dunnettreader + roman_republic   31

Jeffrey Edward Green - Rawls and the Forgotten Figure of the Most Advantaged: In Defense of Reasonable Envy toward the Superrich (2013) | American Political Science Review on JSTOR
This article aims to correct the widespread imbalance in contemporary liberal thought, which makes explicit appeal to the "least advantaged" without parallel attention to the "most advantaged" as a distinct group in need of regulatory attention. Rawls's influential theory of justice is perhaps the paradigmatic instance of this imbalance, but I show how a Rawlsian framework nonetheless provides three justifications for why implementers of liberal justice—above all, legislators—should regulate the economic prospects of a polity's richest citizens: as a heuristic device for ensuring that a system of inequalities not reach a level at which inequalities cease being mutually advantageous, as protection against excessive inequalities threatening civic liberty, and as redress for a liberal society's inability to fully realize fair equality of opportunity with regard to education and politics. Against the objection that such arguments amount to a defense of envy, insofar as they support policies that in certain instances impose economic costs on the most advantaged with negative or neutral economic impact on the rest of society, I attend to Rawls's often overlooked distinction between irrational and reasonable forms of envy, showing that any envy involved in the proposed regulation of the most advantaged falls within this latter category. - downloaded via iphone to dbox
politics-and-money  political_participation  inequality-wealth  regulatory_capture  political_philosophy  political_culture  tax_havens  Early_Republic  inequality  estate_tax  intellectual_history  inheritance  republicanism  Plato-Republic  elites-political_influence  Jefferson  Harrington  crony_capitalism  Europe-Early_Modern  fairness  article  Aristotle  social_capital  social_theory  Rawls  social_democracy  Machiavelli  Plato  inequality-opportunity  jstor  bibliography  ancient_Rome  regulation  justice  liberalism  egalitarian  regulatory_avoidance  interest_groups  legitimacy  deliberative_democracy  political_history  class_conflict  downloaded  education-elites  social_order  elites-self-destructive  Roman_Republic  ancient_Greece  republics-Ancient_v_Modern 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Scott Aikin - Citizen Skeptic: Cicero’s Academic Republicanism (pages 275–285) | Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences July 2015
ABSTRACT: The skeptical challenge to politics is that if knowledge is in short supply and it is a condition for the proper use of political power, then there is very little just politics. Cicero’s Republicanism is posed as a program for political legitimacy wherein both citizens and their states are far from ideal. The result is a form of what is termed negative conservatism, which shows political gridlock in a more positive light. - Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Vanderbilt University. He works primarily in epistemology and ancient philosophy. He is the author of Epistemology and the Regress Problem (Routledge 2011) and Evidentialism and the Will to Believe (Bloomsbury 2014), and the co-author (with Robert B. Talisse) of Why We Argue (And How We Should) (Routledge, 2014), Reasonable Atheism (Prometheus Books, 2011), and Pragmatism: A Guide for the Perplexed (Continuum Books, 2008). - downloaded via iPhone to Dbox
ancient_Greece  information-asymmetric  public_choice  downloaded  intellectual_history  checks-and-balances  institutions  decision_theory  ancient_philosophy  scepticism-Academic  constitutionalism  ancient_Rome  article  republicanism  epistemology-social  political_philosophy  Roman_Republic  Cicero  political_culture 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Plutarch through the ages - conference videos (May 2013) | Warburg Institute, School of Advanced Study, University of London
This conference addressed the uses of Plutarch's historical and philosophical works by late antique, medieval and early modern scholars, writers and artists. Speakers: Ewen Bowie (Oxford), Roberto Guerrini (Siena), Constanze Güthenke (Princeton), Edith Hall (King's College London), Judith Mossmann (Nottingham), Frances Muecke (Sydney), John North (Institute of Classical Studies), Marianne Pade (Danish Institute Rome), Chris Pelling (Oxford), Alberto Rigolio (Oxford), Fred Schurink (Northumbria), Frances Titchener (Utah State), Rosie Wyles (King's College London), Sophia Xenophontos (Cyprus) and Alexei Zadorojnyi (Liverpool) **--** Thursday 23 May 2013 - Plutarch's revival in late Byzantium: the case of Theodore Metochites - From Francesco Barbaro to Angelo Poliziano: Plutarch's Roman Questions in the fifteenth century - John Whethamstede and Plutarch - Additional Lives: Hannibal, Scipio and Epaminondas - Plutarch, the Institutio Traiani, and the Social Dynamics of Philosophy in Renaissance England *^--** Friday 24 May 2013 - Plutarch in Scotland - Plutarco, Poussin e l’arte barocca - After Exemplarity: a Map of Plutarchan Scholarship - Plutarch à la Russe: Ancient Heroism and Russian Ideology in Tolstoy’s War and Peace - Plutarch’s Gracchi on the French, English and Irish stages, 1792-1852: From Revolution to Corn Laws and Famine - Welcomed with open arms: Plutarch and the modern Prometheus - Concluding Remarks
Plutarch  class_conflict  Europe-19thC  reception  historiography-19thC  Roman_Empire  video  ancient_Rome  biography  lecture  historiography  Roman_Republic  emulation  historiography-18thC  historiography-antiquity  historiography-17thC  political_history  historiography-Renaissance  Renaissance  translation  19thC  ancient_Greece  intellectual_history  usable_past  humanism  Greek_lit  history_as_examples  conference  Study_and_Uses  medieval_lit  medieval_philosophy  Byzantium 
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Philippe de Doze - Horace et la question idéologique à Rome : considérations sur un itinéraire politique - Revue Historique (2012) - Cairn.info
Horace combattit dans les rangs des républicains avant de devenir, en apparence au moins, l’un des plus fervents partisans d’Auguste et du régime impérial. Cette volte-face idéologique ne manque pas de surprendre. Sans doute parce que nous accordons aux idéologies une place qui n’était pas la leur dans le monde romain. En réalité, jamais Horace n’eut le sentiment de se renier. Il a seulement changé de protecteurs après la défaite de ses amis républicains, fait un pari sur l’avenir en s’attachant à un nouveau réseau, celui des vainqueurs. Et loin d’avoir été manipulé par le nouveau régime, loin d’être devenu son porte-parole, il a, par ses vers, tenté de l’influencer, adoptant par là même la posture de l’intellectuel. -- recently published his thesis dealing with politics of Augustan Age literature - paywall
article  ancient_Rome  poetry  Roman_Republic  Horace  Latin_lit  patronage  French_language  paywall  Augustus  literary_history  politics-and-literature 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Nadia Urbinati - Sismonde de Sismondi and Republicanism after the French Revolution | JSTOR Journal of the History of Ideas (Jan 2012)
Republicanism after the French Revolution: The Case of Sismonde de Sismondi -- in Symposium: On Quentin Skinner, from Method to Politics (conference held for 40 years after "Meaning") -- Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 73, No. 1 (January 2012), pp. 95-109 -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_history  18thC  19thC  French_Revolution  constitutions  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  English_constitution  classicism  Roman_Republic  democracy  ancient_Greece  Sismondi  contextualism  Cambridge_School  Skinner  Burke  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
John Sellars - Stoic Cosmopolitanism and Zeno's Republic | Academia.edu
History of Political Thought 28/1 (2007), 1-29 -- Modern accounts of Stoic politics have attributed to Zeno the ideal of an isolated community of sages and to later Stoics such as Seneca a cosmopolitan utopia transcending all traditional States. By returning to the Cynic background to both Zeno's Republic and the Cosmopolitan tradition, this paper argues that the distance between the two is not as great as is often supposed. This account, it is argued, is more plausible than trying to offer a developmental explanation of the supposed transformation in Stoic political thought from isolated community to cosmopolitan utopia. -- Keywords: Stoicism, Cosmopolitanism, Cicero, Cynicism (Ancient Greek Philosophy), and Zenon of Citium -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  Academia.edu  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  cosmology  Stoicism  cynicism  Seneca  Zenon_of_Citium  Diogenes_the_Cynic  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Hellenism  cosmopolitanism  Cicero  imperialism  Roman_Empire  Roman_Republic  Plato-Republic  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Livius - Articles on ancient history
Common categories
Roman Empire (1052)
Byzantium (345)
Greece (248)
Museums (196)
Persia (186)
Hellenistic (180)
Roman Republic (137)
Germania Inferior (136)
Greater Iran (84)
Anatolia (80)
ancient_religions  Latin_lit  Mediterranean  ancient_Near_East  ancient_history  art_history  Roman_Empire  ancient_India  Persia  ancient_Israel  ancient_Egypt  Byzantine  Roman_Republic  website  ancient_Rome  archaeology  Greek_lit  ancient_Greece 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Brooke Holmes; W. H. Shearin, eds. - Dynamic Reading: Studies in the Reception of Epicureanism - Oxford University Press
(..) examines the reception history of Epicurean philosophy through a series of eleven case studies, (..). Rather than attempting to separate an original Epicureanism from its later readings and misreadings, this collection studies the philosophy together with its subsequent reception, focusing in particular on the ways in which it has provided terms and conceptual tools for defining how we read and respond to texts, artwork, and the world more generally. *--* Introduction, Brooke Holmes and W. H. Shearin -- 1. Haunting Nepos: Atticus and the Performance of Roman Epicurean Death, W. H. Shearin -- 2. Epicurus's Mistresses: Pleasure, Authority, and Gender in the Reception of the Kuriai Doxai in the Second Sophistic, Richard Fletcher -- 3. Reading for Pleasure: Disaster and Digression in the First Renaissance Commentary on Lucretius, Gerard Passannante -- 4. Discourse ex nihilo: Epicurus and Lucretius in 16thC England, Adam Rzepka -- 5. Engendering Modernity: Epicurean Women from Lucretius to Rousseau, Natania Meeker -- 6. Oscillate and Reflect: La Mettrie, Materialist Physiology, and the Revival of the Epicurean Canonic, James Steintrager -- 7. Sensual Idealism: The Spirit of Epicurus and the Politics of Finitude in Kant and Hölderlin, Anthony Adler -- 8. The Sublime, Today?, Glenn Most -- 9. From Heresy to Nature: Leo Strauss's History of Modern Epicureanism, Benjamin Aldes Wurgaft -- 10. Epicurean Presences in Foucault's The Hermeneutics of the Subject, Alain Gigandet -- 11. Deleuze, Lucretius, and the Simulacrum of Naturalism, Brooke Holmes
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  Latin_lit  literary_history  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Roman_Republic  Roman_Empire  Epicurean  Lucretius  influence-literary  reception  Renaissance  reader_response  readership  reading  16thC  English_lit  materialism  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  La_Mettrie  gender  gender_history  German_Idealism  Kant-aesthetics  Kant  Hölderlin  poetry  sublime  naturalism  Strauss  Foucault  Rousseau  Deleuze  lit_crit  new_historicism  subjectivity  finitude  death  literature-and-morality  literary_theory  postmodern  modernity  modernity-emergence  pleasure 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Luca Grillo - Cicero's "De Provinciis Consularibus Oratio" | Oxford University Press
Perhaps no other single Roman speech exemplifies the connection between oratory, politics and imperialism better than Cicero's De Provinciis Consularibus, pronounced to the senate in 56 BC. Cicero puts his talents at the service of the powerful "triumviri" (Caesar, Crassus and Pompey), whose aims he advances by appealing to the senators' imperialistic and chauvinistic ideology. This oration, then, yields precious insights into several areas of late republican life: international relations between Rome and the provinces (Gaul, Macedonia and Judaea); the senators' view on governors, publicani (tax-farmers) and foreigners; the dirty mechanics of high politics in the 50s, driven by lust for domination and money; and Cicero's own role in that political choreography. This speech also exemplifies the exceptional range of Cicero's oratory: the invective against Piso and Gabinius calls for biting irony, the praise of Caesar displays high rhetoric, the rejection of other senators' recommendations is a tour de force of logical and sophisticated argument, and Cicero's justification for his own conduct is embedded in the self-fashioning narrative which is typical of his post reditum speeches. This new commentary includes an updated introduction, which provides the readers with a historical, rhetorical and stylistic background to appreciate the complexities of Cicero's oration, as well as indexes and maps. -- Latin text
books  kindle-available  Cicero  rhetoric  rhetoric-political  Roman_Republic  irony  corruption  Caesar  imperialism  Latin_lit  ancient_history  ancient_Rome 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Xavier Marquez -Cicero and the Stability of States by (2010) :: SSRN
Victoria University of Wellington -- APSA 2009 Toronto Meeting Paper -- History of Political Thought, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 397-423, 2011 -- I argue for the originality and interest of Cicero’s views on the stability of political communities. After a survey of ancient ideas on the mixed constitution (the framework for thinking about the stability of political communities in the ancient world), I show how Cicero adapted these ideas to analyze the Roman situation of his time. Cicero’s version of the theory of the mixed constitution is notable for two innovations: an argument that stability is possible even under conditions of high inequality, and an account of constitutional mixture that emphasizes the role of the “monarchic” element in promoting concord and stability and meeting unexpected challenges. I show, however, that this account unfortunately made it clear that the Roman crisis of Cicero’s time was more or less insoluble in ways that would preserve the republic. -- PDF File: 42 pgs -- Keywords: Cicero, History of Political Thought, States, Stability, Plato, Aristotle -- downloaded to Dropbox
article  SSRN  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  ancient_history  Cicero  Plato  Aristotle  stability  Roman_Republic  government-forms  adaptability  mixed_government  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  republicanism  inequality  class_conflict  limited_monarchy  monarchical_republic  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Matthew Bowser - The Golden Age of Rome: Augustus’ program to better the Roman Empire (2013 undergrad thesis) | History of the Ancient World - October 2014
Undergraduate Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, 2013 -- posted to History of the Ancient World website - Argument continues among historians to this day whether Augustus should be considered the benefactor that Vergil portrays, who restored virtue and order, or as the tyrant Tacitus describes. Using evidence from a variety of contemporary sources, I intend to show that Augustus did in fact work to bring about the Age of Gold that Vergil promises. Whether through warfare, legislation, political maneuvering, or propaganda, I believe that his actions from the start reflect a clear program to make the Roman Empire the most powerful and most secure state that it could be, and that he was not just working for personal ambition. I have narrowed down the concept of the Golden Age, as portrayed by the poets, to three primary qualities: peace and security, the flourishing of the old Republican virtues, and prosperity under a glorious, divine leader. I will address each of these aspects in turn, consulting evidence from the period to show how Augustus’ regime worked to satisfy them. This evidence will include contemporary literature, historical facts and records, art, architecture, religion, and symbolism. I will also address the major criticisms of each facet by eyewitnesses such as Ovid and Propertius, by Roman historians such as Tacitus and Suetonius, and by various modern scholars of Roman history. Studying the success of Augustus’ methods can reap numerous benefits, including a deeper understanding of later dictators and their programs. -- downloaded pdf to Note
thesis  ancient_history  empires  Roman_Republic  Roman_Empire  Augustan_Rome  political_history  political_culture  civic_virtue  civil_religion  literary_history  Latin_lit  Virgil  Tacitus  historians-and-politics  state-building  Ovid  Suetonius  historiography  historiography-antiquity  downloaded  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Joseph Dragovich - A Comparison Of Republican Roman and Han Chinese Barbarian Relations (2009 undergrad thesis) | History of the Ancient World - October 2014
Undergraduate Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, 2009 -- posted on History of the Ancient World website -- Abstract: Throughout the course of human history, the interaction and conflict between civilization and barbarism, whether real or perceived, has existed in historical memory. The conflict, which spans continents and centuries, can be found in the historical writings of many sedentary civilizations, who felt a need to differentiate between “Us” and “Them.” In fact, many early civilizations defined themselves in the presence of groups which they considered barbarous.The project looks at two civilizations which had such interactions. Late Republican Rome and Han China are well known for their conflicts with peripheral groups. This thesis compares how these two empires conquered and assimilated these barbarian groups, namely the Roman conquest of Gaul and the Chinese conquest of the Xiongnu, a nomadic people that inhabited modern day Mongolia. Despite these two empires separation by time and geography, their methods of conquest were very similar. Where they differed was in their assimilation of conquered peoples, a difference which stems from the way the two civilizations defined themselves.By comparing these events in history, we can gain an insight into the topic which can not be achieved by studying each civilization individually. The interface of disparate cultures is at the heart of many modern issues, from immigration to the war on terror. By studying these past events, it can be seen that this aspect of the human experience not only transcends East and West but also the centuries that separate us from the ancient world. -- downloaded pdf to Note
thesis  ancient_history  empires  Roman_Republic  Han_China  Chinese_history  barbarians  center-periphery  conquest  national_ID  military_history  militarization-society  downloaded  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) - Home
Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) (ISSN 1055-7660) publishes timely open-access, peer-reviewed reviews of current scholarly work in the field of classical studies (including archaeology). This site is the authoritative archive of BMCR's publication, from 1990 to the present. Reviews from August 2008 on are also posted on our blog.
website  books  reviews  intellectual_history  literary_history  ancient_history  ancient_philosophy  social_history  cultural_history  economic_history  archaeology  art_history  religious_history  religious_culture  historiography  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Greek_lit  Latin_lit  poetry  theater  Augustan_Rome  pre-Socratics  Plato  Socrates  Aristotle  Hellenism  Cicero  Stoicism  Epicurean  Virgil  Horace  Ovid  Roman_Empire  Roman_Republic  Roman_law 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Catherine Connors, review - Elaine Fantham, Lucan, De Bello Civili Book II | Bryn Mawr Classical Review 04.03.04 (1992)
Elaine Fantham, Lucan, De Bello Civili Book II. Cambridge: Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics, 1992. Pp. x + 244. $59.95 (hb). $22.95 (pb). ISBN 0-521-41010-X (hb). ISBN 0-521-42241-8 (pb). Reviewed by Catherine Connors, University of Washington.
books  reviews  ancient_Rome  Latin_lit  Roman_Republic  poetry  epic 
april 2014 by dunnettreader
NADIA URBINATI - Competing for Liberty: The Republican Critique of Democracy | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 106, No. 3 (August 2012), pp. 607-621
Freedom as non-domination has acquired a leading status in political science. As a consequence of its success, neo-roman republicanism also has achieved great prominence as the political tradition that delivered it. Yet despite the fact that liberty in the Roman mode was forged not only in direct confrontation with monarchy but against democracy as well, the relationship of republicanism to democracy is the great absentee in the contemporary debate on non-domination. This article brings that relationship back into view in both historical and conceptual terms. It illustrates the misrepresentations of democracy in the Roman tradition and shows how these undergirded the theory of liberty as non-domination as a counter to politial equality as a claim to taking part in imperium. In so doing it brings to the fore the "liberty side" of democratic citizenship as the equal rights of all citizens to exercise their political rights, in direct or indirect form. -- see bibliography on jstor information page -- paywall Cambridge
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_history  antiquity  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Roman_Republic  republicanism  democracy  citizens  domination  political_participation  concepts-change  neo-republicanism  Europe-Early_Modern  17thC  18thC  Harrington  Sidney  commonwealth  common_good  representative_institutions  liberty-positive  liberty  bibliography  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Ryan Balot - Polybius' Advice to the Imperial Republic | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 38, No. 4 (August 2010), pp. 483-509
Polybius' Histories, written in the mid—second century BC, offers an authoritative account of Rome's rise to uncontested imperial supremacy. The work has been highly influential among political thinkers because of its theory of the "mixed constitution." This essay proposes to return Polybius' mixed constitution to its proper location within the narrative of the Histories. This interpretative approach enables us to appreciate Polybius' frequently neglected emphasis on the connections between republican politics and Roman imperial power. These connections shed light on recent developments in republican political theory. They also lead to an investigation of the didactic purposes of the author, who intended to educate the Roman aristocracy in the virtues necessary for exercising hegemonic power successfully in the ancient Mediterranean world. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  ancient_history  ancient_Rome  ancient_Greece  Roman_Republic  imperialism  Polybius  mixed_government  military_history  Mediterranean  hegemony  republicanism  IR-domestic_politics  IR_theory  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
James Hankins - Exclusivist Republicanism and the Non-Monarchical Republic | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 38, No. 4 (August 2010), pp. 452-482
The idea that a republic is the only legitimate form of government and that non-elective monarchy and hereditary political privileges are by definition illegitimate is an artifact of late eighteenth century republicanism, though it has roots in the "godly republics" of the seventeenth century. It presupposes understanding a republic (respublica) to be a non-monarchical form of government. The latter definition is a discursive practice that goes back only to the fifteenth century and is not found in Roman or medieval sources. This article explains how the definition emerged in Renaissance Italy. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_history  political_culture  antiquity  Roman_Empire  Roman_Republic  concepts-change  Renaissance  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  English_Civil_War  French_Revolution  American_Revolution  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  city_states  monarchy  limited_monarchy  Absolutism  Old_Testament  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
John M. Warner and John T. Scott - Sin City: Augustine and Machiavelli's Reordering of Rome | JSTOR: The Journal of Politics, Vol. 73, No. 3 (JULY 2011), pp. 857-871
We examine Machiavelli's critical appropriation of Augustine's analysis of Rome's decline and fall in order to understand his own interpretation of Rome and the lessons it offers for a successful republic. If Machiavelli's departure from Augustine is obvious, as seen for example in his exculpation of Romulus for the fratricide Augustine condemns, equally illuminating is what Machiavelli borrows from him. For Augustine, Romulus' fratricide discloses the limits of pagan virtue and politics and reveals that the civic republican view of an early virtuous republic is nostalgic if not impossible. Machiavelli agrees with Augustine about the character of Rome, yet embraces the ambitious and acquisitive politics Augustine rebuffs. Machiavelli not only excuses Romulus' fratricide in "ordering" Rome, but makes it the archetypal act that must be repeated through "reordering" to sustain the state against the perennial problem of corruption. We thereby address two of the primary issues in Machiavelli scholarship—the character of his republicanism and the nature and extent of his innovation with regard to his ancient sources—and suggest that the "civic republican" or "neo-Roman" interpretation of Machiavelli is incorrect in its conclusions concerning his republicanism as well as his relationship to his ancient sources. -- paywall Cambridge journals -- see bibliography on jstor information page
article  jstor  paywall  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  Renaissance  Machiavelli  Roman_Republic  Roman_Empire  Livy  Augustine  pagans  civic_virtue  neo-Roman  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  Strauss  Skinner  Pocock  Cambridge_School  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
William W. Batstone: The Antithesis of Virtue: Sallust's "Synkrisis" and the Crisis of the Late Republic |JSTOR: Classical Antiquity, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Apr., 1988), pp. 1-29
How to interpret the contrasting praise of virtues of Caesar and Cato rhetorically (Sallust objective of effect on reader) and "philosophically" (Sallust's assessment of Republic's historical situation, weaknesses, fault lines as reflected in his treatment of the two contrasting ideologies, goals, virtues etc of Caesar and Cato) -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  ancient_history  ancient_Rome  historiography-antiquity  Roman_Republic  Latin_lit  rhetoric  downloaded  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Ulrike Malmendier: Law and Finance "at the Origin" (2009)
JSTOR: Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 47, No. 4 (DECEMBER 2009), pp. 1076-1108 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- looks like good collection and lit survey re law, finance, institutions and development -- What are the key determinants of financial development and growth? A large literature debates the relative importance of countries' legal and political environment. In this paper, I present evidence from ancient Rome, where an early form of shareholder company, the societas publicanorum, developed. I show that the societas publicanorum flourished in a legally underdeveloped but politically supportive environment (Roman Republic) and disappeared when Roman law reached its height of legal sophistication but the political environment grew less supportive (Roman Empire). In the Roman case, legal development appears to have mattered little as long as the law as practiced was flexible and adapted to economic needs. The "law as practiced," in turn, reflected prevalent political interests. After discussing parallels in more recent history, I provide a brief overview of the literature on law and finance and on politics and finance. The historical evidence suggests that legal systems may be less of a technological constraint for growth than previously thought—at least "at the origin."
article  jstor  legal_history  economic_history  development  financial_system  legal_system  institutional_economics  economic_sociology  Roman_law  Roman_Republic  Roman_Empire  lit_survey  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Paul Schuurman : Determinism and Causal Feedback Loops in Montesquieu's Explanations for the MilitaryRise and Fall of Rome (2013) | T & F Online
British Journal for the History of Philosophy, Volume 21, Issue 3, 2013, pages 507- 528, Available online: 23 May 2013, DOI: 10.1080/09608788.2013.771612 -- Montesquieu's Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (1733/1734) is a methodological exercise in causal explanation on the meso-level applied to the subject of the military rise and fall of Rome. Rome is described as a system with contingent initial conditions that have a strong path-determining effect. Contingent and plastic initial configurations become highly determining in their subsequent operation, thanks to self-reinforcing feedback loops. Montesquieu's method seems influenced by the ruthless commitment to efficient causality and the reductionism of seventeenth-century mechanicist philosophy; but in contrast to these predecessors, he is more interested in dynamic processes than in unchangeable substances, and his use of efficient causality in the context of a system approach implies a form of holism that is lacking in his predecessors. The formal and conceptual analysis in this article is in many ways complementary with Paul Rahe's recent predominantly political analysis of the Considérations. At the same time, this article points to a problem in the works on the Enlightenment by Jonathan Israel: his account stresses a one-dimensional continuum consisting of Radical, Moderate and Counter-Enlightenment. This invites Israel to place the combined religious, political and philosophical views of each thinker on one of these three points. His scheme runs into trouble when a thinker with moderate religious and political views produces radical philosophical concepts. Montesquieu's Considérations is a case in point.
article  paywall  intellectual_history  18thC  Montesquieu  ancient_Rome  Roman_Republic  Roman_Empire  military_history  lessons-of-history  determinism  causation  social_theory  mechanism  path-dependency  historiography  Enlightenment  Radical_Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  find  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Sara Price - Rousseau’s Rome: Book IV of the Social Contract and the Specter of Montesquieu (2012) :: SSRN
APSA working paper - It is traditionally thought that Rousseau and Montesquieu use the example of the Roman Republic in their works to explore the desirable yet irretrievable aspects of ancient republics, yet the real work that Rome has been doing in Rousseau’s Social Contract has been largely neglected by scholars. Rousseau’s discussion of the Roman Republic constitutes a direct theoretical engagement with Montesquieu’s empiricism and shows this thinker’s political theory to be faulty. Rousseau’s analysis, rather than displaying a romanticism with the ancients, instead shows the manner in which one is to understand and interpret political phenomena and, further, to make predictions about political improvement. I argue that the Roman example serves as a battleground for the competing theories of these two powerhouse political philosophers. Rousseau’s Rome provides a model for what history can teach us and emphasizes the role of political right in practical politics.
article  SSRN  intellectual_history  18thC  French_Enlightenment  political_philosophy  lessons-of-history  Roman_Republic  Roman_Empire  republicanism  Montesquieu  Rousseau  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Johnson Wright: Montesquieuean Moments: The Spirit of the Laws and Republicanism | Proceedings of the Western Society for French History
Downloaded pdf to Note. Volume 35, 2007 -- Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.0642292.0035.010 -- I pursue a different question in this essay, which has less to do with the prescriptive profile of The Spirit of the Laws than with its sources and its influence, irrespective of its author's intentions. Where should we situate Montesquieu within a wider account of republicanism in early modern Europe? There appears to be only one recent attempt to answer this question. In a lecture on "Montesquieu and the New Republicanism" delivered in 1987, the late Judith Shklar began with a characteristically crisp assertion: "Montesquieu did for the latter half of the eighteenth century what Machiavelli had done for his century: he set the terms in which republicanism was to be discussed."[4] In contrast with Machiavelli, Shklar argued, Montesquieu confronted absolute monarchy at its strongest in the regime of Versailles. In this context, Montesquieu's crucial move was to expose what Shklar called "the Augustan charade" – the Bourbon monarchy's systematic effort to cloak itself in the ideological mantle of the Roman Republic. This ideological unmasking came at a cost, however. For the result, in effect, was to declare the historical obsolescence of the egalitarian, virtuous republics of classical antiquity, which had no place among the far larger, more commercial monarchies that dominated modern Europe. If this was a price that Montesquieu himself was willing to pay, Shklar explained, many of his most faithful readers were not. Despite its author's reservations about republics, The Spirit of the Laws turned out to inspire two novel and very different kinds of republicanism in the second half of the century.
17thC  18thC  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  Europe-Early_Modern  France  Britain  Roman_Republic  Sparta  republicanism  Absolutism  monarchy  Montesquieu  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader

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