withers: Place and the "Spatial Turn" in Geography and in History (2009)
JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 70, No. 4 (Oct., 2009), pp. 637-658 - focuses om place and space in recent Enlightenment studies in history of science -- downloaded pdf to Note -- on "most downloaded" list on Project MUSE
article  jstor  17thC  18thC  intellectual_history  historiography  sociology_of_knowledge  Enlightenment  Scientific_Revolution  history_of_science  geography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Dániel Margócsy - Encyclopedias, the Exchange of Curiosities, and Practices of Identification before Linnaeus (2010)
Project MUSE - Dániel Margócsy. ""Refer to folio and number": Encyclopedias, the Exchange of Curiosities, and Practices of Identification before Linnaeus." Journal of the History of Ideas 71.1 (2010): 63-89. Project MUSE. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://muse.jhu.edu/>...... Available as html and pdf...... The Swiss natural historian Johann Amman came to Russia in 1733 to take a position as professor of botany and natural history at the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. As part of the job, he corresponded, and exchanged plant specimens, with the English merchant collector Peter Collinson in London, and the Swedish scholar Carolus Linnaeus, among others. After briefly reviewing Amman's correspondence with these scholars and the growing commerce in exotic specimens of natural history, I explore how encyclopedias came to facilitate the exchange of zoological specimens in particular. I argue that, during the seventeenth century, a new genre of zoological encyclopedias appeared on the scene whose design was particularly well-suited for the purposes of identification, a key practice in long-distance exchanges.

?....-- Of interest on several counts. 1) classification and taxonomy process extending Foucault observation re shift from Renaissance representation to Enlightenment classification - not just driven by demands for new forms of intelligibility, but parallel to what happening in commerce, need to support communications needed for ling distance exchange. 2) stages leading to Linnaeus. 3) encyclopedia phenomenon more generally as Republic of Letters expands geographically and in membership and becomes increasingly specialized. How new types of authority asserted, contested and accepted. Also suggestive re how garden, herb, exotic specimens ID'd, info circulated internationally - Bolingbroke's grandmother, Trumbull letter, Pope's gardening.
article  Project_MUSE  17thC  18thC  intellectual_history  cultural_history  biology  species  natural_history  publishing  commerce  Republic_of_Letters  Scientific_Revolution  gardens  Foucault  Linnaeus  Bolingbroke  Pope  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Halley's Log | Capt Edmond Halley's logs from HMS Paramore 1698-1701
Edmond Halley FRS (1656–1742) was an astronomer and mathematician, whose work ranged across physics, barometry, meteorology, hydrology, cartography and geophysics. More surprisingly perhaps, he was also a sea captain, undertaking three voyages for scientific purposes between 1698 and 1701.

This blog is a companion to the Twitter feed of the manuscript logs of Edmond Halley’s three voyages in the Paramore and provides background information to the feed (@HalleysLog). The blog and feed are run by Kate Morant (@KateMorant).

Halley was elected Clerk to the Royal Society in 1686, and in 1687 he oversaw – and paid for – the publication of Newton’s Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.He served in the regional mint at Chester during the Great Recoinage of the 1690s and in 1698 he set out on the first of his three voyages in HMS Paramore. At the end of these, Halley was soon travelling again, undertaking two missions to survey sites and oversee construction of harbour fortifications in the Adriatic.

In January 1704, Halley was elected Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford, and so returned to more scholarly pursuits; he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Civil Laws degree by the university in 1710.

In a paper published in 1705, Astronomiae Cometicae Synopsis, Halley proposed that the comets of 1531, 1607 and 1682 were one and the same and predicted that it would return in 1758. It did, and ever since has been popularly known as ‘Halley’s Comet’ (official designation 1P/Halley).

In 1713 Halley was elected Secretary of the Royal Society, and in 1720 he succeeded John Flamsteed as Astronomer Royal at Greenwich.
British_history  17thC  18thC  Scientific_Revolution  academies  astronomy  British_Navy  exploration  Newton  Tories  Royal_Society  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Rebekah Higgitt: Did the Longitude Act speed up the solution to the longitude problem? | Bd of Longitude Project Blog May 2013
While the Longitude Act held out the possibility of a very large reward, it was certainly not the only or – for most people – the most likely way to make new ideas around longitude pay.The question of “speed” is an interesting one. It is impossible to predict how long new ideas should take to develop, but when we consider that it is two decades before the Commissioners of Longitude met as a group, and another three before serious money was dispensed, it doesn’t sound particularly speedy. The 1714 Act had looked for a “practicable and useful” solution for the public, but there wasn’t anything widely available until a century later.
British_history  Scientific_Revolution  Industrial_Revolution  UK_Government  technology  Innovation  18thC  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader

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