dunnettreader + montesquieu   54

Anoush Fraser Terjanian, Associate Professor - Department of History - East Carolina University
Anoush F. Terjanian, Commerce and Its Discontents in Eighteenth-Century French Political Thought (Cambridge UP, © 2013) -- Co-editor. Book 17 of Raynal et. al., Histoire philosophique et politique du commerce et des établissements des européens dans les deux Indes, (1770, 1774, 1780), Ferney: Centre international d'étude du XVIIIe siècle, forthcoming 2016.
academia  18thC  French_history  French_Enlightenment  political_economy  colonialism  anticolonialism  philosophes  commerce-doux  luxury  virtue  politics-and-literature  political_discourse  economics-and-morality  economic_discourse  Histoire_des_Deux_Indes  intellectual_history  historiography-18thC  Montesquieu  Raynal  books 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Brian Z. Tamanaha - The Third Pillar of Jurisprudence: Social Legal Theory :: SSRN - William & Mary Law Review, Vol. 56, 2015
Jurisprudence is generally thought to consist of two main classical rival branches — natural law and legal positivism — followed by a bunch of modern schools — legal realism, law and economics, critical theory, legal pragmatism, etc. In this essay I argue that three main branches of jurisprudence have existed, and battled, for centuries, not two, but the third goes unrecognized as such because it has traveled under different labels and the underlying connections have been clouded by various confusions. The core insights and focus of this third branch, what I call “Social Legal Theory,” trace in a continuous thread from Montesquieu, through historical jurisprudence, sociological jurisprudence, and legal realism, up to the present. This third branch, I argue, provides a contrasting/complementary perspective, in conjunction with natural law and legal positivism, which rounds out the full range of theoretical angles on law: natural law is normative; legal positivism is analytical/conceptual; and social legal theory is empirical. (Among a number of clarifications, I answer the common objection that empirically-grounded theories are not sufficiently theoretical.) The conventional jurisprudential narrative is redrawn in this essay in a way that exposes unseen connections among theoretical schools and brings into focus critical issues about the nature of law that currently are marginalized by natural law and legal positivism. -- Pages in PDF File: 44 -- Keywords: Jurisprudence, legal philosophy, law and society, legal realism, legal development, legal history
article  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  legal_theory  legal_reasoning  positivism-legal  natural_law  legal_realism  legal_history  sociology_of_law  social_order  social_theory  change-social  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  18thC  19thC  20thC  Montesquieu  pragmatism  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Bourke, R.: Empire and Revolution: The Political Life of Edmund Burke. (eBook and Hardcover)
Drawing on the complete range of printed and manuscript sources, Empire and Revolution offers a vivid reconstruction of the major concerns of this outstanding statesman, orator, and philosopher.In restoring Burke to his original political and intellectual context, this book strips away the accumulated distortions that have marked the reception of his ideas. In the process, it overturns the conventional picture of a partisan of tradition against progress. In place of the image of a backward-looking opponent of popular rights, it presents a multifaceted portrait of one of the most captivating figures in eighteenth-century life and thought. While Burke was a passionately energetic statesman, he was also a deeply original thinker. Empire and Revolution depicts him as a philosopher-in-action who evaluated the political realities of the day through the lens of Enlightenment thought, variously drawing on the ideas of such figures as Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Hume. A boldly ambitious work of scholarship, this book challenges us to rethink the legacy of Burke and the turbulent era in which he played so pivotal a role. -- Richard Bourke is professor in the history of political thought and codirector of the Centre for the Study of the History of Political Thought at Queen Mary University of London. He is the author of Peace in Ireland: The War of Ideas and the coeditor of Political Judgement. -- Big early chunk on Vindication of Natural Society -- TOC and Intro (24 pgs) downloaded to Note
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september 2015 by dunnettreader
Jacob T. Levy - Rationalism, Pluralism, and Freedom - Feb 2015 - Oxford University Press
Intermediate groups-- voluntary associations, churches, ethnocultural groups, universities, and more--can both protect threaten individual liberty. The same is true for centralized state action against such groups. Levy argues that, both normatively and historically, liberal political thought rests on a deep tension between a rationalist suspicion of intermediate and local group power, and a pluralism favorable toward intermediate group life, and preserving the bulk of its suspicion for the centralizing state. He studies this tension using tools from the history of political thought, normative political philosophy, law, and social theory. (..) retells the history of liberal thought and practice (..)from the birth of intermediacy in the High Middle Ages to the British Pluralists of the 20thC. (..) restores centrality to (..) ancient constitutionalism and to Montesquieu, (..) social contract theory's contributions to the development of liberal thought have been mistaken for the whole tradition. It discusses the real threats to freedom posed both by local group life and by state centralization, the ways in which those threats aggravate each other.(..) the elements of liberal thought concerned with the threats from each cannot necessarily be combined into a single satisfactory theory of freedom. (..) it must be lived with, not overcome. -- 3 parts and an epilogue Against Synthesis -history in Part 2 -- 4. Antecedents and Foundations -- 5. The Ancient Constitution, the Social Contract, and the Modern State -- 6. Montesquieu and Voltaire, Philosophes and Parlements -- 7. The Age of Revolutions -- 8. Centralization in a Democratic Age: Tocqueville and Mill -- 9. From Liberal Constitutionalism to Pluralism -- only in hardback so far
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may 2015 by dunnettreader
Antoine Lilti, Céline Spector, eds. - Penser l’Europe au XVIIIe siècle: commerce, civilisation, empire | Voltaire Foundation - October 2014
Volume: SVEC 2014:10, Series editor: Jonathan Mallinson -- Price: £60 / €76 / $94 -- ISBN-13: 978-0-7294-1148-6 -- Description: Au XXIe siècle, l’Europe ne fait plus rêver: son modèle est contesté, tant sur le plan économique qu’intellectuel et politique. Face à ces désillusions, il est urgent d’interroger les origines de l’idée d’Europe: quand et comment la notion d’Europe s’est-elle définie? L’ouvrage dirigé par Antoine Lilti et Céline Spector propose un détour par les Lumières. Si l’Europe peut s’enorgueillir d’une longue histoire, c’est bien au XVIIIe siècle qu’elle est devenue un enjeu philosophique, historique et politique majeur. De Montesquieu à Kant, de Voltaire à Burke ou à Robertson, l’idée d’Europe est au cœur des controverses sur le droit international comme sur l’économie politique, sur la légitimité de l’expansion coloniale comme sur les espoirs d’un monde pacifié. Véritable enquête collective conduite par des historiens et des philosophes, Penser l’Europe au XVIIIe siècle aborde trois éléments majeurs autour desquels gravite le concept naissant d’Europe: l’empire, le commerce et la civilisation. Après avoir décrit la manière dont l’ordre européen a été conçu, les auteurs examinent la question de l’expansion commerciale et coloniale de l’Europe, ainsi que les théories de la civilisation, qui permettent d’interroger le statut de l’exceptionnalisme européen. Le siècle des Lumières ne nous présente pas un idéal européen à ressusciter, mais un champ d’interrogations dont nous ne sommes jamais véritablement sortis. -- see Pocket for full ToC and contributors
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march 2015 by dunnettreader
Piet Strydom - Discourse and Knowledge: The Making of Enlightenment Sociology, Liverpool University Press, 2000. | -00 Academia.edu
This book offers an original interpretation of the rise of sociology from a contemporary point of view that is both theoretically and historically informed. Rather than assuming the ‘dual revolution’ as watershed, it goes back behind the French Revolution and the industrial revolution in order to start from the more pervasive communication revolution. The central theme of the book is the currently topical one of the role played by discourse in the construction of knowledge. It is substantively developed through an investigation of a neglected period in the history of sociology. By closely analysing the contributions of such theorists as More, Hobbes, Vico, Montesquieu, Ferguson and Millar to the emergence of sociology in its original form, the argument follows the discursive construction of sociology in the context of the society-wide early modern practical discourse about violence and rights – what is here called the rights discourse. Parallels with the nineteenth- and twentieth-century discourse about poverty and justice and the contemporary discourse about risk and responsibility allow the author to reflect not only on the generation of knowledge through discourse, but also on the role that sociology itself plays in this process. The argument draws on the latest epistemological, theoretical and methodological advances. Constructivism is explored, Habermas and Foucault are creatively synthesised to arrive at a new formulation of the theory of discourse, and a finely elaborated frame and discourse analysis is applied – thus making a substantial contribution to the currently emerging cognitive sociology. The contemporary relevance of the analysis lies in its linking of early sociology’s critique of modern society to the need under current conditions of an open history, contingency and uncertainty for cultivating a culture of contradictions and a participatory politics of conflict, contestation and compromise. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  sociology  discourse  discourse-political_theory  discourse_ethics  cognition-social  public_sphere  violence  rights-legal  rights-political  sociology_of_knowledge  cultural_critique  Hobbes  Montesquieu  Scottish_Enlightenment  civil_society  civility-political  politeness  commerce-doux  conflict  political_participation  political_discourse  constructivism  Habermas  Foucault  epistemology-social  epistemology-moral  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Vincent Descombes - Louis Dumont’s Political Thought - Books & ideas - April 2012.
Previously published in French in laviedesidees.fr, 14 February 2011. Translated by John Zvesper with the support of the Florence Gould Foundation. -- Louis Dumont is very well known for his anthropological work on India, but rather less for his political thought. Vincent Descombes emphasizes the substantial originality of that thought, which defined the political on the basis of comparative studies and in that way dispelled some of the equivocations of modern and contemporary philosophy. -- very interesting re anthropologist who developed a comparative method that would allow it to be turned back on Western modernity, and some political implications, including distinguishing French and German versions of individualism -- discussion of Rousseau's "general will" vs "will of all" makes more sense of it within this framing -- also Montesquieu, Tocqueville and especially Hegel moving back and forth, sometimes explicitly as in Montesquieu and less sharply in Hegel, with society as a (political, cultural, self-conscious? ) whole vs the political institutions -- see bibliography including list of Dumont’s works -- downloaded pdf to Note
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march 2015 by dunnettreader
Colin Kidd - Civil Theology and Church Establishments in Revolutionary America | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Dec., 1999), pp. 1007-1026
The discourse of America's founding generation, it is now widely recognized, was rich and variegated in its composition, drawing upon the commonwealth tradition, the English common law, Montesquieu, Locke, Scottish moral philosophy, and the classics. These sources yield significant clues as to how eighteenth-century Americans viewed religious liberty and church-state relations, subjects of the First Amendment to the Constitution. Supplementing the work of legal historians on the religious provisions of the early state constitutions, the study of political ideas suggests the parameters of the eighteenth-century debate over the effects which various types of religious belief and ecclesiastical establishment had upon manners and institutions. It also reveals the ideological underpinnings of the apparently inconsistent legal provisions for religion at the state level, and, far from settling the elusive question of `original intent', highlights the nature of the divisions within the founding generation. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  theology  religious_history  church_history  religious_culture  religion-established  civil_religion  civil_liberties  tolerance  US_constitution  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  US_history  Founders  bill_of_rights  ancient_Rome  ancient_Greece  Commonwealthmen  Locke-religion  Hutcheson  Smith  Montesquieu  civic_virtue  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  US_legal_system  US_politics  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Srinivas Aravamudan - Enlightenment Orientalism: Resisting the Rise of the Novel (2011) 360 pages | Kindle eBooks @ Amazon.com.
A MUST BUY -- Srinivas Aravamudan here reveals how Oriental tales, pseudo-ethnographies, sexual fantasies, and political satires took Europe by storm during the eighteenth century. Naming this body of fiction Enlightenment Orientalism, he poses a range of urgent questions that uncovers the interdependence of Oriental tales and domestic fiction, thereby challenging standard scholarly narratives about the rise of the novel. More than mere exoticism, Oriental tales fascinated ordinary readers as well as intellectuals, taking the fancy of philosophers such as Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Diderot in France, and writers such as Defoe, Swift, and Goldsmith in Britain. Aravamudan shows that Enlightenment Orientalism was a significant movement that criticized irrational European practices even while sympathetically bridging differences among civilizations. A sophisticated reinterpretation of the history of the novel, Enlightenment Orientalism is sure to be welcomed as a landmark work in eighteenth-century studies.
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september 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Toleration and Calumny: Bayle, Locke, Montesquie and Voltaire on Religious Hate Speech (2010) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 10-80 -- There is a considerable literature on the issue of hate speech. And there is a considerable literature on religious toleration (both contemporary and historic). But the two have not been brought into relation with one another. In this paper, I consider how the argument for religious toleration extends beyond a requirement of non-persection and non-establishment. I consider its application to the question of religious vituperation. The focus of the paper is on 17th and 18th century theories. Locke, Bayle and other Enlightenment thinkers imagined a tolerant society as a society free of hate speech: the kind of religious peace that they envisaged was a matter of civility not just non-persecution. The paper also considers the costs of placing limits (legal or social limits) on religious hate-speech: does this interfere with the forceful expression of religious antipathy which (for some people) the acceptance of their creed requires? -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 25 -- Keywords: Bayle, Defamation, Enlightenment, Hate Speech, Locke, Toleration -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  Enlightenment  tolerance  religious_belief  religious_wars  religious_lit  anticlerical  anti-Catholic  persecution  free_speech  civil_society  civic_virtue  politeness  hate_speech  freedom_of_conscience  Bayle  Locke  Locke-religion  Montesquieu  Voltaire  universalism  heresy  politics-and-religion  political_culture  minorities  public_sphere  public_disorder  civility-political  respect  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Isaiah Berlin's Neglect of Enlightenment Constitutionalism (2014) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 14-12 -- One of the most important achievements of the Enlightenment is what I shall call Enlightenment constitutionalism. It transformed our political thinking out of all recognition; it left, as its legacy, not just the repudiation of monarchy and nobility in France in the 1790s but the unprecedented achievement of the framing, ratification, and establishment of the Constitution of the United States. It comprised the work of Diderot, Kant, Locke, Madison, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Sieyes, and Voltaire. It established the idea of a constitution as an intricate mechanism designed to house the untidiness and pluralism of human politics. Yet Isaiah Berlin, supposedly one of our greatest interpreters of the Enlightenment, said almost nothing about it. The paper develops this claim and it speculates as to why this might be so. Certainly one result of Berlin's sidelining of Enlightenment constitutionalism is to lend spurious credibility to his well-known claim that Enlightenment social design was perfectionist, monastic, and potentially totalitarian. By ignoring Enlightenment constitutionalism, Berlin implicitly directed us away from precisely the body of work that might have refuted this view of Enlightenment social design. -- downloaded pdf to Note
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july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Separation of Powers or Division of Power? (2012) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 12-20 - April 24, 2012 -- The rationale of the separation of powers is often elided with the rationale of checks and balances and with the rationale of the dispersal of power generally in a constitutional system. This paper however focuses resolutely on the functional sepaartion of powers in what MJC Vile called its "pure form". Rexeamining the theories of Locke, Montesquieu, and Madison, the paper seeks to recover (amidst all their tautologies and evasions) a genuine case in favor of this principle. The paper argues that the rationale of the separation of powers is closely related to that of the rule of law: it is partly a matter of the distinct integrity of each of the separated institutions (courts, legislature, and administration). But above all, it is a matter of articulated governance (as contrasted with compressed undifferentiated exercises of power). -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 34 -- Keywords: constitutionalism, constitutions, courts, legislature, Madison, Montesquieu, rule of law, separation of powers -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  legal_system  legal_history  English_constitution  US_constitution  17thC  18thC  checks-and-balances  separation-of-powers  government-forms  mixed_government  judiciary  judicial_review  legislature  executive  sovereignty  Locke-2_Treatises  Montesquieu  Madison  constitutionalism  limited_monarchy  limited_government  Parliamentary_supremacy  rule_of_law  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Comte Destutt de Tracy A Commentary and Review of Montesquieu’s ’Spirit of Laws’ (and comments by Condorcet and Helvetius) (trans. Thomas Jefferson, 1811- Online Library of Liberty
Antoine Louis Claude, Comte Destutt de Tracy, A Commentary and Review of Montesquieu’s ’Spirit of Laws’: To which are annexed, Observations on the Thirty First Book by the late M. Condorcet; and Two Letters of Helvetius, on the Merits of the same Work, trans. Thomas Jefferson (Philadelphia: William Duane, 1811). 07/16/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/960> -- One of two books by the French liberal Destutt de Tracy which were translated and published by Thomas Jefferson A COMMENTARY AND REVIEW OF MONTESQUIEU'S 'SPIRIT OF LAWS' TO WHICH ARE ANNEXED, OBSERVATIONS ON THE THIRTY-FIRST BOOK, BY THE LATE M. CONDORCET, AND TWO LETTERS OF HELVETIUS, ON THE MERITS OF THE SAME WORKPREPARED FOR PRESS FROM THE ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPT, IN THE HANDS OF THE PUBLISHER -- downloaded French version
books  etexts  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  France  French_Enlightenment  Montesquieu  Condorcet  Helvetius  Jefferson  liberalism  French_politics  Ancien_régime  comparative_history  government-forms  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  human_nature  monarchy  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Comte Destutt de Tracy - Commentaire sur l’Esprit des Lois de Montesquieu [1817] - Online Library of Liberty
Antoine Louis Claude, Comte Destutt de Tracy, Commentaire sur l’Esprit des Lois de Montesquieu; Édition entièrement conforme à celle publiée à Liége en 1817 (Paris: Delaunay, 1819). 07/16/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/968> -- A French version of Destutt de Tracy’s extended commentary on Montesquieu which so impressed Jefferson that he translated it himself. (English translation available on Liberty Fund site) -- downloaded pdf to Note
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july 2014 by dunnettreader
Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, My Thoughts (Mes Pensées), ed. Henry C. Clark - Online Library of Liberty
C Edition used:

Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, My Thoughts (Mes Pensées). Translated, edited, and with an Introduction by Henry C. Clark (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2012). 07/12/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2534> -- My Thoughts provides a unique window into the mind of one of the undisputed pioneers of modern thought, the author of The Spirit of the Laws. From the publication of his first masterpiece, Persian Letters, in 1721, until his death in 1755, Montesquieu maintained notebooks in which he wrote and dictated ideas on a wide variety of topics. Some of the contents are early drafts of passages that Montesquieu eventually placed in his published works; others are outlines or early versions of projected works that were ultimately lost, unfinished, or abandoned. These notebooks provide important insights into his views on a broad range of topics, including morality, religion, history, law, economics, finance, science, art, and constitutional liberty. -- downloaded pdf to Note
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july 2014 by dunnettreader
M.J.C. Vile, Constitutionalism and the Separation of Powers (2nd ed.) - Online Library of Liberty
M.J.C. Vile, Constitutionalism and the Separation of Powers (2nd ed.) (Indianapolis, Liberty Fund 1998). 07/12/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/677> -- Arguably no political principle has been more central than the separation of powers to the evolution of constitutional governance in Western democracies. In the definitive work on the subject, M. J. C. Vile traces the history of the doctrine from its rise during the English Civil War, through its development in the eighteenth century – when it was indispensable to the founders of the American republic – through subsequent political thought and constitution-making in Britain, France, and the United States. The author concludes with an examination of criticisms of the doctrine by both behavioralists and centralizers – and with “A Model of a Theory of Constitutionalism.” The new Liberty Fund second edition includes the entirety of the original 1967 text published by Oxford, a major epilogue entitled “The Separation of Powers and the Administrative State,” and a bibliography. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  political_philosophy  political_history  constitutionalism  government-forms  separation-of-powers  checks-and-balances  British_history  British_politics  English_Civil_War  English_constitution  American_colonies  American_Revolution  US_constitution  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  Parliamentary_supremacy  Patriot_King  judiciary  rule_of_law  French_Revolution  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  Third_Republic  Napoleonic_Empire  Directoire  Fifth_Republic  administrative_agencies  executive  legislation  liberalism-republicanism_debates  federalism  Founders  Federalist  Bolingbroke  Montesquieu  patronage  corruption  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Montesquieu - Complete Works, vol. 4 (Familiar Letters; Miscellaneous Pieces; The Temple of Gnidus; A Defence of the Spirit of Laws) - Online Library of Liberty
See letter re Bolingbroke's posthumous Works. Montesquieu opposes attack on revealed religion in England since its evils have been defanged - and thinks attacks on natural religion are counter to the truth all men know of themselves. Seems to have not read the posthumous Works -relying on the correspondent's description in pamphlets. Montesquieu remarks re what he's read is fiery but negative -instead of opposition to things he should have painted the things -- what Montesquieu did himself? Of course they were each writing in a different context and for different audiences. Bolingbroke's analysis is woven through his rhetoric -and would be read as analytic by English readers familiar with the debates. Montesquieu probably referring to Craftsman articles -if he hadn't read the Works probably not read Study and Use or Patriot King
etexts  Montesquieu  Bolingbroke 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Christian Nadeau, review essay - Blaise Bachofen (dir.), Le libéralisme au miroir du droit. L’État, la personne, la propriété - Philosophiques v36 n1 2009, p. 249-253 | Érudit 
Christian Nadeau - Université de Montréal -- Ces auteurs, pour la plupart spécialistes de philosophie politique moderne, se sont penchés sur des notions fondamentales du libéralisme en les situant dans leur contexte théorique d’émergence. Sont ainsi passés au crible de l’analyse philosophique les oeuvres de Locke, Hume, Montesquieu, Bentham, Constant et Tocqueville, mais aussi, celles des auteurs associés au conservatisme, comme Burke ou Bonald. Dans son introduction, Blaise Bachofen explique les raisons pour lesquelles les textes rassemblés dans ce recueil se recoupent sur la notion de libéralisme normatif, et plus précisément de libéralisme juridique. La norme de droit propre au libéralisme permet en effet de rendre compte à la fois de sa dimension politique et de sa dimension économique. L’égal traitement de droit contient en lui-même les motivations morales des principes fondamentaux du libéralisme. -- Trois grandes notions ont été retenues pour expliciter le paradigme du libéralisme juridique : L’État, comme lieu des échanges et des protections individuelles ; la personne, comme sujet du droit et de la liberté ; la propriété, comme notion canonique du rapport de l’individu à lui-même et aux objets qu’il peut légitimement faire siens. -- downloaded pdf to Note
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june 2014 by dunnettreader
Daniel I. O'Neill, review essay - Whither Democracy? | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 38, No. 4 (August 2010), pp. 564-575
Reviewed -- (1) Liberal Beginnings: Making a Republic for the Moderns by A. Kalyvas; I. Katznelson; *--* (2) James Madison and the Spirit of Republican Self-Government by C. Sheehan; *--* (3) French Political Thought from Montesquieu to Tocqueville by A. de Dijn; *--* (4) Soft Despotism, Democracy's Drift: Montesquieu, Rousseau, Tocqueville, and the Modern Prospect by P. Rahe
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february 2014 by dunnettreader
Josef W. Konvitz, review essay -Geography and Enlightenment | JSTOR: The American Historical Review, Vol. 105, No. 5 (Dec., 2000), p. 1794
(1) Geography and Enlightenment by David N. Livingstone; Charles W. J. Withers; (2) Geography Unbound: French Geographic Science from Cassini to Humboldt by Anne Marie Claire Godlewska -- downloaded pdf to Note -- brief 1 page but interesting comments on importance of geography through 18thC, marginalized in 19thC compared with statistics and economics (eg difference between Montesquieu and Ricardo), but important advances in cartography in 19thC
books  reviews  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  geography  social_sciences  French_Enlightenment  Germany  Humboldt  exploration  Montesquieu  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Eugen Weber, The ups and downs of honor | The American Scholar v. 68 no1 (Winter 1999)
Author: Weber, Eugen. Source: The American Scholar v. 68 no1 (Winter 1999) p. 79-91 -- from Homer to the Wire with lots of Latin, German, French and English etymology and a digression on the democratization of 19thC French duelling
article  cultural_history  social_history  political_history  ethics  honor  etymology  medieval_history  Renaissance  Europe-Early_Modern  Montesquieu  Montaigne  Rousseau  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Donald S. Lutz: The Relative Influence of European Writers on Late Eighteenth-Century American Political Thought (1984)
JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Mar., 1984), pp. 189-197 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Drawing upon a comprehensive list of political writings by Americans published between 1760 and 1805, the study uses a citation count drawn from these 916 items as a surrogate measure of the relative influence of European writers upon American political thought during the era. Contrary to the general tendencies in the recent literature, the results here indicate that there was no one European writer, or one tradition of writers, that dominated American political thought. There is evidence for moving beyond the Whig-Enlightenment dichotomy as the basis for textual analysis, and for expanding the set of individual European authors considered to have had an important effect on American thinking. Montesquieu, Blackstone, and Hume are most in need of upgrading in this regard. The patterns of influence apparently varied over the time period from 1760 to 1805, and future research on the relative influence of European thinkers must be more sensitive to this possibility.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  American_colonies  American_Revolution  Early_Republic  US_history  Founders  US_constitution  political_culture  reading  publishing  Whigs  Montesquieu  Blackstone  Locke  Cato's_Letters  Hume  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Ben Holland: Sovereignty as Dominium? Reconstructing the Constructivist Roman Law Thesis (2010)
JSTOR: International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 54, No. 2 (June 2010), pp. 449-480 -- The constructivist authors John Gerard Ruggie, Friedrich Kratochwil, and Nicholas Onuf have each independently pressed the case that the concept of state sovereignty owes its genesis to the rediscovery of the Roman law of private property in the Renaissance. This article supports this conclusion, but argues that it was the notion of representation that Roman property law bequeathed which was of such significance. It makes this argument through analyses of the writings of Hobbes (on the temporally permanent state), Montesquieu (on the territorially bounded state), and Sieves (on the nation-state). It thus provides a fresh account of the rise of the nation-state within the framework of a powerful series of analyses of sovereignty that have been posited by scholars in the discipline of International Relations.
article  Wiley  jstor  paywall  intellectual_history  Renaissance  17thC  18thC  international_system  IR  constructivism  sovereignty  Roman_law  legal_history  political_philosophy  nation-state  state-building  property_rights  Hobbes  Montesquieu  Sieves 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Robert Alun Jones: Ambivalent Cartesians: Durkheim, Montesquieu, and Method (1994)
JSTOR: American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 100, No. 1 (Jul., 1994), pp. 1-39 -- Recent scholarship has emphasized Durkheim's early debt to German social science. Why, then, did Durkheim write his Latin thesis on Montesquieu, insisting that the latter had "laid down the principles of the new science"? The answer is twofold: first because Montesquieu himself was extremely ambivalent about the French Enlightenment's confident legacy of Cartesian reationalism and second because this made Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws the "perfect forge" within which Durkheim could explore his own ambivalence about the relative merits of French rationalism and German empiricism, and thus shape the tool-the comparative method-he applied in The Division of Labor in Society.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  social_theory  18thC  19thC  Durkheim  Montesquieu  Cartesian  historicism  France  Germany  French_Enlightenment  social_sciences  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Lee Ward: Montesquieu on Federalism and Anglo-Gothic Constitutionalism (2007)
JSTOR: Publius, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Fall, 2007), pp. 551-577 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- The common perception that Montesquieu is not a major theorist of federalism is due both to the peripheral nature of his account of confederate republics and his praise of the unitary British Constitution in the "Spirit of the Laws." This study challenges this view by arguing that, despite his endorsement of the separation of powers, Montesquieu had serious reservations about England's highly centralized system of parliamentary sovereignty. Moreover, his most significant reflections on federalism were not contained in his brief treatment of confederate republics, but rather in his lengthy consideration of Gothic constitutionalism. I conclude that Montesquieu's complex constitutional theory involves two distinct dimensions including both the separation of powers exemplified in England and the federal principles in the decentralized Gothic system of medieval France.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  18thC  France  French_Enlightenment  British_politics  Montesquieu  Bolingbroke  separation-of-powers  federalism  Parliament  Gothic_constitution  medieval_history  downloaded  EF-add  English_constitution 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Sharon Krause: The Spirit of Separate Powers in Montesquieu (2000)
JSTOR: The Review of Politics, Vol. 62, No. 2 (Spring, 2000), pp. 231-265 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Montesquieu's theory of separate powers is elaborated in a discussion of the constitution of England in Book XI, chapter 6 of The Spirit of the Laws, which is by far the most discussed section of that work. Many commentators have interpreted the English system straightforwardly as Montesquieu's ideal regime. But while he greatly admires the legal separation of powers in the English constitution, he worries that the spirit of "extreme" liberty among the English could undercut the constitutional separation of powers that protects their liberty. Montesquieu's ambivalence thus raises questions as to what sort of "spirit" a regime must have to sustain a constitution of separate powers and so to preserve individual liberty. His reservations about England are important for understanding his philosophy of liberalism and have broad significance for any polity that seeks to protect individual liberty through a constitution of separate powers.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  18thC  France  French_Enlightenment  Montesquieu  constitutions  separation-of-powers  judiciary  Parlement  French_government  limited_monarchy  Absolutism  despotism  downloaded  EF-add  liberty  political_culture  civil_liberties  English_constitution 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Paul A. Rahe: Republicanism Modernized - review of A Kalyvas & I Katznelson, Liberal Beginnings: Making a Republic for the Moderns
Project MUSE - Reviews in American History Volume 37, Number 2, June 2009 pp. 205-210 | 10.1353/rah.0.0100 -- This slim volume consists of 7 chapters: an intro situating its argument with regard to the 2ndry lit on republicanism and liberalism; substantive chapters on A Smith, A Ferguson, T Paine and J Madison, G de Staël, and B Constant; and a five-page concluding chapter suggesting what these figures have in common. It is in the subdtantive chapters, taken individually, that the value of the book lies...... Had they read more widely in the 2ndry lit, had they taken the trouble to study with care the writings of Nedham, Harrington, Henry Neville, John Wildman, Algernon Sidney, Moyle, Trenchard, Gordon, and James Burgh (among others), [they] would have seen that the analytical accounts of the history of republicanism provided by [ Pocock and Skinner] are fundamentally at odds; they would have been forced to consider whether there was not a profound difference between the early modern republicanism inspired by Machiavelli and that of the Greeks and Romans; and they would have been driven to ponder whether the liberal beginnings to which the title of this book refers do not, in fact, go back to the 1650s. Moreover, had they done so, they would have been in a better position to define with precision what they mean by republicanism and liberalism. .... [and] whether constitutional monarchies should be regarded as republics and, if so, why; and whether there were any liberals in the second half of the eighteenth century and the first two decades of the nineteenth century who were not also republicans and what would define them as such. Alternatively, [they] could have dismissed the republicanism-liberalism debate as beside the point.... [Rather it's] the distinction drawn by Montesquieu (whom they mention only in passing) between the democratic republics of classical antiquity and the strange, new commercial republic disguised as a monarchy that he discovered during the months he spent in England. It was, after all, The Spirit of Laws that inspired the ruminations of Smith, Ferguson, Paine, Madison, de Staël, and Constant; and it was in response to his political typology that they framed their arguments. Montesquieu was the superintending spirit of the age.
books  bookshelf  reviews  intellectual_history  historiography  political_philosophy  liberalism  republicanism  17thC  18thC  19thC  French_Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Revolution  American_Revolution  US_constitution  Founders  Napoleonic_Wars  Constant  de_Staël  Madison  Paine  Smith  Ferguson  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  Montesquieu  civic_virtue  commerce  monarchy  limited_monarchy  Britain  France  British_politics  French_politics  paywall  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Dan Edelstein: Humanism, l’Esprit Philosophique, and the Encyclopédie | Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts
Citation: Edelstein, Dan. “Humanism, l’Esprit Philosophique, and the Encyclopédie.”Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1, no. 1 (May 1, 2009): http://rofl.stanford.edu/node/27. -- In "Rethinking the Republic of Letters" issue -- downloaded pdf to Note -- also downloaded attachments (1) Edelstein-Appendix1_citation_index.xls (2) Edelstein-Appendix2_discarded_names.xls (3) Edelstein- Appendix3_Etat_de_Nature_comparison_with_Locke.pdf -- Humanism, in this interpretation, no longer appears in opposition to the Enlightenment, but can be seen to lie at the heart of the philosophical project to diffuse knowledge and “change the common way of thinking.” The classification, extraction, and compilation of texts and ideas had indeed been elevated to an art form, if not a science, by early-modern scholars; their techniques could now serve the philosophical good of disseminating “general Enlightenment [lumières générales].” This important role, however, remained a fairly invisible one, given that a collège education had made humanist practices almost second nature for Enlightenment scholars. In fact, they often did not even seem aware of their debt to the past: 
article  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  16thC  17thC  18thC  humanism  érudits  scholarship  reading  philosophes  Encyclopédie  Diderot  Voltaire  Montesquieu  Republic_of_Letters  ancient_philosophy  antiquity  belles-lettres  French_lit  historiography  Locke  downloaded 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Paul Schuurman : Determinism and Causal Feedback Loops in Montesquieu's Explanations for the MilitaryRise and Fall of Rome (2013) | T & F Online
British Journal for the History of Philosophy, Volume 21, Issue 3, 2013, pages 507- 528, Available online: 23 May 2013, DOI: 10.1080/09608788.2013.771612 -- Montesquieu's Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (1733/1734) is a methodological exercise in causal explanation on the meso-level applied to the subject of the military rise and fall of Rome. Rome is described as a system with contingent initial conditions that have a strong path-determining effect. Contingent and plastic initial configurations become highly determining in their subsequent operation, thanks to self-reinforcing feedback loops. Montesquieu's method seems influenced by the ruthless commitment to efficient causality and the reductionism of seventeenth-century mechanicist philosophy; but in contrast to these predecessors, he is more interested in dynamic processes than in unchangeable substances, and his use of efficient causality in the context of a system approach implies a form of holism that is lacking in his predecessors. The formal and conceptual analysis in this article is in many ways complementary with Paul Rahe's recent predominantly political analysis of the Considérations. At the same time, this article points to a problem in the works on the Enlightenment by Jonathan Israel: his account stresses a one-dimensional continuum consisting of Radical, Moderate and Counter-Enlightenment. This invites Israel to place the combined religious, political and philosophical views of each thinker on one of these three points. His scheme runs into trouble when a thinker with moderate religious and political views produces radical philosophical concepts. Montesquieu's Considérations is a case in point.
article  paywall  intellectual_history  18thC  Montesquieu  ancient_Rome  Roman_Republic  Roman_Empire  military_history  lessons-of-history  determinism  causation  social_theory  mechanism  path-dependency  historiography  Enlightenment  Radical_Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  find  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Robin Douglass - Montesquieu and Modern Republicanism - 2012 - Political Studies - Wiley Online Library
Douglass, R. (2012), Montesquieu and Modern Republicanism. Political Studies, 60: 703–719. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9248.2011.00932.x -- In this article I explore Montesquieu's discussion of republics and the constitution of England in order to question the extent to which he should be accorded a central place in a tradition of modern republicanism. This involves challenging Paul Rahe's recent thesis that Montesquieu thought both that monarchy was not at all suited to modernity and that England was a republic all along. By stressing the importance of honour and ambition I argue that the liberty that Montesquieu thought exemplified in the English constitution was, in large part, secured by its monarchical principle. Moreover, by eschewing the relevance of political virtue for modern commercial societies, Montesquieu set his own proposals out in opposition to the prevalent French republican discourse of his time; thus it is highly problematic to view him as having proposed a republic for the moderns. The article also serves to disentangle Montesquieu's understanding of political liberty from his analysis of republics in order to refute the idea that he provides support for a distinctively republican conception of liberty as non-domination. This undermines the republican critique of liberalism set forth by Philip Pettit, which is further challenged by considering the affinities between Montesquieu's and Constant's conceptions of liberty. Many commentators have argued that Montesquieu repudiated classical republicanism, yet on the reading advanced in this article it is equally problematic to view him as a modern republican.
article  Wiley  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  18thC  21stC  Montesquieu  republicanism  civic_virtue  commerce  monarchy  honor  find  EF-add  English_constitution 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Sara Price - Rousseau’s Rome: Book IV of the Social Contract and the Specter of Montesquieu (2012) :: SSRN
APSA working paper - It is traditionally thought that Rousseau and Montesquieu use the example of the Roman Republic in their works to explore the desirable yet irretrievable aspects of ancient republics, yet the real work that Rome has been doing in Rousseau’s Social Contract has been largely neglected by scholars. Rousseau’s discussion of the Roman Republic constitutes a direct theoretical engagement with Montesquieu’s empiricism and shows this thinker’s political theory to be faulty. Rousseau’s analysis, rather than displaying a romanticism with the ancients, instead shows the manner in which one is to understand and interpret political phenomena and, further, to make predictions about political improvement. I argue that the Roman example serves as a battleground for the competing theories of these two powerhouse political philosophers. Rousseau’s Rome provides a model for what history can teach us and emphasizes the role of political right in practical politics.
article  SSRN  intellectual_history  18thC  French_Enlightenment  political_philosophy  lessons-of-history  Roman_Republic  Roman_Empire  republicanism  Montesquieu  Rousseau  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Sharon R. Krause : Two Concepts of Liberty in Montesquieu (2005) |T & F Online
Perspectives on Political Science, Volume 34, Issue 2, 2005, pages 88- 96, Available online: 07 Aug 2010, DOI: 10.3200/PPSC.34.2.88-96 -- political liberty (against abuse of government) and philosophical liberty (or freedom of will) -- Krause argues that, contra the deterministic reading of Montesquieu, philosophic liberty is important to him and how to make it work with political liberty
article  paywall  find  intellectual_history  18thC  political_philosophy  liberty  despotism  free_will  determinism  Montesquieu  natural_law  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Paul Carrese: Montesquieu's Complex Natural Right and Moderate Liberalism: The Roots of American Moderation (2004)
JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 36, No. 2 (Jan., 2004), pp. 227-250 -- looks more interesting for bibliography than for analysis -- The diversity in twentieth-century scholarship on Montesquieu's The Spirit of Laws helps to confirm his own appreciation for complexity, synthesis, and balance in both political theory and practice. This is the overlooked meaning of "moderation," the key to his labyrinthine masterwork. His liberalism sought to capture the multiple dimensions of politics and the equilibrium, or moderation, in nature and human nature. Moderation informs his constitutionalism of balanced powers but also a natural right encompassing individual interest and humane sympathy for fellows. Reading the entire work, as Montesquieu requests, reveals that moderation and complexity provide its very plan and coherence-from its title, to its six-part structure, to its balancing of philosophy with humane letters. His natural right emphasizes tranquillity and political moderation, tempering modern liberalism with classical and medieval elements. Montesquieu's synthesis of such alternatives, and of the individual and social dimensions of our nature, also lends perspective on recent liberal theory and its critics. Both Rawlsian and communitarian concerns are better served by a tradition of theory that comprehends both, and which better captures the complexity of American political thought.
article  jstor  political_philosophy  18thC  20thC  21stC  Montesquieu  Rawls  communitarian  liberalism  bibliography  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Ana J. Samuel: The Design of Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws: The Triumph of Freedom over Determinism (2009) | Cambridge Journals Online
ANA J. SAMUEL (2009). The Design of Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws: The Triumph of Freedom over Determinism. American Political Science Review, 103, pp 305-321. doi:10.1017/S0003055409090273. -- One of the perennial puzzles of Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws is whether it has a coherent design. Although the dominant line of thinking is that this work has no unified structure, another believes it to have some organizing principle, even though proposals as to what it may be have failed to convince for lack of ability to account for various features of the work. I propose that The Spirit of the Laws is organized in a dialectical way, juxtaposing the antitheses of human freedom and determination. The tension between these is manifest in the first half of the work and resolved in the middle, and human freedom worked out and advanced in the second half. This article solves the long-standing question of the design of The Spirit of the Laws and reveals that the work's ultimate purpose is to champion human liberty over determination, contrary to the views of those who read the work as deterministic. -- Michael Zuckert is her dissertation advisor.
article  paywall  intellectual_history  18thC  political_philosophy  political_economy  liberty  determinism  Montesquieu  find  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Guillaume Ansart: Variations on Montesquieu: Raynal and Diderot’s 'Histoire des deux Indes' and the American Revolution
Project MUSE - Journal of the History of Ideas Volume 70, Number 3, July 2009 pp. 399-420 -- This essay discusses an important early French response to the American Revolution, chapters 38-52 in Book 18 of Raynal and Diderot's Histoire des deux Indes (1780), and explores how this reponse was shaped by the influence of Montesquieu. In Raynal and Diderot's conception of political freedom, as in Montesquieu's, universalism is tempered by empiricism. Public opinion must never be ignored, local factors matter: the two philosophes praise the American revolutionaries for their wisdom in this respect. Clearly Montesquieuan in inspiration, the American chapters of the Histoire des deux Indes constitute one of the most significant pre-revolutionary examples of moderate liberalism in France.
article  Project_MUSE  paywall  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  18thC  Montesquieu  Diderot  American_Revolution  liberalism  empiricism  public_opinion 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Thomas E. Kaiser: Madame de Pompadour and the Theaters of Power (1996)
JSTOR: French Historical Studies, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Autumn, 1996), pp. 1025-1044 -- issue focus on Early Modern biography -- downloaded pdf to Note -- This article traces Mme de Pompadour's political career in order to demonstrate how the French public conceived of her supposed seizure of power. In particular, it examines the imagined role of her theater at Versailles as a mechanism for usurping the royal will. Represented by the propaganda of the parti devot as a nefarious site of an inversion of ranks, powers, and taste, the theater of Mme de Pompadour, like the notorious Parc-aux-Cerfs, convinced the French people that the politics of their nation was controlled by a woman of low birth and that their government--the grandest "theater of power" of the royal mistress--was at risk of becoming the "despotism" of which Montesquieu and his school had warned his compatriots. A complement to the most recent traditional biographical studies, this article underlines the importance of reputation as a critical element in the reconstruction of a past life.
article  jstor  18thC  France  French_government  court_culture  Louis_XV  public_sphere  public_opinion  religious_culture  Jansenists  Jesuits  political_culture  French_Enlightenment  despotism  republicanism  Absolutism  Montesquieu  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Franco Venturi: Oriental Despotism (1963)
JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1963), pp. 133-142 -- Venturi extends the tale told by Koebnerbeyond Montesquieu and Voltaire to the Physiocrats who tried to use it in a positive fashion that didn't take, and then works by French and English travelers with long experience in the purported Oriental despotic empires. They tried to disprove the exaggerated and false notions of political despotism. The debates further focused on property rights, and how close an analogy to feudalism was appropriate. The discussion continued into 19thC especially re British Empire relations with areas that came under imperial control. But the Oriental despotism meme now seems eternal myth that will not die.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  historiography  Ottomans  China  India  imperialism  despotism  property_rights  liberty  feudalism  slavery  17thC  18thC  19thC  France  British_Empire  Montesquieu  Hobbes  Voltaire  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
R. Koebner: JSTOR: Despot and Despotism: Vicissitudes of a Political Term (1951)
JSTOR: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 14, No. 3/4 (1951), pp. 275-302 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Voltaire was very displeased with how Montesquieu popularized the neologism which first made its appearance in 17thC France and was adopted by the secret Bougainvilliers, Fenelon, Saint Simon opponents of Louis XIV. The paper then traces despot related usage starting with Plato and Aristotle through Church Fathers and Renaissance.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  etymology  philology  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  Early_Christian  Medieval  Renaissance  Papacy  monarchy  Absolutism  Ottomans  China  France  17thC  18thC  French_Enlightenment  Louis_XIV  enlightened_absolutism  Hobbes  Bayle  Fenelon  Bougainvilliers  Saint_Simon  Voltaire  Montesquieu  liberty  republicanism  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Corey Robin: Reflections on Fear: Montesquieu in Retrieval (2000)
JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 94, No. 2 (Jun., 2000), pp. 347-360 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- According to most scholars, Montesquieu argues that fear threatens a loss of self. Disconnected from the exercise of reason, fear is an emotion that is supposed to prevent the individual from acting with any kind of moral or rational agency. Fear is also premised on the liquidation of civil society; intermediate institutions and plural social structures are destroyed so that despots can act with unmitigated power and violence. I argue that this view does not capture Montesquieu's theory. In my alternative account, fear is intimately connected to our capacity for reason and to our sense of self. It is built on a network of elites, the rule of law, moral education, and the traditional institutions of civil society. I conclude that twentieth-century social science remains too indebted to conventional interpretations of Montesquieu's views, and contemporary theorists would be better served by the alternative analysis proposed here.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  French_Enlightenment  18thC  Montesquieu  political_philosophy  political_culture  social_theory  social_psychology  psychology  self  self-interest  despotism  fear  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Roger Boesche: Fearing Monarchs and Merchants: Montesquieu's Two Theories of Despotism (1990)
JSTOR: The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 43, No. 4 (Dec., 1990), pp. 741-761 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Although he did not invent the word despotism, Montesquieu more than any other author established it in our lexicon of political and politicized words. When we examine Montesquieu's concept of despotism, however, we see an attack on two forces undermining the status of the French nobility — an encroaching monarchy that sought to rule absolutely, and a tantalizing commercialism that threatened France with a licentious servitude. There are, as a consequence, two theories of despotism in the writings of Montesquieu. One theory, directed at his fear of monarchical power, is carefully developed, while the other theory emerges only obliquely in his ambivalent and anxious attitudes toward the new commercial world of the middle classes.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  French_Enlightenment  18thC  Montesquieu  political_philosophy  aristocracy  middle_class  Absolutism  commerce  despotism  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Sean Elliott: Contending for liberty : principle and party in Montesquieu, Hume, and Burke (2010 thesis)
University of St Andrews -- downloaded pdf to Note -- This thesis explores the political reformation of “faction” in the political thought of Montesquieu, David Hume, and Edmund Burke, three thinkers whose works span what Pierre Manent calls “an exquisite moment of liberalism.” It examines the transformation of faction from one based largely on class to one based largely on political function and argues that as the political emphasis of “party” overtook that of class, a disconnect in constitutional theory appeared between the principles formerly associated with class, such as honor, and the principles now associated with parties. This disconnect is examined by focusing on the interrelated concepts of political principle, or that which motivates and regulates men, and faction, itself divided into two types, principled and singular. This thesis further considers the role of political principle to faction in each thinker’s thought in order to demonstrate how limited domestic political conflict could sustain itself via a party system. Each thinker recognized that limited political conflict did not weaken the state but rather strengthened it, if engendered by “principled faction” cognizant of a nominal sovereign. Accordingly, it is argued that a similar understanding of “principled faction,” though focused largely on aristocratic ideas of prejudice, self-interest, and inequality, better promoted political liberty within the state and contributed to a greater acceptance of party in political thought.
thesis  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_culture  18thC  Britain  France  British_politics  faction  parties  Montesquieu  Hume  Burke  downloaded  EF-add  English_constitution 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Johnson Wright: Montesquieuean Moments: The Spirit of the Laws and Republicanism | Proceedings of the Western Society for French History
Downloaded pdf to Note. Volume 35, 2007 -- Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.0642292.0035.010 -- I pursue a different question in this essay, which has less to do with the prescriptive profile of The Spirit of the Laws than with its sources and its influence, irrespective of its author's intentions. Where should we situate Montesquieu within a wider account of republicanism in early modern Europe? There appears to be only one recent attempt to answer this question. In a lecture on "Montesquieu and the New Republicanism" delivered in 1987, the late Judith Shklar began with a characteristically crisp assertion: "Montesquieu did for the latter half of the eighteenth century what Machiavelli had done for his century: he set the terms in which republicanism was to be discussed."[4] In contrast with Machiavelli, Shklar argued, Montesquieu confronted absolute monarchy at its strongest in the regime of Versailles. In this context, Montesquieu's crucial move was to expose what Shklar called "the Augustan charade" – the Bourbon monarchy's systematic effort to cloak itself in the ideological mantle of the Roman Republic. This ideological unmasking came at a cost, however. For the result, in effect, was to declare the historical obsolescence of the egalitarian, virtuous republics of classical antiquity, which had no place among the far larger, more commercial monarchies that dominated modern Europe. If this was a price that Montesquieu himself was willing to pay, Shklar explained, many of his most faithful readers were not. Despite its author's reservations about republics, The Spirit of the Laws turned out to inspire two novel and very different kinds of republicanism in the second half of the century.
17thC  18thC  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  Europe-Early_Modern  France  Britain  Roman_Republic  Sparta  republicanism  Absolutism  monarchy  Montesquieu  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Review by: Michel Delon: Enlightenment Essays in Memory of Robert Shackleton by Giles Barber; C. P. Courtney (1991)
JSTOR: Revue d'Histoire littéraire de la France, 91e Année, No. 6 (Nov. - Dec., 1991), pp. 989-991

Another review of hodgepodge of papers by some heavy hitter historians. This review gives good idea of particular items of interest. No thematic unity to the collection except high quality scholarship Shackleton admired and practiced.
books  reviews  find  18thC  intellectual_history  cultural_history  Enlightenment  publishing  intelligentsia  Montesquieu  Voltaire  Rousseau 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Review by: Roland G. Bonnel: Enlightenment Essays in Memory of Robert Shackleton by Giles Barber; C. P. Courtney (1988)
JSTOR: The French Review, Vol. 64, No. 2 (Dec., 1990), pp. 348-349 A real hodgepodge of topics, but some first rate historians, both French and British, and several of the papers look very interesting.

See also Delon review which gives deeper notion of which items of special interest.
books  reviews  France  Britain  Germany  18thC  Enlightenment  intellectual_history  French_lit  Montesquieu  Voltaire  Goethe 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Review by: Isaiah Berlin: Montesquieu and Burke by C. P. Courtney (1965)
JSTOR: The Modern Language Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (Jul., 1965), pp. 449-452

Fairly lengthy remarks by Berlin. Why he puts Burke in the counter-revolutionary camp and Montesquieu in moderate liberal despite apparent overlaps. Some of his remarks are cryptic or assume his prior Burke writing. But worth looking at again after I make my way through his Enlightenment essays.

Downloaded pdf to Note
jstor  reviews  books  18thC  France  British_politics  French_Revolution  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  Providence  historicism  Burke  Montesquieu  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Review by: W. R. Fryer: Montesquieu and Burke by C. P. Courtney (1964)
JSTOR: The English Historical Review, Vol. 79, No. 313 (Oct., 1964), pp. 860-861

Generally underwhelmed by any suggestion of strong influence on Burke
jstor  reviews  books  Burke  Montesquieu  18thC  political_philosophy 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Review by: J. Ehrard: Montesquieu and Burke by C. P. Courtney (1965)
JSTOR: Revue d'Histoire littéraire de la France, 65e Année, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1965), p. 128
Contrasts Burke as politician with Montesquieu as thinker, though both conservative historical empiricists. Ehrard sees Courtney reading Montesquieu more through Burke than vice versa. But high on care tracing Burke use of Montesquieu in each stage of his career.
jstor  reviews  books  18thC  political_philosophy  Burke  Montesquieu 
july 2013 by dunnettreader

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