dunnettreader + industrial_revolution   94

This Day in Labor History: March 11, 1811 - Lawyers, Guns & Money
On March 11, 1811, the Luddite movement began in Arnold, Nottingham, England, when textile workers destroyed the machines where they worked as a protest against…
Luddites  19thC  labor_history  technology  Industrial_Revolution  unemployment  labor_standards  Evernote  from instapaper
march 2018 by dunnettreader
DAUDET, Alphonse – Jack | Litterature audio.com
Donneuse de voix : Cocotte (2013) | Durée : 20h 20min | Genre : Romans
De nombreuses œuvres d’Alphonse Daudet sont déjà sur le site. Voici aujourd’hui Jack, un roman touchant, qui dépeint la vie quotidienne au début du 19ème siècle, aussi bien celle d’un un internat, que les dures conditions du travail dans les usines, qu’une noce champêtre dans la banlieue parisienne.

Jack est l’enfant naturel d’une charmante demi-mondaine. Ida est affectueuse, gaie, chaleureuse, mais insouciante, égoïste, superficielle. Jack aime sa mère passionnément, malgré ses défauts. Malheureusement, Ida est plus « femme » que « mère »…

Ceux qui ont aimé Le Petit Chose apprécieront également, j’en suis sûre, ce jeune garçon, ce jeune adolescent, qui lui ressemble comme un frère.
social_order  audio-books  Daudet  novels  French_language  cultural_history  Industrial_Revolution  19thC  working_class  social_history  French_lit 
june 2017 by dunnettreader
(URL is a pff) Greg Clark & Neil Cummins - Surnames and Social Mobility, Human Nature (2015)
Surnames and Social Mobility
Gregory Clark1 Neil Cummins2
To what extent do parental characteristics explain child social outcomes? Typically, parent-child correlations in socioeconomic measures are in the range 0.2-0.6. Surname evidence suggests, however, that the intergenerational correlation of overall status is much higher. This paper shows, using educational status in England 1170-2012 as an example, that the true underlying correlation of social status is in the range 0.75-0.85. Social status is more strongly inherited even than height. This correlation is constant over centuries, suggesting an underlying social physics surprisingly immune to government intervention. Social mobility in England in 2012 is little greater than in pre-industrial times. Surname evidence in other countries suggests similarly slow underlying mobility rates.
KEYWORDS: Social Mobility, intergenerational correlation, status inheritance
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
status  Europe-Early_Modern  article  downloaded  surnames  statistics  17thC  British_history  16thC  mobility  Industrial_Revolution  19thC  inheritance  demography  21stC  20thC  18thC  medieval_history 
february 2017 by dunnettreader
G Clark & N Cummins - Urbanization, Mortality, & Fertility in Malthusian England | American Economic Review (2009) on JSTOR
The richest groups reduced fertility around 1800 - before improvements in child mortality. Contra to Clark's hypothesis linking behavior in pre and post industrial periods. "The prospects for a unified account of economic growth in both the Malthusian and the Solovian eras thus look decidedly poor." -- Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
19thC  demography  rural  fertility  urbanization  downloaded  landowners  Industrial_Revolution  London  elites  article  life_expectancy  demographic_transition  16thC  18thC  British_history  17thC 
january 2017 by dunnettreader
Nina Boberg-Fazlic & Paul Sharp - Welfare Spending Lessons from Pre-Industrial England | LSE blogs - Oct 2016
Cutting welfare spending is unlikely to lead to an increase in private voluntary work and charitable giving, explain Nina Boberg-Fazlic and Paul Sharp. Using historical data from late eighteenth and early nineteenth century England, they illustrate how parts of the country that saw increased levels of spending under the Poor Laws also enjoyed higher levels of charitable income.
local_government  social_democracy  Poor_Laws  Labor_markets  UK_economy  Tories  welfare  Industrial_Revolution  unemployment  UK_politics  philanthropy  demography  British_history  19thC  economic_history  18thC  agriculture-productivity  landowners  population_growth 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Peter Solar - Poor Relief and English Economic Development before the Industrial Revolution (1995) | Economic History Review on JSTOR
The English system of poor relief helped to shape the country's distinctive pre-industrial economy. English relief, when set against continental experience, stands out as uniform and comprehensive in coverage; as reliant on local property taxation for funding; and as generous and reliable in benefits. The insurance provided by relief underpinned the growth of a mobile wage-labour force and facilitated changes inland tenure and use. The fiscal impact of relief expenditure gave taxpayers incentives to put labourers to work and to keep local demographic and economic development in balance.
agriculture-productivity  Labor_markets  economic_history  welfare  Industrial_Revolution  local_government  downloaded  jstor  agriculture  18thC  British_history  17thC  Poor_Laws  article  Europe-Early_Modern  19thC  demography  unemployment 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Does Welfare Spending Crowd Out Charitable Activity? Evidence from Historical England Under the Poor Laws - Boberg-Fazlić - 2015 - The Economic Journal - Wiley Online Library
This study examines the relationship between government spending and charitable activity. We present a novel way of testing the ‘crowding out hypothesis’, making use of the fact that welfare provision under the Old Poor Laws was decided at the parish level, thus giving heterogeneity within a single country. Using data on poor relief spending combined with data on charitable incomes by county before and after 1800, we find a positive relationship: areas with more public provision also enjoyed higher levels of charitable income. These results are confirmed when instrumenting for Poor Law spending and when looking at first differences.
See the LSE blog post that summarizes this study.
bad_economics  British_politics  British_history  Poor_Laws  18thC  budget_deficit  Industrial_Revolution  agriculture  fiscal_policy  Wiley  welfare  Tories  philanthropy  UK_economy  Labor_markets  UK_politics  unemployment  paywall  article  Brexit  19thC  landowners 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Paolo Malanima - Energy consumption in England
The displacement of the centre of the European economy from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic and the beginning of north–south divergence in Europe has been discussed on the basis of data on real wages, urbanization rates, and, more recently, estimates of gross domestic product for a number of European countries. The purpose of the present article is to contribute to this line of research with the elaboration of yearly series of total energy consumption in Italy and England for the long period 1560–1913. New data on energy services, energy intensity, and, finally, social savings from the use of energy are also presented and discussed for both Italy and England.These new data allow us to specify that energy played a central role.Yet it was relatively late that its importance as a provider of mechanical work developed fully; that is, from 1830 onwards in England and from the end of the nineteenth century in Italy. - Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
16thC  economic_growth  pre-WWI  17thC  transport  manufacturing  energy  modernization  18thC  industrialization  energy-transition  energy-markets  Industrial_Revolution  economic_history  Italy  consumption  downloaded  19thC  article  energy-intensity  British_history 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
G Clark, KH O'Rourke, AM Taylor - The Growing Dependence of Britain on Trade during the Industrial Revolution | NBER - Feb 2014
The Growing Dependence of Britain on Trade during the Industrial Revolution -- Gregory Clark, Kevin Hjortshøj O'Rourke, Alan M. Taylor -- NBER Working Paper No. 19926 -- Many previous studies of the role of trade during the British Industrial Revolution have found little or no role for trade in explaining British living standards or growth rates. We construct a three-region model of the world in which Britain trades with North America and the rest of the world, and calibrate the model to data from the 1760s and 1850s. We find that while trade had only a small impact on British welfare in the 1760s, it had a very large impact in the 1850s. This contrast is robust to a large range of parameter perturbations. Biased technological change and population growth were key in explaining Britain's growing dependence on trade during the Industrial Revolution.
paper  paywall  NBER  economic_history  British_history  UK_economy  trade  Industrial_Revolution  technology  technology-adoption  demography  18thC  19thC 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Christopher Dickey - Confederate Madness Then and Now | The Daily Beast - July 216
Pimping his new book - history of British consul in Charleston who had a front row seat to the arrogant brutality of the slave-holding elite, how they were eager for secession if they didn't dominate the federal government, and thought that since King Cotton ruled the global economy, they'd be able to count on support from the European powers. His lead character, while socializing with the elites sent a steady stream of reports back to Foreign & Colonial about the real situation and the barbaric attitudes and conduct of those elites. - Dickey suggests that his guy's info made a difference in London anytime it looked there might be wavering in British policy- taking into account Britain’s immediate economic pain and/or assessment of how the Union was likely to prevail. He also apparently thinks his guy's reports in a few years before secession helped spur the British to accelerate the search for alternatives to the South as a supply source. -- The hook of the article is getting rid of the Confederate flag - and how, now as then, Southern leaders have been able to stir up racism among the lower class whites to see their culture under existential threat and pursue policies and violence that run counter to their objective interests. He wants to stop the elimination of Confederate commemoration to the flag - and leave the statues and monuments as a way of remembering the hideous moral monsters who drove the South to ruin. He doesn't address the issue of how those monuments will be used to glorify the "heroes" of the Lost Cayse.
Instapaper  US_history  US_politics  British_foreign_policy  US_Civil_War  slavery  abolition  slave_trade  cotton  Industrial_Revolution  US_politics-race  British_Navy  British_Empire  imperialism  global_economy  popular_culture  popular_politics  Southern_states  Confederacy  diplomatic_history  from instapaper
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Dietrich Vollrath - The Early Transformation of Britain's Economy | Growth Economics
On Wallis et al WP - Structural Change in the British economy 1500-1800 - Your Bayesian prior on “the probability the Great Divergence had its origins prior to the Industrial Revolution” should get updated to a higher number. - These numbers are bad news if you have “Glorious Revolution” in the “monocausal origins of economic growth” office pool. The data reinforce the argument that the Glorious Revolution was as much a response to economic change, as it was a cause of economic change.Britain experiencing a structural change from 1550 to 1750 does not mean it was already experiencing sustained growth. The growth experienced in that period may well have been snuffed out by Malthusian forces of population growth in time. But perhaps that structural change helped bring on the changes in demographic behavior that allowed sustained growth to occur? This structural shift bleeds directly into the Industrial Revolution, which bleeds directly into the demographic shifts involved with sustained growth. Whether this implies a chain of causality is too much to make of this evidence. - downloaded paper to Tab S2
paper  Great_Divergence  16thC  17thC  18thC  British_history  economic_history  agriculture  economic_growth  Malthusian  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  downloaded 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Quaker bankers: building trust on the basis of sincerity, reciprocity and charity | Magic, Maths & Money - Feb 2016
This post follows discussions of the norms sincerity, reciprocity and charity in financial markets. It suggests that the success of Quaker finance, that funded… Tracks the importance of Quaker-owned banks to the development of UK financial system - the number of big-name banking families with Quaker founders is striking. Their personalized methods of working on reputation (theirs and their borrowers) based on shared standards of probity and transparency, disciplined by membership in the Quaker community - allowed them to not only grow in the loan business, but become big in the bills market. The Quaker method of collecting views re appropriate moral life practices, which were documented and circulated among the members - and set mutual expectations for ethical practices, including areas like bookkeeping and full disclosure. The Quaker firms were central to the system of country banks, capable of providing liquidity to halt bank runs, wind down problem institutions etc. Their bills business didn't survive the switch to the Bank of England becoming lender of last resort in the 1844 crisis. And their information advantages don't seem to have remained a competitive advantage as it had been in the pre Napoleonic_Wars era.
Instapaper  economic_history  financial_innovation  banking  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  Quakers  dissenters  Industrial_Revolution  ethics  norms  norms-business  accounting  accountability  reputation  disclosure  information-intermediaries  information-markets  money_market  Bank_of_England  country_banks  financial_crisis  bank_runs  lender-of-last-resort  from instapaper
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Home BRANCH: Britain, Representation, and Nineteenth-Century History
This site, which is intertwined with Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net, provides users with a free, expansive, searchable, reliable, peer-reviewed, copy-edited, easy-to-use overview of the
novels  history_of_science  open_access  lit_crit  2-nations  Romanticism  aesthetics  art_history  intellectual_history  British_Empire  religious_history  website  representation  English_lit  Industrial_Revolution  19thC  digital_humanities  cultural_history  historiography-19thC  literary_history  Victorian  painting  imperialism  orientalism 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Nile Green - The Love of Strangers: What Six Muslim Students Learned in Jane Austen’s London | Princeton University Press
In July 1815, six Iranian students arrived in London under the escort of their chaperone, Captain Joseph D’Arcy. Their mission was to master the modern sciences behind the rapid rise of Europe. Over the next four years, they lived both the low life and high life of Regency London, from being down and out after their abandonment by D’Arcy to charming their way into society and landing on the gossip pages. Drawing on the Persian diary of the student Mirza Salih and the letters of his companions, Nile Green vividly describes how these adaptable Muslim migrants learned to enjoy the opera and take the waters at Bath. But there was more than frivolity to their student years in London. Burdened with acquiring the technology to defend Iran against Russia, they talked their way into the observatories, hospitals, and steam-powered factories that placed England at the forefront of the scientific revolution.The Love of Strangers chronicles the frustration and fellowship of six young men abroad to open a unique window onto the transformative encounter between an Evangelical England and an Islamic Iran at the dawn of the modern age. This is that rarest of books about the Middle East and the West: a story of friendships. Nile Green is professor of history at UCLA. His many books include Sufism: A Global History. -- Intro downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  19thC  British_history  British_Empire  Industrial_Revolution  technology_transfer  Iran  Islam  London  Austen  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  networks-social  networks-information  British_foreign_policy  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Guillaume Calafat & Éric Monnet - Le retour de l’histoire économique ? - La Vie des idées - 5 janvier 2016
Le récent succès d’ouvrages d’histoire économique, alors même que cette spécialité paraît souvent négligée à l’université, ainsi que des évolutions disciplinaires simultanées, font espérer de nouveaux rapprochements entre l’histoire et l’économie. -- downloaded pdf to Note
economic_history  economic_theory  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  trade  trade-cultural_transmission  networks-information  networks-business  development  sociology_of_knowledge  economic_sociology  economic_culture  econometrics  consumer_revolution  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Andrew Haldane: Labour's Share - speech to TUC | Bank of England - Nov 2015 - via Brad DeLong
Good overview of recent work on last 300 years by economic historians and technology impact projections -- lots on internal structural shifts within "labor" and vis a vis capital -- downloaded pdf to Note
speech  economic_history  labor_history  labor_share  Labor_markets  wages  productivity  productivity-labor_share  unemployment  skills  services  AI  IT  unions  UK_economy  monetary_policy  macroeconomic_policy  public_sector  Industrial_Revolution 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Guido Alfani, Wouter Ryckbosch - Income inequality in pre-industrial Europe | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal 06 November 2015
Thomas Piketty and others have prompted renewed interest in understanding long-term patterns of inequality. This column presents evidence from pre-industrial Europe. Inequality rose even during the success stories of early modern Europe, but it can hardly have been the sole requisite for growth. In both economic history and today’s economic theory, the idea of a universal trade-off between growth and inequality needs to be replaced by stronger attention to social processes and institutional developments. -- brief but extensive lit review of how thinking of economic historians has been evolving -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  economic_history  early_modern  Europe-Early_Modern  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  economic_growth  inequality  capital_formation  new_institutionalism  institutional_economics  political_economy  state-building  nation-state  human_capital  urbanization  Innovation  Industrial_Revolution  consumer_revolution  consumer_demand  wages  growth-equity_tradeoff  bibliography  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Louli, review - Emmanuel Fureix, François Jarrige, La modernité désenchantée - La Vie des idées - 10 juin 2015
Recensé : Emmanuel Fureix, François Jarrige, La modernité désenchantée, La Découverte 2015, 390 p., 25 €. -- Le XIXe siècle a longtemps été tenu pour le siècle du progrès. L’historiographie récente est plus attentive à ses contradictions et à ses aléas. Deux historiens proposent une histoire de l’histoire du XIXe siècle, illustrant la manière dont notre société se regarde elle-même. -- Ceci n’est pas un manuel sur le XIXe siècle, pourrait-on dire, en paraphrasant Magritte, à la première lecture de La modernité désenchantée. L’ouvrage des deux dix-neuvièmistes reconnus que sont E. Fureix et F. Jarrige est autrement plus ambitieux, et cherche à « esquisser un état des lieux (incomplet) de la façon dont les historiens d’aujourd’hui renouvellent les lectures du XIXe siècle, dans sa singularité » -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  intellectual_history  19thC  historiography  historiography-19thC  modernity  modernity-emergence  progress  cultural_history  cultural_change  cultural_critique  Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  Counter-Enlightenment  French_Revolution  Industrial_Revolution  science-and-religion  science-and-politics  French_politics  working_class  bourgeoisie  national_ID  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Grégory Hû , review - Thomas Bouchet, et al, Quand les socialistes inventaient l’avenir (1825-1860) - La Vie des idées - 26 août 2015
Recensé : Thomas Bouchet, Vincent Bourdeau, Edward Castleton, Ludovic Frobert et François Jarrige (dir.), Quand les socialistes inventaient l’avenir (1825-1860), Paris, La Découverte, 2014, 300p., 25€. -- À travers une activité journalistique intense mais peu connue, les socialistes du XIXe siècle ont posé les jalons d’un courant politique aussi inventif que divers. Un ouvrage collectif revient sur les racines longtemps ignorées de ce premier socialisme à l’aune de sa presse . -- Cet ouvrage collectif, issu d’un colloque tenu à l’Université de Stanford aux États-Unis en 2013, entreprend d’analyser les doctrines et les modalités d’action des « premiers socialistes » à partir de l’analyse de leur presse entre 1825 et 1851. Il s’agit d’explorer le long cheminement des aspirations des courants politiques socialistes antérieurs à Karl Marx. Les auteurs s’appuient sur la nouvelle presse périodique qui connaît à cette époque un fort développement. En effet, la révolution de 1848, en plus d’être portée par les ouvriers et le peuple, a aussi été menée par les journalistes de l’époque. -- Cette publication collective s’inscrit dans une entreprise pluridisciplinaire rassemblant des économistes, des philosophes, des historiens et des politistes autour d’axes de réflexion communs (conditions de production d’un journal, thématiques l’animant, réseau des rédacteurs). -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  intellectual_history  19thC  French_politics  Industrial_Revolution  capitalism  socialism-19thC  July_Monarchy  1848_revolutions  French_government  political_culture  political_press  political_participation  working_class  public_opinion  publishing  journalism  Restoration-France  parties  political_philosophy  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Nadeem J. Z. Hussain and Lydia Patton - Friedrich Albert Lange | Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy August 2012 revision of original May 2095
Friedrich Albert Lange (b. 1828, d. 1875) was a German philosopher, pedagogue, political activist, and journalist. He was one of the originators of neo-Kantianism and an important figure in the founding of the Marburg school of neo-Kantianism. He also played a significant role in the German labour movement and in the development of social democratic thought. His book, The History of Materialism, was a standard introduction to materialism and the history of philosophy well into the twentieth century. -- 1. Life and Intellectual Career -- 2. Pedagogy -- 3. The Labor Question -- 4. Neo-Kantianism ** 4.1 The Ethical Standpoint of the Ideal ** 4.2 Logic and Scientific Methodology -- downloaded as pdf to Note
intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  German_scholars  Lange_FA  neo-Kantian  Hegelian  German_Idealism  materialism-19thC  materialism  historiography-19thC  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  epistemology-moral  epistemology-naturalism  ancient_philosophy  atomism  logic  scientific_method  socialism  labor  capitalism  Industrial_Revolution  social_democracy  physiology  mind  perception  sensation  Kant-ethics  bibliography 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Joel Mokyr, Chris Vickers, and Nicolas L. Ziebarth - The History of Technological Anxiety and the Future of Economic Growth: Is This Time Different? | AEAweb: Journal of Economic Perspectives, 29(3): 31-50
Technology is widely considered the main source of economic progress, but it has also generated cultural anxiety throughout history. The developed world is now suffering from another bout of such angst. Anxieties over technology can take on several forms, and we focus on three of the most prominent concerns. First, there is the concern that technological progress will cause widespread substitution of machines for labor, which in turn could lead to technological unemployment and a further increase in inequality in the short run, even if the long-run effects are beneficial. Second, there has been anxiety over the moral implications of technological process for human welfare, broadly defined. While, during the Industrial Revolution, the worry was about the dehumanizing effects of work, in modern times, perhaps the greater fear is a world where the elimination of work itself is the source of dehumanization. A third concern cuts in the opposite direction, suggesting that the epoch of major technological progress is behind us. Understanding the history of technological anxiety provides perspective on whether this time is truly different. We consider the role of these three anxieties among economists, primarily focusing on the historical period from the late 18th to the early 20th century, and then compare the historical and current manifestations of these three concerns. - downloaded pdf to Note
article  economic_history  technology  18thC  20thC  21stC  Industrial_Revolution  change-economic  change-social  unemployment  labor_history  robotics  AI  political_economy  economic_culture  economic_growth  labor_share  labor-service_sector  downloaded 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Frankema, Jeffrey G. Williamson, Woltjer - An economic rationale for the African scramble | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal- 14 July 2015
Ewout Frankema, Jeffrey G. Williamson, Pieter Woltjer -- The partitioning of Africa by European imperial powers in the late 19th century irreversibly transformed the long-term development trajectories of African economies. Yet, the motives for, and timing of, the scramble remain poorly understood. This column argues that the changes in African international trade over the course of the 19th century created an economic rationale for the African scramble. This episode offers insights that are relevant for current African economic development. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  economic_history  Africa  African_trade  19thC  20thC  imperialism  British_Empire  French_Empire  Industrial_Revolution  raw_materials  natural_resources  globalization  Sub-Saharan_Afric  economic_growth  development  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Pius XI, Quadragesimo Anno (May 151931) - ENCYCLICAL ON RECONSTRUCTION OF THE SOCIAL ORDER | Vatican
Forty years have passed since Leo XIII's peerless Encyclical, On the Condition of Workers, first saw the light, and the whole Catholic world, filled with grateful recollection, is undertaking to commemorate it with befitting solemnity. Other Encyclicals of Our Predecessor had in a way prepared the path for that outstanding document and proof of pastoral care: ...against the tenets of Socialism[5] against false teachings on human liberty,[6] and others of the same nature fully expressing the mind of Leo XIII. Yet the Encyclical, On the Condition of Workers, compared with the rest had this special distinction that at a time when it was most opportune and actually necessary to do so, it laid down for all mankind the surest rules to solve aright that difficult problem of human relations called "the social question." For toward the close of the 19thC, the new kind of economic life that had arisen and the new developments of industry had gone to the point in most countries that human society was clearly becoming divided more and more into two classes. One class, very small in number, was enjoying almost all the advantages which modern inventions so abundantly provided; the other, embracing the huge multitude of working people, oppressed by wretched poverty, was vainly seeking escape from the straits wherein it stood.
religious_history  economic_history  church_history  19thC  20thC  Catholics  Papacy  Industrial_Revolution  Gilded_Age  labor  labor_history  working_class  poverty  modernity  social_thought  social_problem  social_theory  socialism  liberty  religious_culture  religious_belief  entre_deux_guerres  laisser-faire  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Leo XIII - Rerum Novarum - ENCYCLICAL ON CAPITAL AND LABOR (1892) | Vatican
Rights and Duties of Capital and Labor -- That the spirit of revolutionary change, which has long been disturbing the nations of the world, should have passed beyond the sphere of politics and made its influence felt in the cognate sphere of practical economics is not surprising. The elements of the conflict now raging are unmistakable, in the vast expansion of industrial pursuits and the marvellous discoveries of science; in the changed relations between masters and workmen; in the enormous fortunes of some few individuals, and the utter poverty of the masses; the increased self reliance and closer mutual combination of the working classes; as also, finally, in the prevailing moral degeneracy. The momentous gravity of the state of things now obtaining fills every mind with painful apprehension; wise men are discussing it; practical men are proposing schemes; popular meetings, legislatures, and rulers of nations are all busied with it - actually there is no question which has taken deeper hold on the public mind. -- downloaded pdf to Note
religious_history  economic_history  19thC  capitalism  Industrial_Revolution  Gilded_Age  labor  labor_history  labor_standards  human_rights  dignity  poverty  political_economy  religious_culture  Catholics  Papacy  social_theory  social_thought  social_problem  social_gospel  working_class  laisser-faire  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Alan Jacobs - the three big stories of modernity | TextPatterns July 2015
So far there have been three widely influential stories about the rise of modernity: the Emancipatory, the Protestant, and the Neo-Thomist. (..) all these narrators of modernity see our own age as one in which the consequences of 500-year-old debates conducted by philosophers and theologians are still being played out. I think all of these narratives are wrong. They are wrong because they are the product of scholars in universities who overrate the historical importance and influence of other scholars in universities, and because they neglect ideas that connect more directly with the material world. All of these grands recits should be set aside, and they should not immediately be replaced with others, but with more particular, less sweeping, and more technologically-oriented stories. The technologies that Marshall McLuhan called "the extensions of Man" are infinitely more important for Man's story, for good and for ill, than the debates of the schoolmen and interpreters of the Bible. Instead of grand narratives of the emergence of The Modern we need something far more plural: technological histories of modernity.
Instapaper  cultural_history  cultural_capital  modernity  technology  Tech/Culture  social_theory  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  religious_history  Thomism-21stC  Reformation  Renaissance  Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  Enlightenment-ongoing  modernity-emergence  material_culture  economic_history  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  colonialism  Military_Revolution  Scientific_Revolution  consumer_revolution  technology-history  historiography  medicine  public_health  public_sphere  public_goods  media  print_culture  history_of_science  history_of_book  history-and-social_sciences  narrative  narrative-contested  from instapaper
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Diane Coyle - Inventors and manufacturers, and their economics (Version 1.0) | Enlightened Economics - June 2015
Starting from her discovery of writings on new industrialization processes and firms by Babbage, she's collecting cites of works by lesser known authors who were exploring various areas of new economic activity, and inventing new ways of observing, aggregating observations, and analyzing them, including policy recommendations. They include *--* (1) Andrew Yarranton (1619-1684), the metallurgist and civil engineer, has quite an interesting work called “England’s Improvement by Land and Sea: how to Beat the Dutch without Fighting” (2 vols., 1677–81). *--* (2) A lot of people also tend to overlook Richard Price‘s (1723-1791) contributions to economics. They’ve been largely overshadowed by his radical political and theological works. But it was he who originally proposed and then advised on the National Debt sinking fund, as well being the person to promote Bayes’ work on statistics and probabilities. "Observations on Reversionary Payments: On Schemes for Providing Annuities for Widows, and for Persons in Old Age; On the Method of Calculating the Values of Assurances on Lives; And on the National Debt." Also, … a PostScript on the Population of the Kin *--* (3) Another actuarial pioneer, Robert Wallace (1697-1771), was also very prolific writing about demography and political economy. One that sounds quite intriguing is called "Dissertation on the Numbers of Mankind" (1753). -- Her links are to paperback scans, but these should be in Google Books or Internet Archive
books  Google_Books  find  economic_history  economic_theory  political_economy  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  mercantilism  Anglo-Dutch  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  manufacturing  improvement  demography  productivity  sovereign_debt  public_finance  insurance  probability  safety_net  Pocket 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Joseph Adelson, review essay - What Caused Capitalism? | Foreign Affairs - May 2015
Once upon a time, smart people thought the world was flat. As globalization took off, economists pointed to spreading market forces that… Includes new Cambridge History of Capitalism, Mokyr Enlightened Economy, Acemoglu and Robinson Why Nations Fail, and Beckert Empire of Cotton -- contrasts tales that are, in broad brush, optimistic and internalist re origins (especially Mokyr) vs pessimistic and externalist (especially Cotton) -- copied to Instapaper
books  reviews  bookshelf  economic_history  capitalism  Great_Divergence  ancient_history  global_economy  global_history  global_system  Europe-Early_Modern  city_states  Italy  Spain  France  British_history  India  US_history  colonialism  imperialism  empires  institutional_economics  technology  development  Scientific_Revolution  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  industrial_policy  US_Civil_War  slavery  property  property_rights  mercantilism  mercantilism-violence  Instapaper  markets  political_economy  economic_culture  economic_growth  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Geoffrey Jones - Entrepreneurs, Firms and Global Wealth Since 1850 - March 2013 | SSRN
Modern economic growth diffused from its origins in the North Sea region to elsewhere in western and northern Europe, across the Atlantic, and later to Japan, but struggled to get traction elsewhere. The societal and cultural embeddedness of the new technologies posed significant entrepreneurial challenges. The best equipped to overcome these challenges were often entrepreneurs based in minorities who held significant advantages in capital-raising and trust levels. By the interwar years productive modern business enterprise was emerging across the non-Western world. Often local and Western managerial practices were combined to produce hybrid forms of business enterprise. After 1945 many governmental policies designed to facilitate catch-up ended up crippling these emergent business enterprises without putting effective alternatives in place. The second global economy has provided more opportunities for catch up from the Rest, and has seen the rapid growth of globally competitive businesses in Asia, Latin America and Africa. This is explained not only by institutional reforms, but by new ways for business in the Rest to access knowledge and capital, including returning diaspora, business schools and management consultancies. Smarter state capitalism was also a greater source of international competitive advantage than the state intervention often seen in the past. -- downloaded pdf to Note
economic_history  development  industrialization  institutional_economics  19thC  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  competition-interstate  globalization  industrial_policy  emtrepreneurs  diaspora  SMEs  technology_transfer  trust  access_to_finance  modernization_theory  business_history  firms-organization  downloaded  SSRN  Industrial_Revolution 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Biancamaria Fontana - Rethinking the Politics of Commercial Society The Edinburgh Review 1802–1832 (hdbk 1985, pbk & ebook 2008) | Political philosophy | Cambridge University Press
This book explores the sources of modern British liberalism through a study of the Edinburgh Review, the most influential and controversial early nineteenth-century British periodical. Founded by a group of young Scottish intellectuals in 1802, the Review served as a principal channel through which the ideas of the Scottish Enlightenment gained wider currency, and did much to popularize the doctrines of economic and political reform. As Dr Fontana shows in this lucid and keen analysis, the first thirty years in the life of the Review clearly display the new social and economic problems confronting European society in the aftermath of the French Revolution. **--** Introduction *--* 1. Scottish theories of commercial society and the French Revolution *-* 2. Adam Smith's heritage: the Edinburgh reviewers and the Wealth of Nations *-* 3. The definition of political economy: political economy as a social science *-* 4. The Edinburgh reviewers and the Whig party *-* 5. Commercial society and its enemies: the debate on the First Reform Bill *-* Conclusion -- downloaded pdfs of front matter and excerpt to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  18thC  19thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Revolution-impact  civil_society  commerce  commerce-doux  science_of_man  social_sciences  democracy  mass_culture  political_participation  British_politics  Edinburgh_Review  Whigs  Whigs-Radicals  Whigs-grandees  liberalism  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  international_political_economy  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  Napoleonic_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars-impact  social_order  reform-political  reform-social  reform-finance  reform-economic  Reform_Act_1832  Parliament  parties  trade-policy  trade-theory  trade-cultural_transmission  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Liam Brunt - Mechanical Innovation in the Industrial Revolution: The Case of Plough Design | JSTOR - The Economic History Review Vol. 56, No. 3 (Aug., 2003), pp. 444-477
Variations in levels of embodied technology generated variations in English plough prices in 1770. Using plough prices as a quality index, this article explains size and daily output of plough teams. It shows that variations in plough technology were due to technological change-not static optimization-and village plough technology was influenced by neighbouring villages. But technological advance was not constrained on the demand size: farmers purchased the best ploughs available. Rather, local supply of technology was the limiting factor. Technological change, urbanization, and information networks are rejected as explanations of local supply of technology. The key factor was market density. -- excellent bibliography on agrarian "revolution" in England and comparative -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  economic_history  Europe-Early_Modern  18thC  19thC  British_history  agriculture  agrarian_capitalism  technology  technology_transfer  technology-adoption  Innovation  Industrial_Revolution  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
François Jarrige, « E. P. Thompson, une vie de combat » | La Vie des idées, 6 janvier 2015
Grand historien de la classe ouvrière anglaise, figure intellectuelle majeure des débats sur le marxisme dans les années 1960-1970, militant antinucléaire à l’origine d’une critique écologiste du capitalisme : tels furent les visages multiples d’Edward Palmer Thompson, dont l’œuvre continue d’imprégner en profondeur l’ensemble des sciences sociales. -- the French are (re)discovering Thompson and his particular version of a Marxian approach that was highly allergic to Theory. -- extensive footnotes -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  historians  historians-and-politics  historiography  historiography-postWWII  20thC  social_history  Europe-Early_Modern  British_history  British_politics  18thC  19thC  working_class  Thompson_EP  moral_economy  morality-conventional  norms  Industrial_Revolution  Marxist  social_theory  social_sciences  political_philosophy  Marxism  industrialization  Whigs-oligarchy  property_rights  capitalism  capitalism-systemic_crisis  environment  sustainability  downloaded 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Robert C. Allen - Progress and Poverty in Early Modern Europe | JSTOR - The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 56, No. 3 (Aug., 2003) , pp. 403-443
An econometric model of economic development is estimated with data from leading European countries between 1300 and 1800. The model explores the impact of population, enclosure, empire, representative government, technology, and literacy on urbanization, agricultural productivity, proto-industry, and the real wage. Simulations show that the main factors leading to economic success in north-western Europe were the growth of American and Asian commerce and, especially, the innovations underlying the export of the new draperies in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The enclosure of the open fields, representative government, and the spread of literacy did not play major roles. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  economic_history  Europe-Early_Modern  Great_Divergence  North-Weingast  agrarian_capitalism  literacy  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  British_Empire  Dutch  colonialism  trade  Asia  textiles  Innovation  agriculture  urbanization  wages  labor_history  manufacturing  productivity  export-led  Industrial_Revolution  proto-industry  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Branko Milanovic: Can Black Death explain the Industrial Revolution? | globalinequality - Jan 11 2015
re presentation by a young scholar at Santa Fe suggesting that Why England (and Dutch) due to higher wages in Northern Europe post Black Death in contrast with South where non market repression or property arrangements were able to push adjustment costs inti agricultural workers without impact on wage rates. Milanovic compares with other theoretical approaches ie Pomerantz, Acemoglu & Robinson, Robert Allen etc. Link to 2007 paper by Pamuk Milanovic thinks may be 1st work to seriously look at differential impact of Black Death on northern & southern Europe as distinct from the common story if Western vs Central and Eastern Europe.
economic_history  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  Black_Death  North-Weingast  landowners  demography  economic_sociology  labor  agriculture  wages  productivity  colonialism  medieval  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  institutional_economics  capital  capitalism  China  Japan  ancient_Rome  slavery  bibliography 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Black, review - Philip E. Tetlock; Richard Ned Lebow; Geoffrey Parker, eds. , Unmaking the West: 'What-If?' Scenarios That Rewrite World History | JSTOR: The International History Review, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Sep., 2007), pp. 587-588
Black gives it high marks for (1) the introductory chapters that set up the issues and debates re use of counterfactuals and (2) the diversity of issue areas tackled, such as what if Europe hadn't adopted Christianity. Goldstone has a chapter framing William_III victory in the Glorious Revolution as critical turning point for industrial revolution, European political economy and Great Divergence. Carla Pestana has a brief contrary comment piece. Includes usual suspects like Victor Hanson and Joel Mokyr.
books  reviews  jstor  historiography  historical_sociology  historical_change  counterfactuals  contingency  Great_Divergence  North-Weingast  Industrial_Revolution  British_history  Western_civ  religious_culture  Christendom 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Neil Davidson - The Origins Of Scottish Nationhood (Pluto Critical History Series) (2000) 144 pages | pbk (9780745316086): : Books amazon.com
The traditional view of the Scottish nation holds that it first arose during the Wars of Independence from England in the 13thC & 14thC. Although Scotland was absorbed into Britain in 1707, Scottish identity is supposed to have remained alive through separate institutions of religion, education, and the legal system. Davidson argues otherwise. The Scottish nation did not exist before 1707. The Scottish national consciousness we know today was not preserved by institutions carried over from the pre-Union period, but arose after and as a result of the Union, for only then were the material obstacles to nationhood – most importantly the Highland/Lowland divide – overcome. This Scottish nation was constructed simultaneously with and as part of the British nation, and the 18thC Scottish bourgeoisie were at the forefront of constructing both. The majority of Scots entered the Industrial Revolution with a dual national consciousness, but only one nationalism, which was British. The Scottish nationalism which arose in Scotland during the 20thC is therefore not a revival of a pre-Union nationalism after 300 years, but an entirely new formation. -- Customer review - Davidson refutes Linda Colley's idealist thesis that Protestantism, Francophobia, monarchism and empire formed the British nation. The first three of these were ideas, present, yes, but not formative. Empire was external to Britain, and so it was never part of people's experience of becoming British or Scottish. Scotland was a full partner, not a junior partner in the British (not English) Empire, unlike Ireland. The experience of becoming the workshop of the world formed Britain as a nation, creating our culture and identity. Industry, making things, and organising in our Britain-wide trade unions (which Davidson barely mentions) made us British. -- not on kindle
books  amazon.com  find17thC  18thC  Scotland  British_history  1707_Union  national_ID  nationalism  bourgeoisie  Industrial_Revolution  British_Empire  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  Anglo-Irish_constitution  colonialism  imperialism  history_of_England  Kirk  legal_system  Highlands-Scotland  Lowland-Scotland  Scottish_Enlightenment  Scottish_politics  Britannia 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Matias Vernengo NAKED KEYNESIANISM: Manufacturing matters - Jan 2013
Chart of distribution of manufacturing capacity over the centuries pre and post Industrial Revolution from Robert Allen -- Note that the West, narrowly defined as England the rest of Western Europe, what was to become the US and Russia (called for the whole period USSR) had a share of less than 20% in 1750, it had expanded to more than 80% on the eve of WW-I. If you add Australia, Canada and Latin America (which are all in Rest of the World, but are what Maddison would call Western offshoots), the numbers are even larger. Most of the changes were associated to the squeeze of China. And most of the recent changes are associated with expansion of China and East Asia (which includes Japan). We have not gone full circle, by the way. In other words, the process of development (or indutrialization in the center) went hand in hand with the process of underdevelopment (deindustrialization) in the periphery, and old lesson from a little book by Osvaldo Sunkel which is still worth reading. [1972 study of Latin American development and underdevelopment from 1750, tracking exports, FDI etc]
economic_history  economic_theory  economic_growth  development  emerging_markets  Latin_America  Great_Divergence  China  India  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  manufacturing  exports  British_history  capitalism  18thC  19thC 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Matias Vernengo - NAKED KEYNESIANISM: Institutions, what institutions? - September 2014
Nice breakdown of theorists of causes of development and underdevelopment and problems of trying to catch up -- So if you believe most heterodox economists institutions are relevant, but not primarily those associated to the supply side; the ones linked to the demand side, in Keynesian fashion are more important than the mainstream admits. Poor countries that arrive late to the process of capitalist development cannot expand demand without limits since the imports of intermediary and capital goods cause recurrent balance of payments crises. The institutions that allow for the expansion of demand, including those that allow for higher wages to expand consumption and to avoid the external constraints, are and have been central to growth and development. The role of the State in creating and promoting the expansion of domestic markets, in the funding of research and development, and in reducing the barriers to balance of payments constraints, both by guarantying access to external markets (sometimes militarily, like in the Opium Wars) and reducing foreign access to domestic ones was crucial in the process of capitalist development. In this view, for example, what China did not have that England did, was not lack of secure property rights and the rule of law, but a rising bourgeoisie (capitalists) that had to compete to provide for a growing domestic market that had acquired a new taste (and hence explained expanding demand) for a set of new goods, like cotton goods from India, or china (porcelain) from… well China, as emphasized by economic historian Maxine Berg among others (for the role of consumption in the Industrial Revolution go here). Or simply put, China did not have a capitalist mode of production (for the concept of mode of production and capitalism go here). Again, I argued that Robert Allen’s view according to which high wages and cheap energy forced British producers to innovate to save labor, leading to technological innovation and growth, and the absence of those conditions in China led to stagnation is limited since it presupposes that firms adopt more productive technologies even without growing demand. -- see links
economic_history  economic_theory  economic_growth  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  development  emerging_markets  Latin_America  Great_Divergence  demand  consumer_demand  British_history  China  institutional_economics  institutional_change  institution-building  institutions  supply-side  demand-side  cultural_history  economic_culture  political_culture  industrialization  Industrial_Revolution  international_political_economy  international_monetary_system  balance_of_payments  state-building  rent-seeking  rentiers  commodities  links 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
ALEXIS D. LITVINE, review essay - THE INDUSTRIOUS REVOLUTION, THE INDUSTRIOUSNESS DISCOURSE, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN ECONOMIES (2014) | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 531-570. - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
ALEXIS D. LITVINE - Trinity College, Cambridge -- The idea of industriousness has been an ever-recurring issue since Max Weber launched it as a putative explanation of the advent of economic modernity. The notion of ‘industrious revolution’ has provoked a renewed flourishing of publications focusing on this issue. Although most historians agree on the emergence of industriousness in seventeenth-century Europe, there is no consensus regarding the chronology, hence the real causes, of this mental and discursive shift. This article emphasizes the problematic role played by literary evidences in these social and cultural models of diffusion of new consumer values and desires. It then establishes the timing of the emergence of the ‘industriousness discourse’ using an original approach to diffusion based both on the quantitative analysis of very large corpora and a close reading of seventeenth-century economic pamphlets and educational literature. It concludes first that there was not one but several competing discourses on industriousness. It then identifies two crucial hinges which closely match the chronology proposed by Allen and Muldrew, but refutes that championed by de Vries and McCloskey. The industrious revolution as described by these authors would have happened both too late to fit its intellectual roots and too early to signal the beginning of a ‘consumer revolution’. -- * I am extremely grateful to Peter Mandler, Craig Muldrew, participants in the Early Modern Economic and Social History seminar, and two anonymous referees, for their comments on previous versions of this article. I am also indebted to Andrew Hardie, Jean-Baptiste Michel, and Paul Schaffner for allowing me to use their data and to Billy Janitsch, Andreas Vlachos, and Andrew Wilson for technical assistance.
article  paywall  find  historiography  17thC  Europe-Early_Modern  Great_Divergence  economic_history  intellectual_history  cultural_history  social_order  consumerism  Industrial_Revolution  industriousness  virtue  discourse  bourgeoisie  modernity-emergence  education  values  publishing  readership  Protestant_Ethic  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Forum - “Deirdre McCloskey and Economists’ Ideas about Ideas” (July, 2014) - Online Library of Liberty
Deirdre McClosky is over the halfway point of her 4 volume work on The Bourgeois Era. Two volumes have already appeared, Bourgeois Virtues (2006) and Bourgeois Dignity (2010), and a third is close to appearing [2015]. This Liberty Matters online discussion will assess her progress to date with a Lead Essay by Don Boudreaux and comments by Joel Mokyr and John Nye, and replies to her critics by Deirdre McCloskey. The key issue is to try to explain why “the Great Enrichment” of the past 150 years occurred in northern and western Europe rather than elsewhere, and why sometime in the middle of the 18th century. Other theories have attributed it to the presence of natural resources, the existence of private property and the rule of law, and the right legal and political institutions. McCloskey’s thesis is that a fundamental change in ideas took place which raised the “dignity” of economic activity in the eyes of people to the point where they felt no inhibition in pursuing these activities which improved the situation of both themselves and the customers who bought their products and services.
intellectual_history  cultural_history  economic_history  economic_growth  Medieval  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  Great_Divergence  British_history  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Industrial_Revolution  bourgeoisie  political_economy  France  Germany  Prussia  China  development  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  legal_history  property  property_rights  commerce  trade  trading_companies  free_trade  improvement  technology  Innovation  agriculture  energy  natural_capital  nature-mastery  transport  capitalism  colonialism  industry  industrialization  social_order  Great_Chain_of_Being  consumers  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  equality  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  liberalism  incentives  microeconomics  historical_sociology  historical_change  social_theory  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Nico Voigtländer, Mara Squicciarini, Knowledge elites, enlightenment, and industrialisation | vox 13 July 2014
Although studies of contemporary economies find robust associations between human capital and growth, past research has found no link between worker skills and the onset of industrialisation. This column resolves the puzzle by focusing on the upper tail of the skill distribution, which is strongly associated with industrial development in 18th-century France. -- uses density of subscriptions to the Encyclopédie to analyze spatial distribution of knowledge elites which they find strongly associated with industrialization post 1750.
economic_history  economic_growth  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  18thC  19thC  academies  elite_culture  bourgeoisie  nobility  technology  Innovation  sociology_of_knowledge  knowledge_economy  education  literacy  Encyclopédie  scientific_culture  science-public  Scientific_Revolution  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Alfred Marshall - Industry and Trade (Vol 2) [1919] | Google Books
Vol 2 appears to be available only as a commercial ebook (price c $4) - Vol 1 is a full Google Books copy added to my Google_Books library -- Vol 2 looks interesting in his treatment of the English economy from at least the Black Death -- remarks on "mercantilism" and the economic policies of the British government in the mid 18thC (following Adam Smith characterized as"bad" and "selfish") -- Though the bulk of his work was completed before the turn of the 20th century, the global ramifications of World War I prompted him to reconsider his theories on international economics, and in 1919 he published the two-volume Industry and Trade. Here, in Volume II, he discusses. . how monopolies and competition impact prices . trusts and cartels in the American and German economies . the decline of class differences and advantages in industrial systems . unions, co-opts, and business federations . and much more.
books  etexts  Google_Books  economic_history  British_history  UK_economy  Germany  Prussia  mercantilism  merchants  international_political_economy  international_economics  trading_companies  trade-policy  trade  trade-agreements  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  German_unification  monopolies  corporations  corporate_finance  labor  Labor_markets  wages  unions  imperialism  empire-and_business  US_economy  protectionism  Hamilton  Smith  free_trade  laisser-faire  institutional_economics  institution-building  firms-theory  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
John Grumley - Theorizing Modernity: Unit of Study Guide 2014 - Sydney, Australia
Lecture notes on each class plus extensive reading lists, - see especially the post on alternative paper questions, each with a reading list -- PHIL 2633 Theorising Modernity -- The popular image of 19th century modernity was of a speeding locomotive clear of form, direction and ultimate destination. In reality, however, and despite unbounded optimism, the great thinkers of the 19th century were at least aware of deep contradictions and these tempered their assessments of modernity. This course will survey the best of these classical theories to discover to what extent they were able to capture the contradictions and problems we know only too well. The work of Hegel, de Tocqueville, Marx and Nietzsche will serve as paradigmatic attempts to discover the essence of modernity. Recurring themes and features will be examined through the prism of these thinkers: these include questions of meaning after the collapse of tradition, and problems arising from capitalism, industrialisation, the nation-state, democracy, bureaucratisation, individualism and the rise of secularism-- their main tendencies, antinomies and problems. The course will demonstrate how much we owe these thinkers for our understanding of modernity, as well as, considering their respective shortcomings from a contemporary perspective.
intellectual_history  19thC  Hegel  Tocqueville  Marx  Nietzsche  modernity  Industrial_Revolution  individualism  secularization  nation-state  nationalism  democracy  mass_culture  elite_culture  class_conflict  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  social_theory  social_process  historicism  bibliography  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
N. Draper - The City of London and Slavery: Evidence from the First Dock Companies, 1795-1800 | JSTOR: The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 61, No. 2 (May, 2008), pp. 432-466
Through analysing the composition of the founding shareholders in the West India and London Docks, this article explores the connections between the City of London and the slave economy on the eve of the abolition of the slave trade. It establishes that over one-third of docks investors were active in slave-trading, slave-ownership, or the shipping, trading, finance, and insurance of slave produce. It argues that the slave economy was neither dominant nor marginal, but instead was fully integrated into the City's commercial and financial structure, contributing materially alongside other key sectors to the foundations of the nineteenth-century City. -- huge bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_economy  economic_history  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Atlantic  West_Indies  American_colonies  slavery  abolition  London  ports  trade  merchants  planters  investors  shipping  finance_capital  insurance  City  City_politics  Industrial_Revolution  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Kathleen Biddick, The Shock of Medievalism (2012) eBook: Amazon.com
Biddick explores the 19thC foundations of medieval studies as an academic discipline as well as certain unexamined contemporary consequences of these origins. By pairing debates over current academic trends and issues with innovative readings of medieval texts, Biddick exposes the presuppositions of the field of medieval studies and significantly shifts the objects of its historical inquiry. Biddick describes how the discipline of medieval studies was defined by a process of isolation and exclusion—a process that not only ignored significant political and cultural issues of the 19thC but also removed the period from the forces of history itself. Wanting to separate themselves from popular studies of medieval culture, and valuing their own studies as scientific, 19thC academics created an exclusive discipline whose structure is consistently practiced today, despite the denials of most contemporary medieval scholars. Biddick supports her argument by discussing the unavowed melancholy that medieval Christians felt for Jews and by revealing the unintentional irony of nineteenth-century medievalists’ fabrication of sentimental objects of longing (such as the “gothic peasant”). The subsequent historical distortions of this century-old sentimentality, the relevance of worker dislocation during the industrial revolution, and other topics lead to a conclusion in which Biddick considers the impact of an array of factors on current medieval studies. Simultaneously displacing disciplinary stereotypes and altering an angle of historical inquiry, this book will appeal to readers who are interested in how historicizing processes can affect the development of academic disciplines
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  historiography  historiography-19thC  medieval_history  19thC  historicism  social_history  economic_culture  political_culture  intelligentsia  Industrial_Revolution  class_conflict  working_class  bourgeoisie  academia  disciplines  scientism  national_ID  folklore  nostalgia  sentimentalism  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Peter Temin - Economic History and Economic Development: New Economic History in Retrospect and Prospect | NBER Working Paper - May 2014
Abstract -- I argue in this paper for more interaction between economic history and economic development. Both subfields study economic development; the difference is that economic history focuses on high-wage countries while economic development focuses on low-wage economies. My argument is based on recent research by Robert Allen, Joachim Voth and their colleagues. Voth demonstrated that Western Europe became a high-wage economy in the 14th century, using the European Marriage Pattern stimulated by the effects of the Black Death. This created economic conditions that led eventually to the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century. Allen found that the Industrial Revolution resulted from high wages and low power costs. He showed that the technology of industrialization was adapted to these factor prices and is not profitable in low-wage economies. The cross-over to economic development suggests that demography affects destiny now as in the past, and that lessons from economic history can inform current policy decisions. This argument is framed by a description of the origins of the New Economic History, also known as Cliometrics, and a non-random survey of recent research emphasizing the emerging methodology of the New Economic History.
paper  paywall  economic_history  development  demography  OECD_economies  emerging_markets  Industrial_Revolution  Great_Divergence 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Understanding Society: The Brenner debate revisited - Jan 2010
Very useful summary of the various causal theories re transition to capitalist agriculture and difference between England and France - though couched as Brenner debate it is much broader and slides into Great Divergence, rise of the West, etc -- But it seems clear in hindsight that these are false dichotomies. We aren't forced to choose: Malthus, Marx, or Smith. Economic development is not caused by a single dominant factor -- a point that Guy Bois embraces in his essay (Aston and Philpin, 117). Rather, all these factors were in play in European economic development -- and several others as well. (For example, Ken Pomeranz introduces the exploitation of the natural resources, energy sources, and forced labor of the Americas in his account of the economic growth of Western Europe (The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy). And I suppose that it would be possible to make a climate-change argument for this period of change as well.) Moreover, each large factor (population, prices, property relations) itself is the complex result of a number of great factors -- including the others on the list. So we shouldn't expect simple causal diagrams of large outcomes like sustained economic growth.
social_theory  economic_history  feudalism  capitalism  British_history  France  medieval_history  16thC  17thC  18thC  Great_Divergence  agriculture  industrialization  Industrial_Revolution  property_rights  entrepreneurs  class_conflict  economic_growth  causation-social  links  bibliography  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Marx Myths & Legends - website
Series of serious essays, including on relations to other thinkers (e.g. Hegel) and how Marx was contested and distorted by both enemies and friends in 20thC -- We believe that what Marx had to say remains of considerable relevance to an understanding of problems we face today, but that a reading of Marx now must maintain a critical caution which does not merely reproduce received ideas- positive or negative- about Marx’s work. The distortion and questionable interpretation of Marx’s work is in many senses a direct result of his great success. ... Interpretation of Marx has thus been driven by a number of historical factors, and any attempts to gain, for example, a “scholarly” understanding have necessarily been secondary. ... To set against the distortions we cannot raise up a singular, uncontradictory Marx, abstracted from history and ultimately separable from everything that comes within “Marxism”, yet it remains that there is much in that received wisdom about Marx that is refutable, or at least rendered distinctly questionable, with a little attention to the textual and historical evidence.
intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  political_economy  social_theory  Marx  Hegel  Hegelian  Hegelians-French  Marxist  historiography-19thC  capitalism  capital  labor  Industrial_Revolution  industry  technology  ideology  property  legal_system  bourgeoisie  working_class  elites  money  markets  website  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Alan Brooke - THE LUDDITE LEGACY (2012) | luddites200
Full text of a paper forming the basis of a talk given at York Guildhall, 19 January 2012, to commemorate the execution of the West Riding of Yorkshire Luddites in 1813.
paper  etexts  British_history  British_politics  19thC  20thC  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  British_Empire  capitalism  Marxism  socialism  unions  Labor_markets  public_disorder  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Lord Byron's Speech - debate in the House of Lords - 1812 Frame Breaking Act
This speech was given by Lord Byron in the debate in the House of Lords on the 1812 Frame Breaking Act. A week later, in a letter to a friend Byron wrote, “I spoke very violent sentences with a sort of modest impudence, abused everything and everybody, put the Lord Chancellor very much out of humour, and if I may believe what I hear, have not lost any character in the experiment”.
etexts  British_history  British_politics  economic_history  social_history  19thC  Industrial_Revolution  technology  Labor_markets  poverty  unemployment  Byron  lower_orders  criminal_justice  judiciary  Parliament  House_of_Lords  George_III  Napoleonic_Wars 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert A. Black and Claire G. Gilmore - Crowding Out during Britain's Industrial Revolution | JSTOR: The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 50, No. 1 (Mar., 1990), pp. 109-131
Contrary to earlier assertions, the historical data for Britain do confirm a (lagged) crowding-out effect during the Industrial Revolution. Heavy government borrowing after 1793 for the wars with France raised interest rates. These results are confirmed with nominal-interest-rate equations rather than with real-rate equations, which impose restrictive assumptions about the adjustment of nominal rates to inflation expectations. We see no reason to abandon the neoclassical, factor-allocation model of saving and investment in favor of a theory asserting that firms accumulate capital for investment independently of household saving decisions. -- 2nd article in to and fro with Mirowski -- didn't download
article  jstor  economic_history  finance_capital  sovereign_debt  crowding_out  capital_markets  fiscal-military_state  Industrial_Revolution  British_history  18thC  19thC  capital_flows  savings  investment  interest_rates  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Carol E. Heim and Philip Mirowski - Interest Rates and Crowding-Out During Britain's Industrial Revolution | JSTOR: The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 47, No. 1 (Mar., 1987), pp. 117-139
Available evidence on interest rates and government borrowing during Britain's industrial revolution, while limited, does not support the idea that war spending crowded out private investment. This article demonstrates the importance of using data on net receipts from borrowing, rather than changes in government debt. Weaknesses of the crowding-out model concerning capital markets and investment, openness of the economy, and full employment are identified for the historical case. The case raises broader issues of whether conceptions of saving and investment based in neoclassical supply-constrained models are as appropriate as theories of capital accumulation. -- 1st in series of back and forth articles -- didn't download
article  jstor  economic_history  finance_capital  sovereign_debt  crowding_out  capital_markets  fiscal-military_state  Industrial_Revolution  18thC  19thC  British_history  UK_Government  interest_rates  international_finance  capital_flows  savings  investment  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey G. Williamson - The Impact of the Irish on British Labor Markets During the Industrial Revolution | JSTOR: The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 46, No. 3 (Sep., 1986), pp. 693-720
The Irish immigrations during the First Industrial Revolution serve to complicate any assessment of Britain's economic performance up to the 1850s. This paper estimates the size of the Irish immigrations and explores its impact on real wages, rural-urban migration, and industrialization. Using a general equilibrium model, the paper finds that the Irish did not play a significant role in accounting for rising inequality, lagging real wages, or rapid industrialization. -- didn't download
article  jstor  economic_history  social_history  18thC  19thC  British_history  Ireland  immigration  Labor_markets  Industrial_Revolution  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Paul L. Sawyer - Ruskin's Poetic Argument: The Design of the Major Works [Preface] | Victorian Web
1985 book, etext on Victorian Web -- this is 1st web page, the Preface
Contents --
Part I: Transcendental Aesthetics
Chapter 1. The Golden Waters
Chapter 2. The Language of Sense
Introduction
Sermons in Paint
Painting in Words

Chapter 3. The Lamp of Power
Introduction
Romantic Italy
"The Soul's Metropolis"

Part II: The Legend of Time

Chapter 4. The Lamp of Love
The Golden Waters
The Mother of Beauty
The Meaning of Architecture

Chapter 5. "Paradise of Cities"
The Plan: History as Typology
History as Nostalgia
The Burning Legends
The Anatomy of Alienation
The Legacy

Chapter 6. The Natural History of the Imagination
The Legend of Time: The Natural History of the Imagination
Poetry: A "Feeling for Reality"
Prophecy and Religion: The Ages of Landscape
Of Mountain Beauty: The Modern Grotesque

Part III: Wealth and Life

Chapter 7. The Economy of Beauty
Wealth and Life: The Economy of Beauty
The Economy of Art
The Organic Body
Treasure
Turner and Veronese

Chapter 8. The Economy of Life
Wealth and Life: The Economy of Beauty
The Prophecy against Mammon
Loving and Owing
The Apotheosis of Justice
The Light of the Body

Part IV: The Structure of Myth

Chapter 9. The Currency of Meaning
At the Middle of the Road
Coins and Words

Chapter 10. The Goddess and the child
The Looking-Glass World
The Firmament of Mind

Part V: Works and Days

Chapter 11. Olympian Lightning
Myth and Science
"Lifeless Seed of Life"
Serpent and Grotesque

Chapter 12. "Ruskin's Apocalypse"

Chapter 13.Time Present and Time Past
books  etexts  lit_crit  literary_history  English_lit  historiography-19thC  Ruskin  art_history  art_criticism  architecture  Gothic_revival  cultural_history  Victorian  Venice  Industrial_Revolution  cultural_critique  poetry  Italy  Romanticism  Coleridge  Carlyle  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Frances Coppola - Experiment with Basic Income: The Speenhamland System |Pieria Jan 2014
In 1795, the parish of Speen, in Berkshire, England, embarked on a radical new system of poor relief. Due to the ruinous French wars and a series of poor harvests, grain prices were rising sharply. As bread was the staple food of the poor, rising grain prices increased poverty and caused unrest. Concerned by the possibility of riots, the parish decided to provide subsistence-level income support to the working poor. -- Discusses Poor Laws pre 1832, Bentham attitude to work, Ricardo concern with labor supply, Malthus contrihution to debate - and Deidre McCloskey studies - and post 1834 workhouse system
18thC  19thC  British_history  British_politics  social_history  economic_history  political_economy  Poor_Laws  poverty  Bentham  Ricardo  Malthus  agriculture  taxes  landowners  wages  Labor_markets  Industrial_Revolution  prices  Napoleonic_Wars  Victorian  market_integration  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard W. Unger, review - Jan de Vries and Ad van der Woude, The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500–1815 | JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 72, No. 1 (March 2000), pp. 239-241
Reviewed work(s): The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500–1815. By Jan de Vries and Ad van der Woude. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Pp. xx+767. $89.95. -- Richard W. Unger, University of British Columbia -- The final sixty pages do serve to draw together what has gone before and offer not only an overview of economic and social developments but also a tentative theory about patterns of the rise and fall of modern economies. The authors launch a sustained attack on traditional periodization of economic and, indeed, all history. They find in the Netherlands in the seventeenth century many of the features of nineteenth- and twentieth-century economic growth. They see no reason to look on the English Industrial Revolution as a cataclysmic event. -- There seems to be no doubt that the massive debt run up by the Dutch government in fending off the French threat from 1672 to 1713 burdened the economy so much that it could neither recover earlier levels of growth nor engage in restructuring like that which occurred in the years from 1660 to 1700 in the face of falling food prices, rising real incomes of laborers and craftsmen, and declining land values. Too many people in the eighteenth century—such as government officials and bondholders—lived well thanks to the need to service the debt; these people resisted necessary fiscal reform.
books  reviews  jstor  economic_history  political_economy  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  Dutch  development  modernization  urbanization  agriculture  industry  Industrial_Revolution  foreign_policy  sovereign_debt  rentiers  trading_companies  trade  colonialism  shipping  entrepôts  periodization  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Roger Hahn, review - Margaret C. Jacob, Scientific Culture and the Making of the Industrial West | JSTOR: The American Historical Review, Vol. 105, No. 5 (Dec., 2000), pp. 1793-1794
Good look at how Jacob theories re importance of Newtonianism, its spread, the Republic of Letters and freemasonry had profound effects on mentalities beyond the scientific and philosophical elites - in this narrative linking it to technology and industrial innovation. -- didn't download
books  reviews  intellectual_history  sociology_of_knowledge  17thC  18thC  Scientific_Revolution  experimental_philosophy  Newtonian  technology  Innovation  Industrial_Revolution  Republic_of_Letters  Freemasonry  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Cosma Shalizi -review- Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism
This book contains the most convincing theory of nationalism I've seen, and has profound implications for anyone concerned with modern history, contemporary politics, or the possibilities of multi-culturalism.

Pre-modern socities which possess agriculture and literacy, the inhabitants of what Gellner sometimes calls "Agraria," were economically static and internally culturally diverse, at least compared to their industrial successors. Cultural differences in fact often went with economic specializations, and so served to fix people in their inherited professions. It is Gellner's thesis that economic change requires cultural homogeneity, and that the demand for cultural homogeneity, and the state apparatus to provide it, is what drives nationalism.
books  bookshelf  reviews  nation-state  political_economy  nationalism  national_ID  Industrial_Revolution  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader
Douglas W. Allen - In defence of the institutional revolution - Springer
The Review of Austrian Economics
December 2013, Volume 26, Issue 4

I defend my thesis laid out in The Institutional Revolution against the comments made by McCloskey, Espin and Mokyr, and Langlois, who all believe that the weight of the great institutional transition is too great for my theory of measurement, and who all quibble with some aspects of my historical analysis. I argue that some of the comments fail to fully appreciate the Coasean approach, and that most of the historical comments miss the mark. I begin with a short discussion of Coase, and then turn to each author in turn.
books  kindle-available  reviews  economic_history  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  17thC  18thC  19thC  Britain  institutional_economics  transaction_costs  microeconomics  EF-add 
october 2013 by dunnettreader
Richard N. Langlois - The Institutional Revolution: A review essay - Springer
The Review of Austrian Economics
December 2013, Volume 26, Issue 4

This review essay discusses and appraises Douglas Allen’s The Institutional Revolution (2011) as a way of reflecting on the uses of the New Institutional Economics (NIE) in economic history. It praises and defends Allen’s method of asking “what economic problem were these institutions solving?” But it insists that such comparative-institutional analysis be imbedded within a deeper account of institutional change, one driven principally by changes – often endogenous changes – in the extent of the market and in relative scarcities. The essay supports its argument with a variety of examples of the NIE applied to economic history.
books  kindle-available  reviews  paywall  economic_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  Britain  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  institutional_economics  institutions  economic_sociology  historical_sociology  NIE  cultural_history  causation-social  change-social  EF-add 
october 2013 by dunnettreader
Joel Mokyr, José-Antonio Espín-Sánchez: The Institutional Revelation: A comment on Douglas W. Allen’s The Institutional Revolution - Springer
The Review of Austrian Economics
December 2013, Volume 26, Issue 4

Institutions are a central topic in economic history. Allen’s work differs in that he is interested in institutions per se, not as a means to economic performance and prosperity. The purpose of this book is to explain the institutions of the premodern world and to show why they changed. His argument is that in a Principal-Agent situation, before the Industrial Revolution, it was harder for the Principal to attribute whether the failure of the project was due to acts of nature or some acts of the agent, hence the “strange” institutions. In a modern world, with a much improved monitoring technology, we can use more “efficient” institutions, hence the Institutional Revolution. Although innovative and interesting, the author over-stresses his argument. Much more than monitoring in a principal-agent relationship is needed to explain the Industrial Revolution and the changes in institutions associated with it.
books  reviews  economic_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  Britain  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  institutional_economics  EF-add 
october 2013 by dunnettreader
Deirdre N. McCloskey: A comment on Douglas Allen’s The Institutional Revolution - Springer
The Review of Austrian Economics
December 2013, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 363-373

In his elegant book Douglas Allen claims that an improvement in the measurement of Nature made for lower transaction costs and the Industrial Revolution. His argument is a typical example of neo-institutionalism in the style of Douglass North (1990) and North et al. (2009). A fall in a wedge of inefficiency is supposed to provide Good Incentives, and the modern world. But the elimination of wedges lead merely to Harberger Triangles of improved efficiency—not to the factor of 100 in properly measured real income per head, which is the Great Enrichment 1800 to the present to be explained. Allen does yeoman work in explaining some of the peculiarities of British public administration, such as the reliance on aristocratic honor and on the prize system in naval warfare. But he attributes to public administration an implausible effect on private incomes. The merging of power and plenty is mistaken. Further, the alleged increase in a modern ability to measure marginal products is implausible. Large modern enterprises face greater, not smaller, problems of assessing the contribution of individuals. Allen’s book on measurement does not measure, and the probable order of magnitude of the items he focuses on is too small to explain any but the details of administration.
books  reviews  economic_history  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  Britain  17thC  18thC  institutional_economics  EF-add 
october 2013 by dunnettreader
Precocious Albion: A New Interpretation of the British Industrial Revolution by Morgan Kelly, Joel Mokyr, Cormac O'Grada :: SSRN
Downloaded pdf - Why was Britain the cradle of the Industrial Revolution? Answers vary: some focus on resource endowments, some on institutions, some on the role of empire. In this paper, we argue for the role of labour force quality or human capital. Instead of dwelling on mediocre schooling and literacy rates, we highlight instead the physical condition of the average British worker and his higher endowment of skills. These advantages meant that British workers were more productive and better paid than their Continental counterparts and better equipped to capitalize on the technological opportunities and challenges confronting them.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 34 - Date posted: September 4, 2013
economic_history  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  Britain  labor  Labor_markets  18thC  19thC  downloaded 
october 2013 by dunnettreader
McCloskey, Deirdre (2009): Foreign Trade Was Not an Engine of Growth - Munich Personal RePEc Archive
Trade reshuffles. No wonder, then, that it doesn’t work as an engine of growth—not for explaining the scale of growth that overcame the West and then the Rest 1800 to the present. Yet many historians, such as Walt Rostow or Robert Allen or Joseph Inikori, have put foreign trade at the center of their accounts. Yet the Rest had been vigorously trading in the Indian Ocean long before the Europeans got there—indeed, that’s why the West wanted to get there. Trade certainly set the prices that British industrialists faced, such as the price of wheat or the interest rate. But new trade does not put people to work, unless they start unemployed. If they are, then any source of demand, such as the demand for domestic service, would be as important as the India trade. Foreign trade is not a net gain, but a way of producing importables at the sacrifice of exportables. The Harberger point implies that static gains from trade are small beside the 1500% of growth to be explained, or even the 100% in the first century in Britain. Trade is anyway too old and too widespread to explain a uniquely European—even British—event. One can appeal to “dynamic” effects, but these too can be shown to be small, even in the case of the gigantic British cotton textile industry. And if small causes lead to large consequences, the model is instable, and any old thing can cause it to tip. Ronald Findlay and Kevin O’Rourke favor foreign trade on the argument that power led to plenty. But domination is not the same thing as innovation. In short, the production possibility curve did not move out just a little, as could be explained by trade or investment or reshuffling. It exploded, and requires an economics of discovery, not an economics of routine exchanges of cotton textiles for tea. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  economic_history  economic_growth  economic_models  trade-theory  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  Innovation  technology  investment  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Peter Temin - Two Views of the British Industrial Revolution (1997)
JSTOR: The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Mar., 1997), pp. 63-82 -- There are two views of the British Industrial Revolution in the literature today. The more traditional description sees the Industrial Revolution as a broad change in the British economy and society. This broad view of the Industrial Revolution has been challenged by Crafts and Harley who see the Industrial Revolution as the result of technical change in only a few industries. This article presents a test of these views using the Ricardian model of international trade with many goods. British trade data are used to implement the test and discriminate between the two views of the Industrial Revolution.
article  jstor  economic_history  economic_growth  economic_theory  Industrial_Revolution  Great_Divergence  18thC  19thC  British_history  technology  Innovation  industry  industrialization  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
McCloskey, Deirdre (2009): Saving, Investment, Greed, and Original Accumulation Do Not Explain Growth - Munich Personal RePEc Archive
Thrift was not the cause of the Industrial Revolution or its astonishing follow on. For one thing, every human society must practice thrift, and pre-industrial Europe, with its low yield-seed ratios, did so on a big scale. British thrift during the Industrial Revolution, for another, was rather below the European average. And for still another, savings is elastically supplied, by credit expansion for example (as Schumpeter observed). Attributing growth to investment, therefore, resembles attributing Shakespeare’s plays to the Roman alphabet: “necessary” in a reduced sense, but in fact an assumed background, not the cause in any useful sense. Certainly Europeans did not develop unusual greed, and the Catholics---in a society of bourgeois dignity and liberty---did as well as the Protestants (in Amsterdam, for example). Ben Franklin, for example, was not (as D. H. Lawrence portrayed him in a humorless reading of this most humorous man) “dry and utilitarian.” If capitalism accumulates “endlessly,” as many say, one wonder why Franklin give up accumulating at age 42. The evidence also does not support Marx’s notion of an “original accumulation of capital.” Saving and investment must be used when they are made, or they depreciate. They cannot accumulate from an age of piracy to an age of industry. Yet modern growth theory, unhappily, reinstates as initiating the theory of stages and, especially, capital accumulation. They are not initiating, whether in physical or human capital. Innovation 1700-2010 pushed the marginal product of all capitals steadily out, and the physical and human capital followed. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  economic_history  economic_growth  economic_theory  economic_culture  Marxist  capital  investment  Industrial_Revolution  18thC  19thC  20thC  Innovation  technology  credit  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Liberty's Dawn: A People's History of the Industrial Revolution - Introduction | Emma Griffin - Academia.edu
Introduction to book using autobiographical writings of working class during 19thC to examine social and cultural transformations that accompanied economic - interrogating standard narrative that Britain's Industrial Revolution brought grinding misery and shattering of traditional social and cultural supports for lower orders, life stories show a more complex lived experience that expanded the horizons and possibilities for many (mainly men). -- Introduction has useful intellectual history of the Two Nations theme - both conservative and radical- much after mid 19thC a battle of economic historians and data. Griffin wants to challenge the intellectual classes version of what lower class experience must have been like as well as highlight that uneven development, which left some regions unindustrialized, could be as serious a source of experienced hardship. Bring agency of the lower orders back in, in EP Thompson tradition, but with fewer Marxist presuppositions.
paper  Academia.edu  18thC  19thC  British_history  social_history  cultural_history  economic_history  intellectual_history  historiography-postWWII  working_class  lower_orders  Industrial_Revolution 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Emma Griffin: A conundrum resolved? Courtship, marriage and the growth of population in eighteenth-century England. | Emma Griffin - Academia.edu
A cultural shift in marriage norms over the long 18thC has to be placed at the fore of explaining the downward shift in marriage age - earlier focus on economic explanation that economic growth allowed the earlier establishment of independent households leaves out the erosion of ability of communities to police marriage norms as economic mobility increased and competing norms or freedom to pursue individual preferences emerged. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  Academia.edu  social_history  economic_history  cultural_history  demography  18thC  Britain  marriage  population  family  Industrial_Revolution  mobility  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
N. F. R. Crafts and C. K. Harley: Output Growth and the British Industrial Revolution: A Restatement of the Crafts-Harley View (1992)
JSTOR: The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 45, No. 4 (Nov., 1992), pp. 703-730 -- key paper in the sources and rate of economic growth during Industrial Revolution (1750-1850) -- responds to range of critics, including Hoppit, refining and clarifying views -- downloaded pdf to Note -- This paper reviews the debate concerning British industrial output growth between 1760 and 1830. The earlier indices by Crafts and Harley are revised in accordance with new data. Detailed technical discussion of key issues is provided in four appendices. The main results show that the general picture provided by the authors ten years ago is still acceptable-insofar as any adjustment is required the effect is slightly to lower the estimated growth rate, contrary to recent claims. The idea of the industrial revolution as an important discontinuity is reasserted.
article  jstor  economic_history  economic_growth  18thC  19thC  Britain  Industrial_Revolution  historiography  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Matias Vernengo: Crowding out and the Industrial Revolution July 2013 | NAKED KEYNESIANISM
Charts from Dickson re interest rates on UK bonds through 18thC and the interest rates spikes during War of Spanish Succession -- links to classic studies (JSTOR) estimating slower growth during 18thC and speculating on crowding out. Link to McColloch paper disputing that Bubble Act reduced industrial investment in 18thC. Vernengo doesn't mention either usury controls or, more important for his speculation that finance for investment grew only as demand grew, that Britain was most heavily taxed and relied increasingly on consumption taxes that would have an impact on growth of demand. Temin and Voth theory that focuses on banking, and less on capital markets (do they think Bubble Act was important? ), other than relations between banking system and sovereign debt market. Vernengo cites papers (including from 1950s) that see Bank of England providing liquidity to the whole system especially in 2nd half of 18thC through the expansion of the revenue collection and government spending process -- new country banks also collecting taxes and the government was spending large amounts on war. Vernengo mentions that in earlier post on same topic and McColloch paper. JSTOR papers are downloaded to Note
paper  article  jstor  links  political_economy  economic_history  18thC  Britain  public_finance  sovereign_debt  fiscal-military_state  fiscal_policy  taxes  interest_rates  Bubble_Act  Bank_of_England  economic_growth  investment  financial_regulation  banking  War_of_Spanish_Succession  Industrial_Revolution  crowding_out  financial_repression  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
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