dunnettreader + native_americans   15

John Quiggin - John Locke Against Freedom | Jacobin - June 2015
For classical liberals (often called libertarians in the US context), the founding documents of liberalism are John Locke’s Second Treatise on Government and… (.. conclusion) Received ideas change only slowly, and the standard view of Locke as a defender of liberty is likely to persist for years to come. Still, the reassessment is underway, and the outcome is inevitable. Locke was a theoretical advocate of, and a personal participant in, expropriation and enslavement. His classical liberalism offers no guarantee of freedom to anyone except owners of capitalist private property.
Instapaper  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  US_history  political_philosophy  17thC  18thC  Locke-2_Treatises  Locke-religion  tolerance  property  property_rights  Native_Americans  slavery  American_colonies  Founders  liberalism  liberalism-republicanism_debates  liberty  liberty-negative  political_culture  Board_of_Trade  colonialism  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Justin E.H. Smith - Nature, Human Nature, and Human Difference: Race in Early Modern Philosophy (2015) | Princeton University Press
People have always been xenophobic, but an explicit philosophical and scientific view of human racial difference only began to emerge during the modern period. Why and how did this happen? Surveying a range of philosophical and natural-scientific texts, dating from the Spanish Renaissance to the German Enlightenment, (Smith) charts the evolution of the modern concept of race and shows that natural philosophy, particularly efforts to taxonomize and to order nature, played a crucial role. Smith demonstrates how the denial of moral equality between Europeans and non-Europeans resulted from converging philosophical and scientific developments, including a declining belief in human nature’s universality and the rise of biological classification. The racial typing of human beings grew from the need to understand humanity within an all-encompassing system of nature, alongside plants, minerals, primates, and other animals. While racial difference as seen through science did not arise in order to justify the enslavement of people, it became a rationalization and buttress for the practices of trans-Atlantic slavery. From the work of François Bernier to Leibniz, Kant, and others, Smith delves into philosophy’s part in the legacy and damages of modern racism. -- Smith is university professor of the history and philosophy of science at the Université Paris Diderot—Paris VII. ...author of Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life (PUP), coeditor and cotranslator of The Leibniz-Stahl Controversy -- downloaded introduction to Note -- only hdbk, will be in ebook
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  cultural_history  racism  racialism  16thC  17thC  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  exploration  Spanish_Empire  Spain  Renaissance  natural_philosophy  biology  taxonomies  Latin_America  West_Indies  North_America  Native_Americans  indigenous_peoples  slavery  West_Africa  Africa  African_trade  life_sciences  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  French_Enlightenment  Leibniz  Kant  anatomy  Adam  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  science-and-religion  science-public  science_of_man 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
The Legacy of the U.S. Civil War: 150 Years Later - roundtable with historians | Cambridge University Press Blog - April 2015
Participants: Kathleen M. Hilliard  is the author of Masters, Slaves, and Exchange .  She is Assistant Professor in the Department of History at Iowa State… Quite interesting, both for their insights and for how the historiography of the US in the 19thC has changed -- not simply looking at social groups (both as actors and victims) who had been ignored, but that historiographical shifts in specialties (e.g. military history, or the connections between legal and political history) have changed or broadened the focus when it comes to the Civil War. Lots of links to CUP books as well as (unlinked) other books and papers. S
US_history  19thC  US_Civil_War  historiography-postWWII  historiography  military_history  social_history  cultural_history  digital_humanities  global_history  global_system  diplomatic_history  legal_history  constitutional_law  US_constitution  Congress  Lincoln  Confederacy  slavery  abolition  African-Americans  Native_Americans  Manifest_Destiny  frontier  industrialization  books  kindle-available  US_society  US_politics  US_government  US_legal_system  bibliography  Instapaper  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Avidly / Dana Luciano - The Inhuman Anthropocene | LA Review of Books Blog - March 2015
Recently, a study appeared in the journal Nature proposing a previously unsuggested start date for the Anthropocene: 1610 CE. -- It was chosen because it was the lowest point in a decades-long decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide, measurable by traces found in Artic ice cores. The change in the atmosphere, Lewis and Maslin deduced, was caused by the death of over 50 million indigenous residents of the Americas in the first century after European contact, the result of “exposure to diseases carried by Europeans, plus war, enslavement and famine”. The destruction of the indigenous population (leaving only an estimated 6 million survivors on both northern and southern American continents by the mid-17thC) meant a significant decline in farming, fire-burning and other human activities affecting atmospheric carbon levels. Lewis and Maslin point to other geologically significant aspects of Euro-American contact as well, including the transfer of plant and animal species between Europe and the Americas, leading to a significant loss of biodiversity and acceleration of species extinction rates. From this view, the Anthropocene develops alongside the global pathways of modernity. Lewis and Maslin term this proposal the “Orbis hypothesis,” from the Latin for “globe.” -- copied to Pocket -- chart of the classification of Earth history by the International association of stratographists downloaded to complexity and emergence etc Gintis folder
Anthropocene  geology  climate  biology  botany  natural_history  colonialism  Native_Americans  genocide  extinction  Pocket 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Liberty Matters Forum: John Locke on Property (January, 2013) - Online Library of Liberty
This online discussion is part of the series “Liberty Matters: A Forum for the Discussion of Matters pertaining to Liberty.” Eric Mack discusses John Locke’s theory of property to which Jan Narveson, Peter Vallentyne, and Michael Zuckert respond in a series of essays and comments. -- downloaded ebook to Note
etexts  intellectual_history  17thC  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  political_economy  Locke  Locke-2_Treatises  property  property_rights  social_contract  natural_law  natural_rights  state-of-nature  labor  landowners  landed_interest  lower_orders  reformation_of_manners  mass_culture  political_participation  popular_politics  popular_culture  public_disorder  public_goods  Native_Americans  colonialism  development  common_good  commons  liberalism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert M. Calhoon, review - Craig Yirush. Settlers, Liberty, and Empire: The Roots of Early American Political Theory, 1675-1775 | H-Net Reviews - (May, 2012
Complex enthusiastic review - Calhoon 2009 book on "moderate" mid century - This attractively written, venturesome book is going to start several academic conversations because Yirush makes several intelligent, counterintuitive choices. At 277 pages, this is not a BIG book, not big like J. G. A. Pocock’s The Machiavellian Moment but big like, say, volume 2 of Barbarism and Religion, Pocock’s revisionist study of 18thC political culture in Scotland. Settlers, Liberty, and Empire could easily have been a hundred pages longer, much to the book’s benefit. When Yirush recommends to his readers Lee Ward, The Politics of Liberty in England and Revolutionary America [bookshelf], he already knows that a longer book on the roots of early American political thought would complement and overlap Ward’s magisterial study. The stark conciseness and precision of his book sends a signal more pointed than a conventional preface or introduction. Indeed, the first five pages of his introduction (on Massachusetts colonial agent Jasper Maudit) is an artful prologue in disguise. Teachers should schedule one class session for those five pages alone. Another hundred pages would have allowed Yirush to deal not just with identity in settler political thought, which he does with brio, but also with character--that older neo-Whig historical preoccupation that came alive in the 1950s in the scholarship of Edmund S. Morgan, Bernard Bailyn, Jack P. Greene, and Douglass Adair that Yirush knows well and has employed with implicit effect. In eighteenth-century usage, character meant both personal integrity and also reputation and credible public self-presentation. Choosing his battles thoughtfully, Yirush chose to subordinate character to identity. Reversing those priorities remains a road less travelled
books  reviews  kindle  bookshelf  historiography  revisionism  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  18thC  1720s  1730s  1740s  British_history  British_politics  British_Empire  American_colonies  American_Revolution  Atlantic  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  English_constitution  political_press  Board_of_Trade  citizenship  liberty  Native_Americans  expansionism  conquest  Coke  Blackstone  land-grabs  British_foreign_policy  Locke-2_Treatises  property  property_rights  representative_institutions  national_ID  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Audrey Horning, Ireland in the Virginian Sea: British colonialism in the Atlantic (2013) | UNC Press -
In the late 16thC, the English started expanding westward, establishing control over parts of neighboring Ireland as well as exploring and later colonizing distant North America. Audrey Horning deftly examines the relationship between British colonization efforts in both locales, depicting their close interconnection as fields for colonial experimentation. Focusing on the Ulster Plantation in the north of Ireland and the Jamestown settlement in the Chesapeake, she challenges the notion that Ireland merely served as a testing ground for British expansion into North America. Horning instead analyzes the people, financial networks, and information that circulated through and connected English plantations on either side of the Atlantic. In addition, Horning explores English colonialism from the perspective of the Gaelic Irish and Algonquian societies and traces the political and material impact of contact. The focus on the material culture of both locales yields a textured specificity to the complex relationships between natives and newcomers while exposing the lack of a determining vision or organization in early English colonial projects. -- She is professor of archaeology and director of research for Past Cultural Change at Queen's University Belfast. This is her fifth book.
books  16thC  17thC  British_history  British_politics  British_Empire  American_colonies  Ireland  colonialism  networks-business  networks-information  plantations  Irish-Gaelic  Native_Americans 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Common-place: Kathleen DuVal - A Revolutionary Future
Presentation from conference - Historians' second goal in changing the terms of debate is to write new synthetic narratives, to tell the whole story differently. -- I would start with the question of how North Americans on the eve of the Revolution expected the future to look. I think we would find startling agreement across North America, if we maintain a sufficiently broad focus. People expected multiple sovereignties to rule the continent, as had been the case long before Europeans and Africans arrived. -- Slavery would continue, as most people believed it had throughout the world since the beginning of time, but few would have imagined either the huge scale of antebellum plantation slavery or the movement to abolish slavery altogether. -- From that starting place, we might explore various paths through the Revolutionary War and beyond, keeping an eye on different people's visions of what the world should be like (a question inherently both self-interested and ideological) through the vagaries of a war that might change those visions and ambitions along the way. The punchline would be that almost all of these visions were wrong. The republican empire that came out of the American Revolution and early republic developed both a power over the continent that no one predicted and the kind of rhetoric and promise that attracted immigration from around the world. In some ways, I would argue, the most important story of the American Revolution is how the more likely nineteenth century failed to come about.
historiography  US_history  American_colonies  American_Revolution  Early_Republic  18thC  19thC  nation-state  institution-building  Native_Americans  Manifest_Destiny  slavery  abolition 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Common-place: Ed Countryman - What Changed During the American Revolution?
Presentation at conference - included neat stories re colonial maps contesting space as colonial administrators, local elites and various Indian tribes claimed the same spaces From the beginning, Europe's children in America connected themselves with both Native people and Africans. The mature colonial order presented one set of such connections, turning ultimately on space; the young Republic presented another set, turning ultimately on slavery. Neither was a European problem at all. The Revolution replaced a colonial-era landscape of contested spaces with triumphalist notions about an Empire of Liberty, Manifest Destiny, and the Moving Frontier, in which Native people became mere "Indians Not Taxed" and, later, "domestic dependent nations." It also turned slavery from an accepted, universal fact into a pressing issue, opening a breach into which Black Americans stepped, and raising the question of whether, should slavery end, they would belong to the Republic as citizens or, like Indians, be excluded from it.
US_history  18thC  American_colonies  American_Revolution  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  British_Empire  Board_of_Trade  diplomatic_history  sovereignty  indigenous_peoples  Native_Americans  slavery  African-Americans  citizens  Manifest_Destiny  landowners  maps  historiography  spatial  geography  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Vicki Hsueh - Giving Orders: Theory and Practice in the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina | JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 63, No. 3 (Jul., 2002), pp. 425-446
In reading Locke and political discourse of liberal constitutionalism based on Locke's Two Treatises, mistake to conflate Carolina Constitutions with the Two Treatises as evidence of exclusion and assimilation policies from outset. Locke was not sole author, the audience and purposes were different, the scheme is Harrington republicanism, and measures for negotiation, adaptation and other more inclusionary but non assimilationist measures were contemplated. So don't read back contemporary unitary vision of liberal constitutionalism into origins. Uses political imaginary congruent and incongruent with lived experience as theme -- useful bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  17thC  British_politics  colonialism  British_Empire  Carolina  Locke  Shaftesbury_1st_Earl  Board_of_Trade  Harrington  nobility  rank  property  development  plantations  Native_Americans  liberalism  constitutionalism  assimilation  classes  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
James Farr - Locke, Natural Law, and New World Slavery | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Aug., 2008), pp. 495-522
This essay systematically reformulates an earlier argument about Locke and new world slavery, adding attention to Indians, natural law, and Locke's reception. Locke followed Grotian natural law in constructing a just-war theory of slavery. Unlike Grotius, though, he severely restricted the theory, making it inapplicable to America. It only fit resistance to "absolute power" in Stuart England. Locke was nonetheless an agent of British colonialism who issued instructions governing slavery. Yet they do not inform his theory--or vice versa. This creates hermeneutical problems and raises charges of racism. If Locke deserves the epithet "racist," it is not for his having a racial doctrine justifying slavery. None of this makes for a flattering portrait. Locke's reputation as the champion of liberty would not survive the contradictions in which new world slavery ensnared him. Evidence for this may be found in Locke's reception, including by Southern apologists for slavery.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  17thC  British_history  colonialism  American_colonies  West_Indies  indigenous_peoples  Native_Americans  Africa  slavery  Locke  Grotius  natural_law  just_war  conquest  liberty  individualism  liberalism  Southern_states  abolition  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
JONATHAN KAY, review: Jesse Walker, "The United States of Paranoia: A Conspiracy Theory" - A Nation of Birthers | The American Conservative August 2013
Jesse Walker, books editor for Reason, supplies a needed counterpoint in The United States of Paranoia. The author does not try to defend the unhinged theories spouted by the likes of Jones and Glenn Beck. Instead, he argues that U.S. political culture, on all sides, has been infused with a spirit of wild-eyed fear-mongering since the nation’s founding. Paranoia isn’t a hallmark of conservatism. It’s a hallmark of America.

The Founding Fathers themselves were big-time conspiracy-mongers, Walker reports. George Washington, for instance, accused the Brits of hatching “a regular Systematick Plan” to turn colonists into “tame & abject Slaves.” Much of this over-the-top language found its way into the Declaration of Independence, which presented George III as a sort of 18th-century Stalin.
books  reviews  US_history  US_politics  American_colonies  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  paranoid_politics  Puritans  slavery  American_Revolution  Early_Republic  Native_Americans  libertarianism  Obama  conservatism  right-wing  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Eliga H. Gould - Entangled Atlantic Histories: A Response from the Anglo-American Periphery (2007)
JSTOR: The American Historical Review, Vol. 112, No. 5 (Dec., 2007), pp. 1415-1422 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- overview of shifts in Atlantic historiography re center periphery relations and much more going on in periphery especially where interacts with indigenous populations and other empires
article  jstor  historiography  American_colonies  West_Indies  British_Empire  Three_Kingdoms  Ireland  Scotland  Spanish_Empire  Africa  Dutch  Native_Americans  slavery  political_history  political_culture  British_politics  maritime_history  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader

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