dunnettreader + rousseau   54

Robert S. Taylor - Market Freedom as Antipower (2013) | American Political Science Review on JSTOR
Historically, republicans were of different minds about markets: some, such as Rousseau, reviled them, while others, like Adam Smith, praised them. The recent republican resurgence has revived this issue. Classical liberals such as Gerald Gaus contend that neorepublicanism is inherently hostile to markets, while neorepublicans like Richard Dagger and Philip Pettit reject this characterization—though with less enthusiasm than one might expect. I argue here that the right republican attitude toward competitive markets is celebratory rather than acquiescent and that republicanism demands such markets for the same reason it requires the rule of law: because both are essential institutions for protecting individuals from arbitrary interference. I reveal how competition restrains—and in the limit, even eradicates— market power and thereby helps us realize "market freedom," i.e., freedom as nondomination in the context of economic exchange. Finally, I show that such freedom necessitates "Anglo-Nordic" economic policies. - downloaded via iphone to dbox
Pettit  capitalism-alternatives  downloaded  markets_in_everything  capitalism-varieties  republicanism  bibliography  political_economy  Rousseau  Smith  market_failure  markets-dependence_on_government  jstor  commerce-doux  freedom  domination  market_fundamentalism  Gaus_Gerald  markets  political_theory  capitalism  article  competition  markets-structure 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Matthew Sharpe - [draft slides] Athletes in the Arena: Diderot and his Seneca | Academia.edu
Whereas Seneca's critics argue that his life and alleged compliance with Nero contradicts his Stoic, noble-sounding principles, discrediting the latter; in his two late books on the Stoic, Diderot argues that Seneca's continual attempts to mollify Nero's tyranny betters the philosophy.  Where Diderot's critics reduce the two works on Seneca to veiled attacks on Rousseau, Diderot is critical of those texts wherein Seneca advocated the withdrawal & “leisure of the sage” or the vita contemplativa, while Rome burnt (“Rousseau est la figure moderne et honnie du détachement, qui permet à Diderot de dissocier Sénèque du détachement stoïcien. » (Lojskine 2009))  Whether contra Rousseau or no, Diderot is most attracted—amongst all Seneca's works Diderot examines—to Seneca’s On Benefits, and wants to restore compassion, even justified anger, to Stoicism.  Whether to justify himself for his own naivety in trying to teach Catherine of Russia or not, Diderot defends Seneca’s attempts to mollify Nero, led by De Clementia; he appeals, a la Shaftesbury and others, to Seneca’s “coeur” and compassion, beyond his Stoicism, notably in On Benefits; he criticises Stoic fatalism and appeals to a paraStoic notion of “natural rights” to justify resistance to tyranny; famously celebrating the American revolution as as lesson to all Europe.  So, beneath the "miserable" polemics (Cittion), there remains a good deal of philosophy; beneath the rhetorical smoke, (to use a Stoic-ism) a good deal of theoretical fire.  This paper aims at retrieving this fire, and situating Diderot's mitigated Stoicism as a French avatar of the moral sentimentalist position, with roots in the Stoic idea of oikeosis (and of parental love as the elementary cell of sociablity), as articulated by CIcero. Research Interests: Stoicism, Roman Stoicism, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, and Philosophy as a way of life -- downloaded
paper  Academia.edu  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  18thC  French_Enlightenment  philosophes  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Rome  Hellenism  Stoicism  Seneca  Diderot  Rousseau  moral_philosophy  moral_sentiments  eclecticism  Cicero  emotions  tyranny  Roman_Empire  downloaded 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Steven T. Engel - Rousseau and Imagined Communities (2005) | The Review of Politics on JSTOR
The Review of Politics, Vol. 67, No. 3 (Summer, 2005), pp. 515-537 -- Rousseau's relationship to the phenomenon of modern nationalism is a consistent theme of political theory and the history of ideas. This article argues that Rousseau's thought can be seen as providing the foundation for nationalism even if he would not have endorsed it. That Rousseau's thought bears this relationship to nationalism can be seen by reexamining his argument through the lens of Benedict Anderson's concept of nations as imagined communities. Rousseau's account of political psychology, sovereignty, and the proper limits of the nation provide the core of the analysis of this question.
article  jstor  18thC  Rousseau  nationalism  national_ID  nation-state  national_tale  sovereignty  political_philosophy  political_culture 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Leo Damrosh - The Enlightenment: Invention of the Modern Self | The Great Courses
Enlightenment Invention of the Modern Self - from opening views in 17thC, through stages of the Enlightenment - a road to its (inevitable?) backlash in Romanticism
24 lectures
Only available as Audio download (and streaming) - list price $130
Rave reviews
Uses literary works and philosophical texts together
Frex completes the 2 lectures on British empiricism (focus on Locke and Hume re the self) with how Pope struggles with capturing complex psychology within the empiricist framework
After an introduction of 17thC religious and secular conceptions of the self, starts with 2 on La Princesse de Clèves
After empiricism, 2 on Voltaire and theodicy in Candide
3 lectures on Diderot and Jacques le fataliste
A lot of Rousseau - not the novels but the autobiographical works - how he analyzes himself in Confessions and Solitary Walker
Lots of biography, with Boswell's Johnson the vehicle
Some Franklin and Smith
Finishes with Laclos and Blake
Romanticism  bibliography  reason-passions  poetry  Boswell  self  moral_psychology  French_Enlightenment  Enlightenment  English_lit  French_Revolution-impact  Rousseau  free_will  Locke-education  buy  human_nature  Diderot  Blake_William  Locke  Hume-causation  autobiography  17thC  Rousseau-self  Hume-ethics  altruism  Johnson  Voltaire  novels  empiricism  18thC  moral_philosophy  Locke-Essay  intellectual_history  cultural_history  Pope_Alexander  courses  French_lit  Smith  Hume  determinism  epistemology  emotions  character  audio  psychology 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Richard Tuck - István Hont and Rousseau and Smith’s radical resemblances | TLS
Rousseau and Smith’s radical resemblances -- RICHARD TUCK -- István Hont, POLITICS IN COMMERCIAL SOCIETY Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Smith Edited by Béla Kapossy and…
Instapaper  books  reviews  kindle-available  intellectual_history  18thC  Rousseau  Smith  political_economy  commerce  protectionism  economic_growth  community  market-size_of  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  human_nature  from instapaper
february 2016 by dunnettreader
David Dwan - Edmund Burke and the Emotions | JSTOR - Journal of the History of Ideas (2011)
Vol. 72, No. 4 (October 2011), pp. 571-593 -- very extensive bibliography -- Scholarship on Burke, his aesthetics, 18thC aesthetics more generally, Enlightenment Reason, moral sentiment, sentimental lit, etc -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_history  political_culture  18thC  Burke  reason  emotions  sublime  aesthetics  sentimentalism  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  moral_sentiments  judgment-political  judgment-aesthetics  judgment-emotions  French_Revolution  Rousseau  Wollstonecraft  civil_society  bibliography 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Cédric Rio, review - Pierre Crétois, Le Renversement de l’individualisme possessif: de Hobbes à l’État social Droit de propriété et intérêt collectif - La Vie des idées - 24 août 2015
Recensé : Pierre Crétois, Le Renversement de l’individualisme possessif : de Hobbes à l’État social, Paris, Classiques Garnier, 2014, 356 p.-- Mots-clés : propriété | libéralisme | solidarité | républicanisme -- En France l’idée que la propriété est un droit naturel émerge et triomphe au XVIIIe siècle, sous l’impulsion des physiocrates. C’est une telle conception que le mouvement solidariste critiquera un siècle plus tard afin de promouvoir l’État social. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  18thC  19thC  French_Enlightenment  Physiocrats  Hobbes  Locke-2_Treatises  Rousseau  property  property_rights  individualism  individualism-possessive  republicanism  common_good  solidarity  socialism  socialism-19thC  social_contract  social_movements  political_economy  political_press  economic_theory  liberalism  liberalism-19thC  welfare_state  natural_law  natural_rights  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Bourke, R.: Empire and Revolution: The Political Life of Edmund Burke. (eBook and Hardcover)
Drawing on the complete range of printed and manuscript sources, Empire and Revolution offers a vivid reconstruction of the major concerns of this outstanding statesman, orator, and philosopher.In restoring Burke to his original political and intellectual context, this book strips away the accumulated distortions that have marked the reception of his ideas. In the process, it overturns the conventional picture of a partisan of tradition against progress. In place of the image of a backward-looking opponent of popular rights, it presents a multifaceted portrait of one of the most captivating figures in eighteenth-century life and thought. While Burke was a passionately energetic statesman, he was also a deeply original thinker. Empire and Revolution depicts him as a philosopher-in-action who evaluated the political realities of the day through the lens of Enlightenment thought, variously drawing on the ideas of such figures as Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Hume. A boldly ambitious work of scholarship, this book challenges us to rethink the legacy of Burke and the turbulent era in which he played so pivotal a role. -- Richard Bourke is professor in the history of political thought and codirector of the Centre for the Study of the History of Political Thought at Queen Mary University of London. He is the author of Peace in Ireland: The War of Ideas and the coeditor of Political Judgement. -- Big early chunk on Vindication of Natural Society -- TOC and Intro (24 pgs) downloaded to Note
books  buy  biography  kindle-available  Bolingbroke  Burke  18thC  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  social_sciences  British_history  British_politics  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  imperialism-critique  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  parties  Whigs  Whigs-oligarchy  Whigs-grandees  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  representative_institutions  political_participation  political_press  moral_philosophy  psychology  religion-established  Church_of_England  Catholics-and-politics  Catholics-Ireland  Catholics-England  Catholic_emancipation  aesthetics  Montesquieu  Hume-ethics  Hume-politics  Rousseau  American_colonies  American_Revolution  India  French_Revolution  French_Enlightenment  French_Revolutionary_Wars  politics-and-religion  politics-and-history  Glorious_Revolution  Revolution_Principles  hierarchy  George_III  Pitt_the_Elder  Pitt_the_Younger  English_lit  human_rights  human_nature  philosophical_anthropology  sentimentalism  moral_sentiments  morality-Christian  morality-conventional  Enlightenment-conservative  British_Em 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Branko Milanovic - All our needs are social | Global Inequality - August 2015
Branko Milanovic dismantles Harry Frankfurt's attempt to differentiate our "real" needs - where considerations of inequality purportedly aren't relevant, or even are counterproductive to our full self/realization -- and "social " needs where some consideration of correcting for those below some certain level is appropriate. It's a common but incoherent philosophical move -- I blame Rousseau!
inequality  amour_propre  economic_culture  self-interest  self-love  capabilities  inequality-opportunity  sociability  analytical_philosophy  socialization  Rousseau  bad_economics  authenticity  moral_philosophy  self-development  from instapaper
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Michael Buckley Political Constructivism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
(..) while our political actions are assessed against a normative principle, there is no criterion beyond the deliberative process by which the rightness of the principle is assessed; it is authoritative in virtue of being the outcome of a certain kind of deliberative process or a certain form of argument. Consequently, the challenge for constructivism is to explain the appropriateness of the process without appealing to any judgment that is supposed to derive from that process; for if the thought process relied on such a judgment to assess its appropriateness, it would assume the very thing it claims to construct. (..) a great deal of philosophical debate surrounds the appropriateness of the deliberative process, especially as it concerns the metaethical themes of justification and objectivity. (..) despite the extensive literature on the subject, there are 2 general formulations of political constructivism influenced by 2 historical accounts of practical reasons. The first is a deontological account of practical reason that is primarily associated with Kantian ethics. The second is a teleological account of practical reason that is primarily associated with social contract theory. The Kantian and social contract traditions, although offering differing accounts of practical reason, share much in common, and it would not be an exaggeration to cast constructivism as a contemporary attempt to explain the Rousseauian idea of moral freedom as acting on a law one gives oneself complemented by the Kantian idea that the law one gives oneself is out of one’s reason. Political constructivism tries to make this idea clear by identifying a compelling form of normative political analysis with easily understood criteria for thinking about political issues.
political_philosophy  20thC  21stC  metaethics  Rawls  Kant-ethics  Rousseau  social_contract  reason  practical_reason  justification 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Brooke Holmes; W. H. Shearin, eds. - Dynamic Reading: Studies in the Reception of Epicureanism - Oxford University Press
(..) examines the reception history of Epicurean philosophy through a series of eleven case studies, (..). Rather than attempting to separate an original Epicureanism from its later readings and misreadings, this collection studies the philosophy together with its subsequent reception, focusing in particular on the ways in which it has provided terms and conceptual tools for defining how we read and respond to texts, artwork, and the world more generally. *--* Introduction, Brooke Holmes and W. H. Shearin -- 1. Haunting Nepos: Atticus and the Performance of Roman Epicurean Death, W. H. Shearin -- 2. Epicurus's Mistresses: Pleasure, Authority, and Gender in the Reception of the Kuriai Doxai in the Second Sophistic, Richard Fletcher -- 3. Reading for Pleasure: Disaster and Digression in the First Renaissance Commentary on Lucretius, Gerard Passannante -- 4. Discourse ex nihilo: Epicurus and Lucretius in 16thC England, Adam Rzepka -- 5. Engendering Modernity: Epicurean Women from Lucretius to Rousseau, Natania Meeker -- 6. Oscillate and Reflect: La Mettrie, Materialist Physiology, and the Revival of the Epicurean Canonic, James Steintrager -- 7. Sensual Idealism: The Spirit of Epicurus and the Politics of Finitude in Kant and Hölderlin, Anthony Adler -- 8. The Sublime, Today?, Glenn Most -- 9. From Heresy to Nature: Leo Strauss's History of Modern Epicureanism, Benjamin Aldes Wurgaft -- 10. Epicurean Presences in Foucault's The Hermeneutics of the Subject, Alain Gigandet -- 11. Deleuze, Lucretius, and the Simulacrum of Naturalism, Brooke Holmes
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  Latin_lit  literary_history  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Roman_Republic  Roman_Empire  Epicurean  Lucretius  influence-literary  reception  Renaissance  reader_response  readership  reading  16thC  English_lit  materialism  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  La_Mettrie  gender  gender_history  German_Idealism  Kant-aesthetics  Kant  Hölderlin  poetry  sublime  naturalism  Strauss  Foucault  Rousseau  Deleuze  lit_crit  new_historicism  subjectivity  finitude  death  literature-and-morality  literary_theory  postmodern  modernity  modernity-emergence  pleasure 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Jennifer Pitts, review - Isaac Nakhimovsky, The Closed Commercial State: Perpetual Peace and Commercial Society from Rousseau to Fichte | Perspectives on Politics, March 2013 on Isaac Nakhimovsky - Academia.edu
This book presents an important new account of Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Closed Commercial State, a major early nineteenth-century development of Rousseau and Kant's political thought. Isaac Nakhimovsky shows how Fichte reformulated Rousseau's constitutional politics and radicalized the economic implications of Kant's social contract theory with his defense of the right to work. Nakhimovsky argues that Fichte's sequel to Rousseau and Kant's writings on perpetual peace represents a pivotal moment in the intellectual history of the pacification of the West. Fichte claimed that Europe could not transform itself into a peaceful federation of constitutional republics unless economic life could be disentangled from the competitive dynamics of relations between states, and he asserted that this disentanglement required transitioning to a planned and largely self-sufficient national economy, made possible by a radical monetary policy. Fichte's ideas have resurfaced with nearly every crisis of globalization from the Napoleonic wars to the present, and his book remains a uniquely systematic and complete discussion of what John Maynard Keynes later termed "national self-sufficiency." Fichte's provocative contribution to the social contract tradition reminds us, Nakhimovsky concludes, that the combination of a liberal theory of the state with an open economy and international system is a much more contingent and precarious outcome than many recent theorists have tended to assume. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  Germany  France  commerce  IR_theory  international_political_economy  international_system  international_law  luxury  trade-policy  protectionism  import_substitution  monetary_policy  French_Revolution  Rousseau  Kant  Fichte  civil_society  civil_liberties  rights-political  perpetual_peace  competition-interstate  free_trade  globalization  imperialism  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Frederick Neuhouser, review - Isaac Nakhimovsky, The Closed Commercial State: Perpetual Peace and Commercial Society from Rousseau to Fichte | Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews - Nov 2011
Frederick Neuhouser, Barnard College -- Isaac Nakhimovsky has accomplished what I had thought to be impossible: he has made Fichte's The Closed Commercial State (1800) into an interesting text. By carefully situating this long-neglected work within its historical and philosophical context, Nakhimovsky enables us to see it as more than a misguided attempt by a major philosopher to address the political issues of his day by inventing a utopian vision of the free republic so obviously fantastic that it was widely dismissed as such by most of Fichte's own contemporaries. To his credit, Nakhimovsky does not deny the silliness of many of the details of that vision. What he shows, however, is the urgency -- and, more importantly, the continuing relevance -- of the central problem that Fichte's text attempts to solve: how to reconcile a Rousseauean ideal of free citizenship with the realities of modern "commercial" societies (marked, in Fichte's time, by a decline in agriculture in favor of industry and a rapidly increasing division of labor). Since the principal conflict here is the threat posed by international trade relations to the freedom and economic well-being of the citizens of republics enmeshed in those relations, it is not difficult (with Nakhimovsky's assistance) to see this seemingly most untimely of texts as addressing what is merely an earlier version of the same conflict that stands, even today, at the center of Europe's woes. One of the great strengths of Nakhimovsky's book is that it treats The Closed Commercial State as standing in a long line of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century texts that debate the implications for international peace of what we would call "globalized" commerce. (Kant's Perpetual Peace [1795] is the best known of these texts, it merely continues a much longer tradition that includes works by Fenélon, l'Abbé de Saint-Pierre, Rousseau, Sieyès, and many others.) -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  reviews  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  Germany  France  commerce  IR_theory  international_political_economy  international_system  international_law  luxury  trade-policy  protectionism  import_substitution  monetary_policy  French_Revolution  Rousseau  Kant  Fichte  civil_society  civil_liberties  rights-political  perpetual_peace  competition-interstate  free_trade  globalization  imperialism  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Vincent Descombes - Louis Dumont’s Political Thought - Books & ideas - April 2012.
Previously published in French in laviedesidees.fr, 14 February 2011. Translated by John Zvesper with the support of the Florence Gould Foundation. -- Louis Dumont is very well known for his anthropological work on India, but rather less for his political thought. Vincent Descombes emphasizes the substantial originality of that thought, which defined the political on the basis of comparative studies and in that way dispelled some of the equivocations of modern and contemporary philosophy. -- very interesting re anthropologist who developed a comparative method that would allow it to be turned back on Western modernity, and some political implications, including distinguishing French and German versions of individualism -- discussion of Rousseau's "general will" vs "will of all" makes more sense of it within this framing -- also Montesquieu, Tocqueville and especially Hegel moving back and forth, sometimes explicitly as in Montesquieu and less sharply in Hegel, with society as a (political, cultural, self-conscious? ) whole vs the political institutions -- see bibliography including list of Dumont’s works -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  intellectual_history  20thC  social_theory  political_philosophy  anthropology  comparative_anthropology  comparative_history  individualism  Rousseau  Hegel  Hegel-philosophy_of_right  Montesquieu  society  civil_society  nation-state  bibliography  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
David A. Bell, review essay on Antoine Lilti's new study of The Invention of Celebrity, 1750-1850 - Books & ideas
David A. Bell, « The Fault is Not in Our "Stars", but in Ourselves », Books and Ideas, 8 January 2015. ISSN : 2105-3030. URL : http://www.booksandideas.net/The-Fault-is-Not-in-Our-Stars-but-in-Ourselves.html -- Reviewed: Antoine Lilti, Figures publiques. L’invention de la célébrité, 1750-1850, [Public Figures. The Invention of Celebrity, 1750-1850]. Paris, Fayard, 2014. -- Before we start to lament the triumph of celebrity culture over the most basic civic literacy, we might ask if things were truly better in the past. Antoine Lilti’s brilliant book shows that modern celebrity culture had its origins in the age of revolutions, when selfhood and personal authenticity emerged as new notions.
books  reviews  social_history  cultural_history  18thC  19thC  France  public_sphere  celebrity  self  authenticity  Rousseau  Napoleon  propaganda  biography-writing 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
David A. Bell, review - Antoine Lilti, Figures publiques - The Fault is Not in Our "Stars", but in Ourselves - Books & ideas Jan 2014
Reviewed: Antoine Lilti, Figures publiques. L’invention de la célébrité, 1750-1850, [Public Figures. The Invention of Celebrity, 1750-1850]. Paris, Fayard, 2014. -- Before we start to lament the triumph of celebrity culture over the most basic civic literacy, we might ask if things were truly better in the past. Antoine Lilti’s brilliant book shows that modern celebrity culture had its origins in the age of revolutions, when selfhood and personal authenticity emerged as new notions. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  reviews  18thC  19thC  France  French_Enlightenment  Napoleon  Rousseau  celebrity  scandale  cultural_history  political_press  political_culture  cultural_critique  public_sphere  self  authenticity  popular_culture  mass_culture  media  readership  reader_response  sensibility  empathy  publishing  Habermas  downloaded 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Steven Shapin on E.C. Spary, Eating the Enlightenment : Food and the Sciences in Paris, 1670-1760 | The Los Angeles Review of Books - March 2013
Delightful review noting that the traditional humoural medicine, including diet, was based on a close link between body and mind, but as humours were abandoned great confusion about just what the links were and how they worked. Also covers the commercial distribution of new (to Europeans) beverages (coffee, tea, chocolate etc) and invention of others (e.g. various spirits like eaux de vie) and flavors. Got wrapped up in morality debates re taste vs gluttony, luxury, consumer fashion, and naturalism, reflected in the Encyclopédie and Rousseau. Shapin extends his discussion beyond the book's time frame to 19thC.
books  reviews  cultural_history  17thC  18thC  French_Enlightenment  luxury  consumerism  fashion  naturalism  noble_savage  virtue  vice  medicine  food  taste  Encyclopédie  Voltaire  Rousseau  Bouffon  humours  history_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
"Locating Rousseau's Legislator in Social Contract" by Courtney C. Nussbaumer (2011)
Courtney C. Nussbaumer, Macalester College -- It is challenging to define precisely what role the legislator plays in Rousseau’s Social Contract; however, when viewed in light of the ancient guardians, the role of the legislator becomes less obscure. This paper pursues the similarities between Rousseau’s concept of the legislator and Plato’s concept of the guardian while also exploring the poignant differences between the two. One cannot help but notice their fundamental similarities such as the superior character and intelligence of the legislator and how each communicates with the people. Their ultimate purpose and legitimacy differs, however, in that the legislator plays a more esoteric role in his relation to the people to order to persuade them of his ideas. Conversely, the guardian’s purpose is one of enlightenment through reason; he never has to persuade anyone of anything. -- Nussbaumer, Courtney C. (2011) "Locating Rousseau's Legislator in the Social Contract," The Macalester Review: Vol. 1: Iss. 1, Article 4. Available at: http://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/macreview/vol1/iss1/4 -- downloaded pdf to Note
political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  Plato  Plato-Republic  Rousseau  social_contract  leaders  reason  legitimacy  lawmaker  downloaded 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, The Principles of Natural and Politic Law [c 1750, tran 1763], trans. Thomas Nugent, ed. Peter Korkman - Online Library of Liberty
Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, The Principles of Natural and Politic Law, trans. Thomas Nugent, ed. and with an Introduction by Peter Korkman (Indianpolis: Liberty Fund, 2006). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1717> -- The basis of this version of The Principles of Natural and Politic Law is Thomas Nugent’s 1763 English translation, which became a standard textbook at Cambridge and at many premier American colleges, including Princeton, Harvard, and the University of Pennsylvania. The first scholarly work on Burlamaqui was written by an American, M. Ray Forrest Harvey, who in 1937 argued that Burlamaqui was well known among America’s Founding Fathers and that his writings exerted considerable influence on the American constitutional system. In his introduction, Nugent said of Burlamaqui: “His singular beauty consists in the alliance he so carefully points out between ethics and jurisprudence, religion and politics, after the example of Plato and Tully, and the other illustrious masters of antiquity.”
books  etexts  17thC  18thC  Enlightenment  intellectual_history  natural_law  political_philosophy  human_nature  moral_psychology  obligation  sovereignty  Geneva  Calvinist  natural_rights  mixed_government  aristocracy-natural  elites  bourgeoisie  democracy  authority  legitimacy  civil_liberties  civil_religion  happiness  rationalist  Grotius  Pufendorf  Barbeyrac  Leibniz  Rousseau  governing_class  government-forms  governance  state-building  state-of-nature  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenneth R. Westphal - Enlightenment Fundamentals: Rights, Responsibilities & Republicanism | Diametros
Kenneth R. Westphal is Professorial Fellow in the School of Philosophy, University of East Anglia (Norwich), and currently Visiting Professor of Philosophy at the Martin-Luther-Universität Halle Wittenberg. -- This essay re-examines some key fundamentals of the Enlightenment regarding individual rights, responsibilities and republicanism which deserve and require re-emphasis today, insofar as they underscore the character and fundamental importance of mature judgment, and how developing and fostering mature judgment is a fundamental aim of education. These fundamentals have been clouded or eroded by various recent developments, including mis-guided educational policy and not a little scholarly bickering. Clarity about these fundamentals is more important today than ever. Sapere aude! -- Keywords - Hobbes Hume Rousseau Kant Hegel, rational justification, mature judgment, moral constructivism, realism objectivity rights responsibilities republicanism media culture, Euthyphro question, natural law, Dilemma of the Criterion -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  French_Enlightenment  Germany  German_Idealism  voluntarism  obligation  morality-conventional  morality-objective  natural_rights  civil_liberties  civil_society  civic_virtue  Hobbes  Hume  Hume-ethics  Hume-politics  Rousseau  Kant  Kant-ethics  Hegel  judgment-political  public_sphere  media  political_culture  values  education-civic  education-higher  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add  21stC  Dewey  Quine  Sellars  analytical_philosophy  academia  professionalization 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Margaret C. Jacob - How Radical Was the Enlightenment? What Do We Mean by Radical? | Diametros
Distinguished Professor of History, UCLA Email: mjacob@history.ucla.edu
-- The Radical Enlightenment has been much discussed and its original meaning somewhat distorted. In 1981 my concept of the storm that unleashed a new, transnational intellectual movement possessed a strong contextual and political element that I believed, and still believe, to be critically important. Idealist accounts of enlightened ideas that divorce them from politics leave out the lived quality of the new radicalism born in reaction to monarchical and clerical absolutism. Taking the religious impulse seriously and working to defang it of bellicosity would require years of labor. First all the world’s religions had to be surveyed, see Picart’s seven folio volumes; and Rousseau’s Savoyard vicar had to both preach and live religion simply as true virtue; and finally Jefferson editing the Bible so as to get the irrational parts simply removed, thus making people more fit to grant a complete religious toleration. Throughout the century all these approaches to revealed religion may be legitimately described as radical. Each produced a different recommendation for its replacement. As I have now come to see, the pantheism I identified in 1981 would lead in many directions, among them lay the search to understand all human religiosity and to articulate a universal natural religion. -- Keywords - Atheism materialism absolutism French Protestant refugees Dutch cities religious toleration Bernard Picart Jonathan Israel English freethinkers Papal condemnation Rousseau pantheism Jefferson -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  political_history  17thC  18thC  Dutch  British_history  Enlightenment  Radical_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  political_culture  politics-and-religion  religion-established  religious_belief  comparative_religion  comparative_anthropology  monotheism  natural_religion  natural_philosophy  materialism  tolerance  natural_rights  naturalism  pantheism  atheism  atheism_panic  anticlerical  Absolutism  monarchy  monarchy-proprietary  publishing  public_sphere  Picart  Rousseau  Jefferson  revelation  Biblical_authority  Bible-as-history  Biblical_criticism  Huguenots  free-thinkers  Papacy  papal_infallibility  censorship  Republic_of_Letters  rational_religion  American_colonies  Early_Republic  ecclesiology  querelle_des_rites  virtue  moral_philosophy  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Ryan Patrick Hanley - Enlightened Nation Building: The "Science of the Legislator" in Adam Smith and Rousseau | JSTOR: American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 52, No. 2 (Apr., 2008), pp. 219-234
Rousseau is famous as an advocate of the politics of "denaturing." But attention to his conception of the "science of the legislator," as developed in the Geneva Manuscript and his writings on Poland and Corsica, reveals a more moderate approach to statecraft. Here Rousseau claims that legislative science requires tempering commitment to principles of political right with sensitivity to actual political conditions-a claim that importantly and unexpectedly parallels the better known account of the science of the legislator developed by Adam Smith. In comparing these conceptions, this article draws three conclusions: first, Smith's and Rousseau's shared moderation reveals their common commitment to accommodating the passions and prejudices of modernity; second, their fundamental difference concerns not practical legislative methods but rather differing conceptions of natural justice and political right; and finally, their prudential approach to legislation helps clarify the specific types of "moderation" and "intelligence" required of contemporary nation builders. -- see bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  18thC  Smith  Rousseau  nation-state  institution-building  political_culture  political_science  political_economy  modernity  natural_law  natural_rights  liberty  justice  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Rousseau (in 2 volumes, 1873) - John Morley - Google Books
This bookmark is to a reprint of Vol 1 in the late 1880s. The quality of the original edition on Google_Books is very poor. Unfortunately the reprint of Vol 2 isn't available on Google_Books. Check Hathi Trust or Internet Archive. Added to Google_Books library -- both 1873 volumes and the reprint of Vol 1
books  etexts  Google_Books  18thC  biography  intellectual_history  French_Enlightenment  Rousseau  Voltaire  d'Alembert  Diderot  Hume  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  moral_sentiments  Geneva  general_will  cultural_critique  cultural_history  music_history  social_contract  elite_culture  Paris  theater  Morley  EF-add  philosophes  libertine 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Corey W. Dyck, review - Avi Lifschitz, Language and Enlightenment: The Berlin Debates of the Eighteenth Century // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Dec 2013
For its competition of 1771, the Berlin Academy of Sciences asked: "Supposing men abandoned to their natural faculties, are they in a position to invent language? And by what means will they arrive at this invention?" The winning essay was Herder's "On the Origin of Language." This was actually the Academy's 2nd on language. In 1759 they asked: "What is the reciprocal influence of the opinions of people on language, and of language on opinions?" The winner was the orientalist Johann David Michaelis. Lifschitz's lucid and engaging book is about the 1759 contest, as he considers the historical, philosophical, and political circumstances that led to its proposal and the broader scholarly views of Michaelis. -- While one might quibble with Lifschitz's attempt to find deep roots in the Leibnizian-Wolffian philosophy for the 1759 Academy question, there is no doubting that in Berlin of the 1750s a number of thinkers took an active interest in language, its role in framing social institutions, and its relation to the mind, primarily under the influence of the work of Condillac and Rousseau. These include the president of the Academy, Maupertuis, and Moses Mendelssohn There was also lively discussion among Academy members regarding the (synchronic) connection between language and opinions, esp French as the language of the Academy. -- Already in the 1750s ...mainstream Enlightenment figures recognized the "linguistic rootedness of all human forms of life" and the importance of language as a "tool of cognition". Lifschitz rightly contends [this counters the story that such a view ], with its focus on the historical and non-rational aspects of human nature, [came from counter-Enlightenment figures] such as Herder and Hamann. [This directly] challenge[s] the characterization ... in Isaiah Berlin's seminal studies [as well as more recent studies] such as Michael Forster's work on Herder's philosophy of language. ...Herder's claim, as characterized by Forster, that "thought is essentially dependent upon and bounded by language" and that "one cannot think unless one has a language and one can only think what one can express linguistically" must be taken in the broader context of these earlier philosophical (and political) debates.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  1750s  1760s  1770s  Enlightenment  Germany  French_Enlightenment  philosophy_of_language  human_nature  language-national  language  language-history  Biblical_criticism  perception  cognition  historicism  Hobbes  Locke  Condillac  Rousseau  Leibniz  Wolff  Mendelssohn  Herder  Hamann  academies  social_theory  Counter-Enlightenment  Berlin_Isaiah  Frederick_the_Great  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Frederick Neuhouser, review - Lee MacLean, The Free Animal: Rousseau on Free Will and Human Nature // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Feb 2014
Two interpretive questions guide MacLean's study: first, whether Rousseau's ascription of free will to humans, especially in the Second Discourse, is to be taken at face value (rather than as part of an esoteric strategy to hide his "true" view from the masses); and second, what implications the ascription or non-ascription of free will has for interpreting his moral and political thought. -- most of book on No. 1, to counter Straussians esoteric reading -- The textual arguments offered here are deft and attentive to nuance, and, unlike most treatments of Rousseau by philosophers, they cover not only his three central philosophical texts, but also less studied works such as Reveries of the Solitary Walker. Chapter 3 contains one of the best extended treatments of Emile's "Savoyard Vicar" that I have read. -- Especially intriguing is the suggestion that the religious views expressed by the Vicar are to be read as playing a crucial role in The Social Contract's argument that a legitimate republic requires a civil religion. -- She demonstrates a sure and confident grasp of Rousseau's texts, including unpublished material. Even more impressive, she knows a surprising amount about the views of Rousseau's contemporaries and predecessors on the topic of free will - Buffon, Montaigne, and Condillac, for example - and she very helpfully brings this knowledge to bear on her carefully constructed interpretations of Rousseau. For this reason her book is a must-read for scholars interested in the historical context within which Rousseau's views develop.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  social_theory  human_nature  18thC  Rousseau  free_will  self-love  self-interest  civil_religion  social_contract  Buffon  Condillac  Montaigne  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert Wokler - Todorov's Otherness | JSTOR: New Literary History, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Winter, 1996), pp. 43-55
From dedicated issue organized around two essays by Todorov -- A Symposium on "Living Alone Together" Wokler is responding to the opening essay, which was organized around one work each by Rousseau, Adam Smith and Hegel. Todorov appreciates the Enlightenment engagement with the other, through travel literature and history, as a reflection of universalist values of humanism, contra the stereotypes and caricatures of the Enlightenment_Project. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Rousseau  Smith  Hegel  moral_philosophy  culture  diversity  self-and-other  human_nature  humanism  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Special Issue -Living Alone Together [Introduction and key article by Tzvetan Todorov] | JSTOR: New Literary History, Vol. 27, No. 1, Winter, 1996
Issue Introduction - Living Alone Together (pp. 1-14) Tzvetan Todorov and Marilyn Gaddis Rose. *--*--* Replies to Introduction *--* (1) Community and Individuality (pp. 15-24) Patricia H. Werhane. *--* (2) A Reply to Tzvetan Todorov's "Living Alone Together" (pp. 25-34) Frances Ferguson. *--* (3) "Living Together Alone or Together": Commentary on Tzvetan Todorov's "Living Alone Together" (pp. 35-41) Stephen A. Mitchell. *--* (4) [downloaded] Todorov's Otherness (pp. 43-55) Robert Wokler. *--* (5) Misanthropology (pp. 57-72) Gary Saul Morson. *--* (6) Conflict and Sociability in Hegel, Freud, and Their Followers: Tzvetan Todorov's "Living Alone Together" (pp. 73-82) Daniel Burston. *--* (7) Regarding Others (pp. 83-93) Stewart Justman. *--*--* Response *--* The Gaze and the Fray (pp. 95-106) Tzvetan Todorov and Marilyn Gaddis Rose. *--*--* A. Self and Others in Culture. *--* Keeping the Self Intact during the Culture Wars: A Centennial Essay for Mikhail Bakhtin (pp. 107-126) Caryl Emerson. *--* Cultural Dreaming and Cultural Studies (pp. 127-144) Marianne DeKoven. *--* Orality, Literacy, and Their Discontents (pp. 145-159) Denis Donoghue.
journal  article  jstor  intellectual_history  literary_history  lit_crit  literary_theory  human_nature  social_theory  moral_philosophy  psychology  sociability  self  self-love  self-development  bildung  self-and-other  ancient_philosophy  Plato  Platonism  Socrates  Aristotle  Cicero  community  individualism  authenticity  constructivism  Rousseau  Hegel  Freud  conflict  Bakhtin  conversation  dialogue  literacy  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Allan Megill, review essay - Historicizing Nietzsche? Paradoxes and Lessons of a Hard Case | JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Mar., 1996), pp. 114-152
Reviewed works: *--* (1) Nietzsche Contra Rousseau: A Study of Nietzsche's Moral and Politicial Thought by Keith Ansell-Pearson; *--* (2) The Neitzche Legacy in Germany, 1890-1990 by Steven E. Aschheim; *--* (3) Confrontations: Derrida/Heidegger/Nietzsche by Ernst Behler; *--* (4) Neitzsche on Truth and Philosophy by Steven Taubeneck; *--* (5) Nietzsche Contra Nietzsche: Creativity and the Anti-Romantic by Adrian Del Caro; *--* (6) Neitzsche and the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism by Bruce Detwiler; *--* (7) Nietzsche's New Seas: Explorations in Philosophy, Aesthetics, and Politics by Michael Allen Gillespie; Tracy B. Strong; *--* (8) Nietzsche and the Origin of Virtue by Lester H. Hunt; *--* (9) Zarathustras Geheimnis: Friedrich Nietzsche und seine verschlüsselte Botschaft by Joachim Köhler; *--* (10) Nietzsche as Postmodernist: Essays Pro and Contra; Clayton Koelb; *--* (11) Nietzsche's Case: Philosophy as/and Literature by Bernd Magnus; Stanley Stewart; Jean-Pierre Mileur; *--* (12) Nietzsche's Philosophy of Nature and Cosmology by Alistair Moles; *--* (13) Nietzsche und der Nietzscheanismus by Ernst Nolte; *--* (14) Young Nietzsche: Becoming a Genius by Carl Pletsch; *--* (15) Nietzsche and the Question of Interpretation: Between Hermeneutics and Deconstruction by Alan D. Schrift; *--* (16) Alcyone: Nietzsche on Gifts, Noise, and Women by Gary Shapiro; *-'* (17) Nietzschean Narratives by Gary Shapiro; *--* (18) Thinker on Stage: Nietzsche's Materialism by Peter Sloterdijk; *--* (19) Reading Nietzsche by Robert C. Solomon; Kathleen M. Higgins; *--* (20) Nietzsche's Voice by Henry Staten; *--* (21) Left-Wing Nietzscheanism: The Politics of German Expressionism, 1910-1920 by Seth Taylor; *--* (22) Friedrich Nietzsche and the Politics of the Soul: A Study of Heroic Individualism by Leslie Paul Thiele; *--* (23) Nietzsche and Political Thought by Mark Warren; *--* (24) Within Nietzsche's Labyrinth by Alan White; *--* (25) Nietzsche's Philosophy of Art by Julian Young -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  article  jstor  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  Nietzsche  Rousseau  Heidegger  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  aesthetics  morality-Nietzche  lit_crit  literary_history  individualism  self  self-development  Weimar  hermeneutics  deconstruction  postmodern  philosophy_of_science  metaphysics  metaethics  style-philosophy  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Review by: Shannon Stimson - Representative Democracy: Principles and Genealogy by Nadia Urbinati | JSTOR: Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Jun., 2007), pp. 360-361
Viewing representation and democracy on a continuum rather than antithetical. 18thC theories of representation classed as Rousseau (juridical), Siėyes (institutional) and Condorcet (political). Only the third works after democratization of politics and society -connected with a shift in sovereignty from ontological to unity via political process. She sees Mill as developing this modern representative democracy. Not clear how valid this is as a contemporary vision for democratizing our politics, but the historical analysis looks intriguing. -- didn't download
books  reviews  jstor  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  political_culture  18thC  19thC  21stC  democracy  representative_institutions  Rousseau  French_Revolution  Mill  sovereignty  legitimacy  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Daniel I. O'Neill, review essay - Whither Democracy? | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 38, No. 4 (August 2010), pp. 564-575
Reviewed -- (1) Liberal Beginnings: Making a Republic for the Moderns by A. Kalyvas; I. Katznelson; *--* (2) James Madison and the Spirit of Republican Self-Government by C. Sheehan; *--* (3) French Political Thought from Montesquieu to Tocqueville by A. de Dijn; *--* (4) Soft Despotism, Democracy's Drift: Montesquieu, Rousseau, Tocqueville, and the Modern Prospect by P. Rahe
books  reviews  jstor  bookshelf  kindle-available  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  17thC  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  liberalism  republicanism  US_constitution  France  French_Revolution  Montesquieu  Rousseau  Hobbes  Locke  Founders  Madison  democracy  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  liberalism-republicanism_debates  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Nicholas Paige - Rousseau's Readers Revisited: The Aesthetics of La Nouvelle Héloïse | JSTOR: Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Fall, 2008), pp. 131-154
The reading "revolution" wrought by Rousseau's Julie has been characterized, by Robert Darnton and others, as the triumph of a nearly quixotic investment in fiction: sentimental readers, it would seem, believed in the reality of the characters they read about. Yet the archive of letters to Rousseau reveals readers quite attuned to the novel's exploration of different types, good and bad, of emotional involvement. Julie and the enthusiasm it provoked must be understood as rejecting previously dominant aesthetic theories predicating audience emotion on mimetic fusion between reader and text, in favor of emotions proper to distanced, even unbelieving, spectators.
article  jstor  cultural_history  literary_history  18thC  French_lit  sentimentalism  reading  reader_response  Rousseau  novels  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Eugen Weber, The ups and downs of honor | The American Scholar v. 68 no1 (Winter 1999)
Author: Weber, Eugen. Source: The American Scholar v. 68 no1 (Winter 1999) p. 79-91 -- from Homer to the Wire with lots of Latin, German, French and English etymology and a digression on the democratization of 19thC French duelling
article  cultural_history  social_history  political_history  ethics  honor  etymology  medieval_history  Renaissance  Europe-Early_Modern  Montesquieu  Montaigne  Rousseau  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Elena Russo: Slander and Glory in the Republic of Letters: Diderot and Seneca Confront Rousseau | Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts
Citation: Russo, Elena. “Slander and Glory in the Republic of Letters: Diderot and Seneca Confront Rousseau.” Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1, no. 1 (May 1, 2009): http://rofl.stanford.edu/node/40. -- in " Rethinking the Republic of Letters" issue -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Diderot’s earlier optimism vis-à-vis his status in the Republic of Letters and his role as a public intellectual gave way to a profound identity crisis like the one that gripped his former friend Jean-Jacques Rousseau in his final years, documented in Rousseau juge de Jean-Jacques. By engaging both personally and by proxy in a battle against past and present enemies, Diderot forced himself to confront his own death and legacy, which he no longer imagined to be eulogies and loving praise, as he had in the letter to Falconet, but rather biased judgments of indifferent by-standers and prejudiced readers. In facing his eventual solitude as a writer, however, Diderot found comfort not among his contemporaries, but in the revived memory of the Republic of Letters’ classical past: in his newly discovered affinity for Seneca and in the embrace of his new role as Seneca’s advocate, faithful son, and alter ego.
article  intellectual_history  cultural_history  18thC  France  French_Enlightenment  philosophes  intelligentsia  status  fame  reputation  authenticity  libel  audience  Republic_of_Letters  sociability  alienation  Diderot  Rousseau  Seneca  Stoicism  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
The Nature of Early Eighteenth-Century Religious Radicalism | Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts
Citation: Jacob, Margaret . “The Nature of Early Eighteenth-Century Religious Radicalism.” Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1, no. 1 (May 1, 2009): http://rofl.stanford.edu/node/42. -- in "Rethinking the Republic of Letters" issue -- downloaded pdf to Note In 1981 I had focused on the Dutch-French-English nexus, and saw a select cast of major seventeenth-century thinkers as influencing the arguments put forward by French refugees and English Whigs for religious freedom, republican government, freedom of the press, habeas corpus, and against monarchical absolutism as practiced by the French king and clergy. These arguments appeared in the journals, books, and clandestine manuscripts originating in both London and Amsterdam. The origin of these new polemics owed much to a particular reading of Hobbes, to Locke, to a heretical reading of Newtonian science (Toland’s distinctive contribution), and of course to Bruno, Spinoza, as well as the English republican thinkers of the 1650s. In 2001 all of those influences were collapsed by Jonathan Israel into an ideengeschichte that fixated on the intellectual legacy of Spinoza to the exclusion of any significant English or French component.But if I think that Israel’s simplification of the way intellectual influence and human agency work—an idealist rendering that also effaces the political—will not stand up under scrutiny, so too I think aspects of my own youthful thinking are in need of a reformulation. The power of the Enlightenment—from this early coterie to latter thinkers like Rousseau and Jefferson—lay in understanding the force of organized religion, and then searching for a set of beliefs which deists, and perhaps even atheists of the age, could live with and accept. As I have now come to see, the pantheism I identified in 1981 would lead in many directions, among them the search to understand all human religiosity and to articulate a universal natural religion.
article  intellectual_history  historiography  17thC  18thC  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Radical_Enlightenment  Freemasonry  religious_history  theology  political_philosophy  republicanism  Republic_of_Letters  philosophes  church_history  tolerance  heterodoxy  Spinoza  Hobbes  Locke  Toland  Bayle  Huguenots  Edict_of_Nantes  Louis_XIV  Newtonian  Rousseau  Jefferson  Bolingbroke  Picart  sociology_of_religion  Deism  natural_religion  rational_religion  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Luc Foisneau: Governing a Republic: Rousseau’s General Will and the Problem of Government | Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts
Citation: Foisneau, Luc. “Governing a Republic: Rousseau’s General Will and the Problem of Government.” Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 2, no. 1 (December 15, 2010): http://rofl.stanford.edu/node/70. -- in "Limits of Atlantic Republican Tradition" issue -- downloaded pdf to Note -- In contrast with the widespread notion of the abstract nature of Rousseau’s republic, I would like to stress in the first part of my article that the general will—that is, the sense of the general interest—needs to be forged, shaped, and strengthened by specific institutions that are always linked to a concrete society, to a particular history and to determinate places. This particularization of the general will is both a condition for the very possibility of a republican government and a first response to the accusation of abstraction put forward against Rousseau by his liberal critics.However, that first approach also constitutes a source of theoretical difficulties that I would like to contemplate, in the second part of my article, by analyzing what I call the anarchistic objection to the idea of a republican government. Finally, in response to the argument that Rousseau’s general will would be ungovernable, because he didn’t understand the techniques of government available in his time, I shall try to show that Rousseau actually appropriated concepts that originated in the anti-republican theories of reason of state and used them in his own theory of government.
article  intellectual_history  18thC  French_Enlightenment  political_philosophy  political_culture  institutions  republicanism  Rousseau  general_will  lessons-of-history  raison-d'-état  Machiavelli  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Sara Price - Rousseau’s Rome: Book IV of the Social Contract and the Specter of Montesquieu (2012) :: SSRN
APSA working paper - It is traditionally thought that Rousseau and Montesquieu use the example of the Roman Republic in their works to explore the desirable yet irretrievable aspects of ancient republics, yet the real work that Rome has been doing in Rousseau’s Social Contract has been largely neglected by scholars. Rousseau’s discussion of the Roman Republic constitutes a direct theoretical engagement with Montesquieu’s empiricism and shows this thinker’s political theory to be faulty. Rousseau’s analysis, rather than displaying a romanticism with the ancients, instead shows the manner in which one is to understand and interpret political phenomena and, further, to make predictions about political improvement. I argue that the Roman example serves as a battleground for the competing theories of these two powerhouse political philosophers. Rousseau’s Rome provides a model for what history can teach us and emphasizes the role of political right in practical politics.
article  SSRN  intellectual_history  18thC  French_Enlightenment  political_philosophy  lessons-of-history  Roman_Republic  Roman_Empire  republicanism  Montesquieu  Rousseau  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
J. S. Maloy: The Very Order of Things: Rousseau's Tutorial Republicanism (2005)
JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Apr., 2005), pp. 235-261 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Rousseau's political theory has seemed to many to contemplate the radical transformation of human character through invasive governmental practices. But a classical republican reading of his general concern with moeurs and his developed conception of statecraft shows why he called for regulating or redirecting psychic dispositions, not destroying and then reconstructing them. Intimately related to this theme of moral economy are Rousseau's ideas on liberty and authority, which evince a deep-seated, complex Platonism. Far from displacing the modern categories of natural law, however, Rousseau's classical republicanism was meant to supply critical force for their revision. Thus the more instructive antinomy for students of Rousseau's politics is not Plato and Hobbes but rather Plato and Machiavelli, for the outstanding interpretive dilemma concerns the precise nature of republican authority.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  human_nature  18thC  France  Rousseau  Plato  Hobbes  Machiavelli  republicanism  liberty  authority  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Harold Mah: Phantasies of the Public Sphere: Rethinking the Habermas of Historians (2000)
JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 72, No. 1 (March 2000), New Work on the Old Regime and the French Revolution: A Special Issue in Honor of François Furet (March 2000), pp. 153-182

Excellent discussion not only of historiography of social movements and French Revolution. Tension between public sphere conceived as space of free contestation and requirement to discard social particularity and interests and adopt universal reason and common good to be accepted as legitimate participants. Transformation into a singular public as subject and contests over who can represent this public. Rousseau’s General Will may produce Terror as only physical domination resolves contest. But competition that doesn't strive for legitimacy is the evil of faction. Process of calling into existence a (ohantasm) single public and then the capability to dismiss it (Thermidor, Napoleon's plebecites etc) not only needs to be explained -- key historical dynamic of political modernity.
Important for contests in Britain re Revolution Principles and who was heir of legacy that could speak for The People.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  historiography  Habermas  public_opinion  17thC  18thC  Rousseau  French_Revolution  common_good  faction  Bolingbroke  EF-add  public_sphere 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Avi Lifschitz, Language and Enlightenment: The Berlin Debates of the Eighteenth Century (2012) - Oxford University Press
What is the role of language in human cognition? Could we attain self-consciousness and construct our civilisation without language? Such were the questions at the basis of eighteenth-century debates on the joint evolution of language, mind, and culture. Language and Enlightenment highlights the importance of language in the social theory, epistemology, and aesthetics of the Enlightenment. While focusing on the Berlin Academy under Frederick the Great, Avi Lifschitz situates the Berlin debates within a larger temporal and geographical framework. He argues that awareness of the historicity and linguistic rootedness of all forms of life was a mainstream Enlightenment notion rather than a feature of the so-called 'Counter-Enlightenment'. Enlightenment authors of different persuasions investigated whether speechless human beings could have developed their language and society on their own. Such inquiries usually pondered the difficult shift from natural signs like cries and gestures to the artificial, articulate words of human language. This transition from nature to artifice was mirrored in other domains of inquiry, such as the origins of social relations, inequality, the arts and the sciences. By examining a wide variety of authors - Leibniz, Wolff, Condillac, Rousseau, Michaelis, and Herder, among others - Language and Enlightenment emphasises the open and malleable character of the eighteenth-century Republic of Letters. The language debates demonstrate that German theories of culture and language were not merely a rejection of French ideas. New notions of the genius of language and its role in cognition were constructed through a complex interaction with cross-European currents, especially via the prize contests at the Berlin Academy.
books  18thC  Enlightenment  Republic_of_Letters  Germany  France  Frederick_the_Great  language  cognition  human_nature  Leibniz  Condillac  Rousseau  social_theory  epistemology  Counter-Enlightenment  academies  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Against War and Empire :Geneva, Britain & France in the 18thC, Richard Whatmore (2012): Kindle Store
Richard Whatmore presents an intellectual history of republicans who strove to ensure Geneva’s survival as an independent state. Whatmore shows how the Genevan republicans grappled with the ideas of Rousseau, Voltaire, Bentham, and others in seeking to make modern Europe safe for small states, by vanquishing the threats presented by war and by empire. The Genevan attempt to moralize the commercial world, and align national self-interest with perpetual peace and the abandonment of empire, had implications for the French Revolution, the British Empire, and the identity of modern Europe.

Review

“Whatmore uncovers the considerable European intellectual impact of a small group of eighteenth-century Genevan reformers, who called themselves the Représentants. . . . In telling their story Whatmore reveals how political Adam Smith’s political economy became in the final decades of the eighteenth century and into the nineteenth century.”—Philippe Steiner, Paris-Sorbonne

“The fate of small states in a world of competing commercial hegemons is a contemporary quandary with Enlightenment roots. Richard Whatmore's deeply researched, tightly written study shows that a surprising number of those roots sprang from Geneva. Scholars of political thought, international relations and the rise and fall of empires in the late eighteenth century will all have to take account of this masterful book.”—David Armitage, Harvard

“Whatmore expertly narrates the attempts of Genevan radicals to transform European power politics and, in so doing, offers fascinating  insights into Rousseau’s Genevan and democratic credentials, emphasizing his relative conservatism and heterodoxy when compared to his Genevan friends and followers.”—Helena Rosenblatt, CUNY
books  kindle-available  18thC  Britain  France  Geneva  intellectual_history  political_economy  commerce  IR  political_philosophy  Rousseau  Smith  British_Empire  imperialism  Great_Powers  democracy  French_Revolution  radicals  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Harold Mah: The Epistemology of the Sentence: Language, Civility, and Identity in France and Germany, Diderot to Nietzsche (1994)
JSTOR: Representations, No. 47 (Summer, 1994), pp. 64-84 From special issue on national culture before nationalism

Downloaded pdf to Note

Considerable discussion of French attempts to link epistemology (17thC rationalists and 18thC sensualist) with language structure - especially Condillac and Diderot. Voltaire and Frederick the Great prejudices pro French and anti German and Latin.

Aporia of civility - honnête homme was initially supposed to be transparent re virtue - by mid 18thC and Rousseau the aporia has become a total inversion- sociability as source of vice by encouraging misleading, self promotion etc

Further discusses French attempts to stabilize civility virtue by relegating politesse to the skeevy domain

Follows Herder, Fichte, Hegel who turn German syntax into virtue as closer to sensual experience, which they assert gives Germans access to supersensual and true inner sense of morality that French lack - according to Fichte they're trapped in nihilistic artificiality

Nietzsche shreds the German valorisation of supposed inner depths which aren't connected with transparent form
jstor  article  17thC  18thC  19thC  cultural_history  France  Germany  nationalism  language  epistemology  Diderot  Condillac  Nietzsche  Hegel  Voltaire  Frederick_the_Great  social_theory  politeness  elites  middle_class  salons  Rousseau  social_psychology  virtue_ethics  German_Idealism  society  alienation  moral_philosophy  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Review by: Michel Delon: Enlightenment Essays in Memory of Robert Shackleton by Giles Barber; C. P. Courtney (1991)
JSTOR: Revue d'Histoire littéraire de la France, 91e Année, No. 6 (Nov. - Dec., 1991), pp. 989-991

Another review of hodgepodge of papers by some heavy hitter historians. This review gives good idea of particular items of interest. No thematic unity to the collection except high quality scholarship Shackleton admired and practiced.
books  reviews  find  18thC  intellectual_history  cultural_history  Enlightenment  publishing  intelligentsia  Montesquieu  Voltaire  Rousseau 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
The evolution of language and society | OUPblog June 2013
Avi Lifschitz is Lecturer in Early Modern European History at University College London (UCL); in 2012/13 he is Research Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study (Wissenschaftskolleg) in Berlin. He is the author of Language and Enlightenment: The Berlin Debates of the Eighteenth Century, available in print from Oxford University Press and online from Oxford Scholarship Online, and co-editor of Epicurus in the Enlightenment (2009)

From Riga to Glasgow and from Berlin down to Naples, Enlightenment authors asked themselves how language could have evolved among initially animal-like human beings. Some of them suggested some continuities between bestial and human communication, though most thinkers pointed to a strict barrier separating human language from vocal and gestural exchange among animals. In broad lines, this period witnessed a transition from an earlier theory of language, which saw our words as mirroring self-standing ideas, to the modern notion that signs are precisely what enables us to form our ideas in the first place. Such signs had, however, to be artificially crafted by human beings themselves; after all, natural sounds and gestures are also used by animals.

The open and malleable character of the eighteenth-century Republic of Letters is found in a wide variety of authors: Leibniz, Wolff, Condillac, Rousseau, Michaelis, and Herder, among others. The language debates demonstrate that German theories of culture and language were not merely a rejection of French ideas. New notions of the genius of language and its role in cognition were constructed through a complex interaction with cross-European currents, especially via the prize contests at the Berlin Academy.

Introduction
1. The mutual emergence of language, mind, and society: an Enlightenment debate
2. Symbolic cognition from Leibniz to the 1760s: theology, aesthetics, and history
3. The evolution and genius of language: debates in the Berlin Academy
4. J. D. Michaelis on language and vowel points: from confessional controversy to naturalism
5. A point of convergence and new departures: the 1759 contest on language and opinions
6. Language and cultural identity: the controversy over Premontval's Preservatif
7. Tackling the naturalistic conundrum: instincts and conjectural history to 1771
8. Conclusion and a glimpse into the future
books  18thC  Enlightenment  language  Leibniz  Condillac  Rousseau  Herder  France  Germany  Republic_of_Letters  human_nature  anthropology  academies  ideas-theories  EF-add 
june 2013 by dunnettreader
EE Colloquium 2010: Isabelle C. DeMarte | Open letters - Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau
In order to explore the role which these letters, when read as letters, may have played in advancing that project, we proceed in four stages. The first one situates Voltaire’s, Diderot’s, and Rousseau’s open letters against other epistolary outlets to see how open letters turn the model of the private conversation into a public medium. The second one situates them against the epistolary novel as the prevailing literary form of published letters to reveal greater similarities than might first appear between these two kinds of letter writing. The third one applies literary theory to open letters as a means to understand better why, and how they ought to be read as letters. Finally, the fourth and last stage focuses on the epistolary situation (who writes to whom) in each of theLettres, and examines it as the place where communication and creation allowed Voltaire, Diderot, and Rousseau to both reflect and inflect the Enlightenment’s attempt to put man and his ability to reason at the center of the universe.
EF-add  18thC  Enlightenment  Republic_of_Letters  publishing  Voltaire  Diderot  Rousseau  lit_crit  epistolary 
june 2013 by dunnettreader

related tags

16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  1750s  1760s  1770s  Absolutism  academia  Academia.edu  academies  aesthetics  alienation  altruism  American_colonies  American_Revolution  amour_propre  analytical_philosophy  ancient_Greece  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Rome  Ancien_régime  anthropology  anticlerical  aristocracy-natural  Aristotle  article  atheism  atheism_panic  audience  audio  authenticity  authority  autobiography  bad_economics  Bakhtin  Barbeyrac  Bayle  Berlin_Isaiah  Bible-as-history  Biblical_authority  Biblical_criticism  bibliography  bildung  biography  biography-writing  Blake_William  Bolingbroke  books  bookshelf  Boswell  Bouffon  bourgeoisie  Britain  British_Empire  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  British_foreign_policy  British_history  British_politics  Buffon  Burke  buy  Calvinist  capabilities  capitalism  capitalism-alternatives  capitalism-varieties  Catholics-and-politics  Catholics-England  Catholics-Ireland  Catholic_emancipation  celebrity  censorship  change-social  character  church_history  Church_of_England  Cicero  civic_virtue  civil_liberties  civil_religion  civil_society  cognition  commerce  commerce-doux  common_good  community  comparative_anthropology  comparative_history  comparative_religion  competition  competition-interstate  Condillac  Condorcet  conflict  constructivism  consumerism  conversation  corruption  Counter-Enlightenment  courses  cultural_critique  cultural_history  culture  d'Alembert  death  deconstruction  Deism  Deleuze  deliberation-public  democracy  determinism  Dewey  dialogue  Diderot  diversity  domination  downloaded  dualism  Dutch  Early_Republic  ecclesiology  eclecticism  economic_culture  economic_growth  economic_theory  Edict_of_Nantes  education  education-civic  education-higher  EF-add  elites  elite_culture  emotions  empathy  empiricism  emulation  Encyclopédie  English_lit  Enlightenment  Enlightenment-conservative  Enlightenment_Project  Epicurean  epistemology  epistolary  etexts  ethics  etymology  Europe-Early_Modern  faction  fame  fashion  Fichte  find  finitude  food  Foucault  Founders  France  Frederick_the_Great  free-thinkers  freedom  Freemasonry  free_trade  free_will  French_Enlightenment  French_language  French_lit  French_Revolution  French_Revolution-impact  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Freud  Gaus_Gerald  gender  gender_history  general_will  Geneva  George_III  Germany  German_Idealism  globalization  Glorious_Revolution  Godwin  Google_Books  governance  governing_class  government-forms  Great_Chain_of_Being  Great_Powers  Grotius  Habermas  Hamann  happiness  Hegel  Hegel-philosophy_of_right  Heidegger  Hellenism  Herder  hermeneutics  heterodoxy  hierarchy  historicism  historiography  history_of_science  Hobbes  honor  Huguenots  humanism  human_nature  human_rights  Hume  Hume-causation  Hume-ethics  Hume-politics  humours  Hölderlin  ideas-theories  imperialism  imperialism-critique  import_substitution  India  individualism  individualism-possessive  inequality  inequality-opportunity  influence-literary  Instapaper  institution-building  institutions  integrity  intellectual_history  intelligentsia  international_law  international_political_economy  international_system  interview  IR  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  IR_theory  Jefferson  Johnson  journal  jstor  judgment-aesthetics  judgment-emotions  judgment-political  justice  justification  Kant  Kant-aesthetics  Kant-ethics  kindle-available  language  language-history  language-national  Latin_lit  lawmaker  La_Mettrie  laïcité  leaders  legitimacy  Leibniz  lessons-of-history  libel  liberalism  liberalism-19thC  liberalism-republicanism_debates  libertine  liberty  literacy  literary_history  literary_theory  literature-and-morality  lit_crit  Locke  Locke-2_Treatises  Locke-education  Locke-Essay  Louis_XIV  Lucretius  luxury  Machiavelli  Madison  Malthus  Mandeville  market-size_of  markets  markets-dependence_on_government  markets-structure  markets_in_everything  market_failure  market_fundamentalism  Marx  mass_culture  materialism  media  medicine  medieval_history  Mendelssohn  metaethics  metaphysics  middle_class  Mill  mixed_government  modernity  modernity-emergence  monarchy  monarchy-proprietary  monetary_policy  monotheism  Montaigne  Montesquieu  morality-Christian  morality-conventional  morality-Nietzche  morality-objective  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  Morley  music_history  Napoleon  nation-state  nationalism  national_ID  national_interest  national_tale  naturalism  natural_law  natural_philosophy  natural_religion  natural_rights  neo-Kantian  Newtonian  new_historicism  Nietzsche  noble_savage  novels  obligation  pantheism  Papacy  papal_infallibility  paper  Paris  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  parties  perception  perfectibility  perpetual_peace  personalism  Pettit  philosophes  philosophical_anthropology  philosophy_of_history  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_science  Physiocrats  Picart  Pitt_the_Elder  Pitt_the_Younger  Plato  Plato-Republic  Platonism  pleasure  poetry  politeness  political_arithmetick  political_culture  political_economy  political_history  political_order  political_participation  political_philosophy  political_press  political_science  political_theory  politics-and-history  politics-and-religion  Pope_Alexander  popular_culture  postmodern  practical_reason  primitivism  professionalization  progress  propaganda  property  property_rights  protectionism  psychology  public_opinion  public_sphere  publishing  Pufendorf  querelle_des_rites  Quine  radicals  Radical_Enlightenment  raison-d'-état  rationalist  rationality  rational_religion  Rawls  readership  reader_response  reading  reason  reason-passions  reception  religion-established  religious_belief  religious_history  Renaissance  representative_institutions  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  Republic_of_Letters  reputation  revelation  reviews  Revolution_Principles  rhetoric-political  rights-political  Romanticism  Roman_Empire  Roman_Republic  Rousseau  Rousseau-self  rule_of_law  salons  scandale  science_of_man  Scottish_Enlightenment  self  self-and-other  self-development  self-interest  self-love  Sellars  Seneca  sensibility  sentimentalism  Smith  sociability  socialism  socialism-19thC  socialization  social_contract  social_history  social_movements  social_order  social_psychology  social_sciences  social_theory  society  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_religion  Socrates  solidarity  sovereignty  species  Spinoza  SSRN  state-building  state-of-nature  status  Stoicism  Strauss  style-philosophy  subjectivity  sublime  taste  theater  theology  Toland  tolerance  trade  trade-policy  trade-theory  tyranny  UK_Government  UK_government-colonies  US_constitution  values  vice  virtue  virtue_ethics  Voltaire  voluntarism  wealth  Weimar  welfare_state  Whigs  Whigs-grandees  Whigs-oligarchy  Wolff  Wollstonecraft 

Copy this bookmark:



description:


tags: