dunnettreader + ir   75

Unipolar Strategy in a Multipolar World
by Paul R. Pillar Vladimir Putin’s video show about formidable new Russian strategic weapons, which took up half of the Russian president’s recent…
US_foreign_policy  Russia  Russia-foreign_policy  multipolar  global_system  IR  military  from instapaper
march 2018 by dunnettreader
Dario Battistella - Raymond Aron, réaliste néoclassique | Érudit | Études internationales v43 n3 2012, p. 371-388 |
Institut d’études politiques de Bordeaux -- Successivement apprécié, critiqué, et oublié, Raymond Aron a toujours été difficile à classer au sein de la discipline des Relations internationales. Parmi les recensions récentes dont son oeuvre a fait l’objet, celle de Michael Doyle fait une proposition intéressante, en y voyant un réaliste constitutionnaliste. Notre contribution se propose d’approfondir cette piste en montrant qu’Aron est en fait un réaliste néoclassique avant la lettre. Après avoir rappelé les points communs qu’Aron partage avec le réalisme classique de Morgenthau et le néoréalisme de Waltz, cet article démontre les affinités à la fois ontologiques et épistémologiques entre l’internationaliste français et les réalistes néoclassiques nord-américains qui ignorent qu’ils ignorent Aron. -- dowloaded via Air
article  downloaded  intellectual_history  20thC  entre_deux_guerres  WWII  post-WWII  Cold_War  Aron_Raymond  IR  IR_theory  IR-domestic_politics  French_intellectuals  French_politics  French_history  Vichy  4th_Republic  5th_Republic  political_press  political_discourse 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Samuel Moyn - The First Historian of Human Rights (2011) | JSTOR - The American Historical Review
Vol. 116, No. 1 (February 2011), pp. 58-79 -- Revisiting Ritter's story of the invention of human rights—as perverse as it was pioneering—affords critical distance from what has become a central historiographical fashion. It is precisely because his narrative constructs the past of human rights for so unfamiliar a project that Ritter provides a more vivid reminder of how easy it still is to devise a field with the goal of crafting a usable past for new imperatives. The deep past out of which human rights are supposed to have sprung provides rich but manipulable material for such enterprises. Ritter's first history is also a salutary reminder of the meanings that the concept of human rights accreted in the postwar era, when they transcended the nation‐state and began to be called in English by their current name. The 1940s, when Ritter wrote, are often forced to play the role of precursor in contemporary narratives—as a kind of failed early version of the post–Cold War 1990s, when human rights as a movement and a framework became visible enough to motivate historians to work on them. Given the Universal Declaration, the chronological focus on the 1940s is understandable. But Ritter provides an inadvertent warning against omitting the conservative and religious sources of human rights in that era, and therefore interpreting it anachronistically. His case powerfully buttresses emerging skepticism about the whole notion of rooting contemporary human rights in the 1940s, let alone earlier, given more recent transformations in the very meaning of the concept, and the unprecedented explosion of a movement based on them. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  20thC  entre_deux_guerres  post-WWII  Cold_War  IR-realism  IR  religious_history  Christianity  Christian_Democracy  human_rights  anti-capitalism  anti-materialism  communitarian  anti-individualism  international_law  usable_past  historiography-postWWII  United_Nations  post-war_reconstruction  Germany  Europe  theology  rights-legal  conservatism  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Daniel McCarthy - Why Liberalism Means Empire | Lead essay / TAC Summer 2014
Outstanding case made for "consrrvative" realist IR position of off-shore balancing - not really "conservative" but he needs to give it that spin for his aufience buy-in -- takes on not just the militarists, neicons and librral intrrventionists but thr "non-liberal" sbtu-interventionists like Kennan and Buchanan - he leaves out the corrosive, anti-liberal democracy effects of globalized, financial capitalism that undermines the narrative of gradualist liberal democratization and achievements in OECD rconomies - as Zingales putscit "save capitalism from the capitalists" beeds to be included with the hegemon's responsibilities along with off-shore balancing - dimensions of power beyond military, which Dan does stress in his sketch of ehy Britain could meet the military challenges until WWI
Pocket  18thc  19thc  20thc  anti-imperialism  balance-of-power  british_empire  british_history  british_politics  civil_rights  cold_war  competition-interstate  cultural_transmission  democracy  empires  entre_deux_guerres  europe  foreign_policy  french_revolution  geopolitics  germany  global  governance  globalization  great_powers  hegemony  hong_kong  human_rights  ideology  imperialism  international_system  ir  ir-history  iraq  japan  liberalism  military-industrial  military_history  napoleon  napoleonic  wars  national_security  national_tale  nationslism  naval_history  neocons  neoliberalism  peace  pinboard  political_culture  politics-and-history  post-wwii  power  rule_of_law  social_science  trade  us  history  us_foreign_policy  us_military  us_politics  uses_of_history  warfare  world  wwi  wwii 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Jean-Pierre Bois - Le concert des Nations au XIXe siècle sous le regard d'un historien moderniste (lecture audio) | Canal Académie (2013)
L’objectif de la guerre est de faire la paix rappelle Jean-Pierre Bois, professeur émérite d’histoire moderne. Loin d’une histoire des différents congrès diplomatiques qui ont ponctué le XIXe siècle, l’historien propose de situer ce qu’on appelle "Le concert des nations", expression passée dans le langage courant au XIXe siècle dans un champ historique plus large. -- L’Académie des sciences morales et politiques, à l’initiative de l’académicien Jean Baechler, a organisé un colloque international sur le Thème de la Guerre et de la société. Une vingtaine de participants se sont réunis autour du thème spécifique, cette année, de « la Guerre et de la politique », le premier volet d’une démarche scientifique interdisciplinaire qui durera trois ans.-- la retransmission de la communication de Jean-Pierre Bois, Professeur à l’Université de Nantes..--Jean-Pierre Bois est professeur émérite d'histoire moderne du Centre de Recherches en Histoire Internationale Atlantique (CRHIA. Il a reçu en 2012 le prix Drouyn de Lhuys pour son ouvrage La Paix, histoire politique et militaire.
audio  lecture  19thC  Concert_of_Europe  balance_of_power  IR  IR_theory  military_history  diplomatic_history  diplomacy  IR-domestic_politics  international_system  geopolitics  Great_Powers 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Forum - Samuel Moyn's "Christian human rights" - overview page | The Immanent Frame
In 2010, Samuel Moyn published The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History, which offered an alternative historical explanation for the origins of human rights. He rejected narratives that viewed human rights as a long-term historical product of the Judeo-Christian tradition, The French Revolution, or Enlightenment rationalism, arguing that human rights as it is now understood began to emerge only during the 1970s. Prior to this, according to Moyn, rights were connected to the nation-state and had nothing to do with an international standard of morality or justice. In addressing critiques of The Last Utopia, Moyn has given considerable attention to the relationship between human rights and religion, conceding that there is, undoubtedly, a relationship between Christianity—Catholicism in particular—and human rights, but arguing that the “death of Christian Europe” by the 1960s “forced a complete reinvention of the meaning of human rights embedded in European identity both formally and really since the war”. Contributors offer their thoughts on Moyn’s article “Personalism, Community, and the Origins of Human Rights,” which became a central focus (see excerpt) in his forthcoming book, Christian Human Rights (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015). Contributors also respond to “Christian Human Rights,” the introductory essay written for this series. -- downloaded pdfs but their footnotes and links don't work, so collected them in Evernote them
books  intellectual_history  narrative-contested  bad_history  intellectual_history-distorted  religious_history  church_history  moral_philosophy  theology  human_rights  natural_rights  medieval_philosophy  Europe-Medieval  Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  Enlightenment-ongoing  French_Revolution  IR  Europe  20thC  WWI  WWII  entre_deux_guerres  post-Cold_War  post-colonial  nation-state  genocide  Holocaust  UN  international_law  natural_law  law_of_nations  law_of_the_sea  justice  jurisprudence  philosophy_of_law  political_philosophy  political_culture  democracy  equality  liberty  Christendom  Judeo-Christian  links  Evernote 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey A. Bader - Changing China policy: Are we in search of enemies? | Brookings Institution
East Asia has avoided major military conflicts since the 1970s. After the United States fought three wars in the preceding four decades originating in East Asia, with a quarter of a million lost American lives, this is no small achievement. It is owing to the maturity and good sense of most of the states of the region, their emphasis on economic growth over settling scores, and the American alliances and security presence that have deterred military action and provided comfort to most peoples and states. But above all else, it is due to the reconciliation of the Asia-Pacific’s major powers, the United States, and China, initiated by Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger and nurtured by every American administration and Chinese leadership since. In the inaugural Brookings China Strategy Paper, Jeff Bader evaluates the recent rhetoric towards China, and argues that the United States and China should work out their differences in a way that promotes continued economic dynamism and lowers tensions in the region. Jeffrey Bader is the John C. Whitehead Senior Fellow in International Diplomacy at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C. From 2009 until 2011, Bader was special assistant to the president of the United States for national security affairs at the National Security Council. In that capacity, he was the principal advisor to President Obama on Asia. Bader served from 2005 to 2009 as the director of the China Initiative and subsequently as the first director of the John L. Thornton China Center at the Brookings Institution. His latest book, "Obama and China’s Rise: An Insider’s Account of America’s Asia Strategy," was published by Brookings Institution Press in March 2012. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  US_foreign_policy  China-international_relations  maritime_issues  East_Asia  US-China  diplomacy  US_military  US_politics  international_political_economy  global_economy  global_system  global_governance  NPT  IR  multilateralism  hegemony  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
RP Wolff - THE IDEOLOGY OF SPACE CONSCIOUSNESS CONCLUSION - May 2015
Extending Mannheim approach to thinking about different worldviews that organize thought, priorities, values and action - liberal universalism and global capitalism have a similar view of space, where boundaries of communities and especially of nation-states are ignored, porous or viewed as frictions to overcome
social_theory  world_systems  ideology  liberalism  international_system  globalization  liberal_internationalism  IR  historicism  modernity  capitalism  political_economy  political_culture  Mannheim  Instapaper  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
RP Wolff - THE IDEOLOGY OF SPACE CONSCIOUSNESS PART TWO - May 2015
Extending Mannheim approach to thinking about different worldviews that organize thought, priorities, values and action - liberal universalism and global capitalism have a similar view of space, where boundaries of communities and especially of nation-states are ignored, porous or viewed as frictions to overcome
social_theory  world_systems  ideology  liberalism  international_system  globalization  liberal_internationalism  IR  historicism  modernity  capitalism  political_economy  political_culture  Mannheim  Instapaper  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
RP Wolff - THE IDEOLOGY OF SPACE CONSCIOUSNESS PART ONE - May 2015
Extending Mannheim approach to thinking about different worldviews that organize thought, priorities, values and action - liberal universalism and global capitalism have a similar view of space, where boundaries of communities and especially of nation-states are ignored, porous or viewed as frictions to overcome
social_theory  world_systems  ideology  liberalism  international_system  globalization  liberal_internationalism  IR  historicism  modernity  capitalism  political_economy  political_culture  Mannheim  Instapaper  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Stella Ghervas (2014). “La paix par le droit, ciment de la civilisation en Europe? La perspective du siècle des Lumières” | Stella Ghervas - Academia.edu
Citation:Ghervas, Stella. 2014. “La paix par le droit, ciment de la civilisation en Europe? La perspective du siècle des Lumières,” in "Penser l’Europe au XVIIIe siècle: Commerce, Civilisation, Empire", ed. Antoine Lilti and Céline Spector (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation), pp. 47-69. -- bookmarked and downloaded pdf to Note
chapter  books  18thC  Europe  commerce  commerce-doux  empires  IR  international_law  international_system  international_political_economy  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  peace  dynasties  nation-state  national_interest  mercantilism  mercantilism-violence  competition-interstate  civil_society  civilizing_process  politeness  Enlightenment  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Ma Yuge and Joel Sandhu - Making Sense of China and India’s Low-Carbon Pathways | Global Policy Journal 16th September 2014
China and India’s low-carbon development is crucial for global sustainability and domestic welfare. However, embedded political and economic obstacles have prevented a smooth and effective transition towards a low-carbon future in the two emerging countries. This article analyzes China and India’s energy efficiency policies as a lens into this question. We argue that the existing energy efficiency and broader low-carbon development pathways – India’s market-oriented approach and China’s target-driven paradigm – are not sufficient to address the challenges. Policymakers should reflect on and fix the shortcomings of the current pathways by paying close attention to the various forms of maneuvers of low-carbon policies in the given political and economic environments in China and India. -- part of Global Policy "Juxtaposition" program re comparative work on China and India -- didn't download paper
paper  IR  global_governance  environment  climate  energy  China  India  development  green_economy  local_government  central_government 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Rasmus Karlsson and Jonathan Symons - Making Climate Leadership Meaningful: Energy Research as a Key to Global Decarbonisation - Feb 2015 | Global Policy Journal- Wiley Online Library
This article revisits a number of familiar debates about climate change mitigation yet draws some unorthodox conclusions. First, that progress towards a renewable small-scale energy future in environmentally conscious countries such as Germany and Sweden may take the world as a whole further away from climate stability by reducing the political pressure to finance breakthrough innovation. Second, that without such game-changing innovations, developing countries will continue to deploy whatever technologies are domestically available, scalable and affordable, including thermal coal power in most instances. Third and finally, that as any realistic hope of achieving climate stability hinges on the innovation of breakthrough technologies, the urgency of climate change calls not so much for the domestic deployment of existing energy technologies but rather a concentrated effort to develop technologies that will be adopted globally. These arguments imply that national innovation policy, and an international treaty establishing a ‘Low-Emissions Technology Commitment’ should be the central focus of climate policy. -- added to Wiley profile
article  paywall  Wiley  global_governance  energy  climate  technology  Innovation  technology-adoption  technology_transfer  green_finance  development  IR  IR-domestic_politics  economic_growth  IP-global_governance  innovation-government_policy  industrial_policy  industrialization 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Stella Ghervas and David Armitage -- The Power of Peace: Why 1814 Might Matter More than 1914 | e-IR April 2014
nice little summary for their conference at Harvard -- Stella Ghervas is a visiting scholar at Harvard University’s Center for European Studies and a senior fellow at the Maison des Sciences de l’Homme d’Aquitaine in Bordeaux. Her book, Réinventer la tradition: Alexandre Stourdza et l’Europe de la Sainte-Alliance, was awarded the Guizot Prize of the Académie Française in 2009. -- A century before the guns of August opened fire on Belgrade in 1914, the Congress of Vienna opened proceedings in September 1814. The contrast between the current memories of these two moments is striking. The centenary of the outbreak of World War I attracts worldwide interest: witness the numerous popular commemorations that will take place in Europe, the United States, and elsewhere this year, on top of the estimated 25,000 books written about the conflict since 1918. Meanwhile, the bicentenary of the Congress has hardly caught the eye of a public beyond the academia. What can this comparison tell us about why we write history? And how might we re-assert the power of peace amid the prevailing talk of war? All continental wars in the past 5 centuries of European history ended in disarray. As Winston Churchill aptly noted in 1946, “among the victors there is the babel of jarring voices; among the vanquished the sullen silence of despair.” Yet, order must somehow emerge again from the confusion of war. What has truly shaped the fate of Europe – and often the wider world – in the longue durée is the series of great diplomatic conferences like Utrecht, Vienna, Versailles and Yalta. For better or worse, those were the watershed moments; but the proceedings in each case were largely undramatic. Peace-making raises little commotion. What Churchill called “jaw-jaw” has little of the popular pulling power of “war-war.” -- downloaded pdf to Note
IR  Europe  Europe-19thC  balance_of_power  diplomatic_history  Peace_of_Utrecht  Congress_of_Vienna  WWI  perpetual_peace  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Kelley Vlahos - A Blackwater World Order | The American Conservative - Feb 2015
...a recent examination by Sean McFate, a former Army paratrooper who later served in Africa working for Dyncorp International and is now an associate professor at the National Defense University, suggests that the Pentagon’s dependence on contractors to help wage its wars has unleashed a new era of warfare in which a multitude of freshly founded private military companies are meeting the demand of an exploding global market for conflict. “Now that the United States has opened the Pandora’s Box of mercenarianism,” McFate writes in The Modern Mercenary: Private Armies and What they Mean for World Order, “private warriors of all stripes are coming out of the shadows to engage in for-profit warfare.” It is a menacing thought. McFate said this coincides with what he and others have called a current shift from global dominance by nation-state power to a “polycentric” environment in which state authority competes with transnational corporations, global governing bodies, non-governmental organizations (NGO’s), regional and ethnic interests, and terror organizations in the chess game of international relations. New access to professional private arms, McFate further argues, has cut into the traditional states’ monopoly on force, and hastened the dawn of this new era. McFate calls it neomedievalism, the “non-state-centric and multipolar world order characterized by overlapping authorities and allegiances.” States will not disappear, “but they will matter less than they did a century ago.” - copied to Pocket
books  global_system  global_governance  IR  IR_theory  military_history  Europe-Early_Modern  nation-state  transnational_elites  privatization  MNCs  NGOs  civil_wars  international_system  international_law  mercenaries  US_government  US_foreign_policy  Pentagon  Afghanistan  warfare-irregular  national_ID  national_interest  national_security  Pocket 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Danielle Rajendram - India’s new Asia-Pacific strategy: Modi acts East | Lowy Institute for International Policy - 18 December 2014
Key Findings - (1) India’s Look East Policy has shaped its engagement with the Asia-Pacific for over two decades, and, in recent years, has been driven by an external balancing strategy against China’s influence in the Indian Ocean, as well as India’s desire for a greater global role. * (2) The BJP’s overwhelming electoral mandate will provide Prime Minister Modi with the opportunity to transform India into a serious strategic player in East and Southeast Asia. Announced shift from "Look East" to "Act East". * (3) The Modi Government will pursue a greater role in the Asia-Pacific in line with India’s growing economic and strategic interests, based on practical partnerships with Japan, Vietnam, Australia, and ASEAN.
IR  India  South_Asia  Asia_Pacific  East_Asia  China  Japan  Australia  ASEAN  maritime_issues  economic_reform  balance_of_power  alliances  Indian_Ocean  Vietnam  global_governance  regional_blocs 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Marc BELISSA - REPENSER L'ORDRE EUROPÉEN (1795-1802). DE LA SOCIÉTÉ DES ROIS AUX DROITS DES NATIONS | JSTOR: Annales historiques de la Révolution française, No. 343 (Janvier/Mars 2006), pp. 163-166
Brief summary of thesis defended 2005, l'Université Paris I Sorbonne - surprise, surprise, Lucien Bély on his committee with the notion of the 18thC as the last stage of the société des princes and the French Revolution forcing the end of the dynastic wars -- though focus is on the period of the Directoire and Napoleon up through Amiens, he places it in the context of the European dynastic system as structured by the Peace of Utrecht -- highlights an interdisciplinary approach -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  thesis  18thC  1790s  1800s  Europe  Europe-19thC  balance_of_power  French_Revolution  IR  IR_theory  Westphalia  sovereignty  dynasties  nation-state  diplomatic_history  political_culture  counter-revolution  Jacobins  republicanism  Europe-federalism  Peace_of_Utrecht  société_des_princes  national_interest  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  France  French_politics  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Directoire  monarchy  social_order  legal_system  international_law  international_system  natural_law  citizenship  subjects  property  elites  political_economy  economic_culture  political_participation  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Hilde Eliassen Restad - Old Paradigms in History Die Hard in Political Science: US Foreign Policy and American Exceptionalism | JSTOR: American Political Thought, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Spring 2012), pp. 53-76
Most writers agree that domestic ideas about what kind of country the United States is affect its foreign policy. In the United States, this predominant idea is American exceptionalism, which in turn is used to explain US foreign policy traditions over time. This article argues that the predominant definition of American exceptionalism, and the way it is used to explain US foreign policy in political science, relies on outdated scholarship within history. It betrays a largely superficial understanding of American exceptionalism as an American identity. This article aims to clarify the definition of American exceptionalism, arguing that it should be retained as a definition of American identity. Furthermore, it couples American exceptionalism and US foreign policy differently than what is found in most political science literature. It concludes that American exceptionalism is a useful tool in understanding US foreign policy, if properly defined. -- extensive bibliography of both historians and IR theorists -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  political_culture  US_history  American_Revolution  American_colonies  Puritans  American_exceptionalism  national_ID  nation-state  US_foreign_policy  IR_theory  IR-domestic_politics  IR  Founders  Manifest_Destiny  multilateralism  international_law  Jefferson  imperialism  republicanism  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
James Fallows - The Tragedy of the American Military | The Atlantic Dec 2014
how we've become a chickenhawk nation, with a titally unaccountable military and an out-if-contril military-industrial complex that isn't just wasteful but actively counterproductive re both military war-fighting capabilities and US strategic positioning in glibalized, multi-polar and real-time connected world - Fallows also reflects concerns re manageralist mindset that can neither deal with shifting big picture (othet than more, faster, etc is automatically better) nor allow innovative problem solving at tactical level - bureaucratic fiefdoms that don't combine coherently, in evidence by 1990s as Versailles in the Potimac, has only gotten worse, with the press corps more enablers than watchdogs - and the stuff that does get media attention is pennyante, easy to hype gaffes not the goring of any important interest's ox. The F-35 vs A10 debacle is the perfect illustration, in a breathtaking scale, of everything wrong re both DOD and the military services, and it's basically a non-issue for both the press and politicians of all persuasions.
technology  ir  us  government  cultural_history  inequality  21stc  hegemony  us_politics  us_foreign_policy  20thc  military  history  iraq  gwot  miitary-industrial  comple  fiscal  policy  accountability  congress  Pocket  from instapaper
january 2015 by dunnettreader
The Power of Religion in the Public Sphere, eds. Eduardo Mendieta and Jonathan VanAntwerpen (2011) — Social Science Research Council - Publications
The Power of Religion in the Public Sphere (Columbia University Press, 2011) represents a rare opportunity to experience a diverse group of preeminent philosophers confronting one pervasive contemporary concern: what role does—or should—religion play in our public lives? Reflecting on her recent work concerning state violence in Israel-Palestine, Judith Butler explores the potential of religious perspectives for renewing cultural and political criticism, while Jürgen Habermas, best known for his seminal conception of the public sphere, thinks through the ambiguous legacy of the concept of “the political” in contemporary theory. Charles Taylor argues for a radical redefinition of secularism, and Cornel West defends civil disobedience and emancipatory theology. Eduardo Mendieta and Jonathan VanAntwerpen detail the immense contribution of these philosophers to contemporary social and political theory, and an afterword by Craig Calhoun places these attempts to reconceive the significance of both religion and the secular in the context of contemporary national and international politics. The essays comprising this volume include Habermas’s “The Political: The Rational Meaning of a Questionable Inheritance of Political Theology,” Taylor’s “Why We Need a Radical Redefinition of Secularism,” Butler’s “Is Judaism Zionism?” and West’s “Prophetic Religion and the Future of Capitalist Civilization.” Each chapter was originally presented as a talk at a recent symposium co-hosted by the SSRC, the Institute for Public Knowledge at New York University, and the Humanities Institute at SUNY Stony Brook. -- Excerpt from the afterword by Craig Calhoun downloaded pdf to Note -- the Taylor essay responded to at The Immanent Frame starting with Bigrami's paper
books  sociology_of_religion  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  theology  social_theory  politics-and-religion  political_participation  secularism  public_sphere  IR  IR-domestic_po  litics  Judaism  diasporas  exiles  Habermas  Taylor_Charles  Butler_Judith  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Jack A. Goldstone - The New Population Bomb: The Four Megatrends That Will Change the World | JSTOR: Foreign Affairs, Vol. 89, No. 1 (January/February 2010), pp. 31-43
UN predicts global population will level off by 2050 at approximately 9.15 billion from a bit under 7 billion today. Assuming we can avoid environmental catastrophe, the big demographic shifts will be more than half the population will be in cities and the growth will have been concentrated in younger cohorts of less developed regions, especially countries with low quality health, education and infrastructure, lack of economic opportunities to absorb the youth population (especially young, easily radicalized males) with the current wealthy economies both relatively older and smaller, requiring immigration to maintain growth and income levels. These trends will require a wholesale makeover in global governance. -- didn't download
article  jstor  21stC  global_economy  global_system  global_governance  population  demography  economic_growth  political_sociology  IR  OECD_economies  emerging_markets 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
The Oxford Companion to Military History, ed. Richard Holmes: | Answers.com
The Oxford Companion to Military History, edited by Richard Holmes, Oxford University Press -- A complete overview of military history from classical times to the present, The Oxford Companion to Military History is an essential guide to how the world has been shaped by conflict. Entries on key topics such as intelligence, propaganda, peacekeeping and women in the military, are included, with over 70 maps showing the course of famous battles and campaigns.
books  etexts  military_history  military  war  ancient_history  ancient_Rome  Roman_Empire  medieval_history  Europe-Early_Modern  Military_Revolution  propaganda  maritime_history  IR 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Ford, Jane (2013) Vampiric enterprise: metaphors of economic exploitation in the literature and culture of the fin de siecle. PhD thesis, University of Portsmouth.
This thesis is about the complex network of metaphors that emerged around late 19thC conceptions of economic self-interest — predatory, conflictual and exploitative basis of relations between nations, institutions, sexes and people in an outwardly belligerent fin-de-siècle economy. This thesis is about the vampire, cannibal and related genera of economic metaphor which penetrate many of the major discourses of the period. In chapters that examine socialist fiction and newspapers; the imperial quest romance; inter-personal intimacies in the writing of Henry James and Vernon Lee; and the Catholic novels of Lucas Malet, I assess the breadth and variety of these metaphors, and consider how they filter the concept of the conflictual ‘economic man’ . The thesis builds on Maggie Kilgour’s "From communion to cannibalism: an anatomy of metaphors of incorporation" (1990), which traces the genealogy – in literature from Homer to Melville – of what she terms ‘metaphors of incorporation’. These are metaphors that originate from a inside-outside binary and involve the assimilation or incorporation of an external reality. Kilgour attempts to demonstrate that with the increasing isolation of the modern individual .. acts of ‘incorporation’ previously imagined as symbiotic, were later conceived as cannibalistic. --However, deploying a combination of historicist and, at times, Post-Structuralist approaches, this thesis demonstrates that these metaphors refuse to accommodate themselves to a simple unified vision of the kind advanced by Kilgour. I map the complexities of these metaphors, explaining how they originate from divergent teleological impulses and how they articulate both simple ideological operations, and more complex feelings of ambivalence about economic realities in the cultural moment of the Victorian fin-de-siècle.
thesis  cultural_history  literary_history  social_history  political_history  IR_theory  IR  19thC  Fin-de-Siècle  20thC  political_economy  political_press  fiction  novels  James_Henry  laisser-faire  domination  imperialism  homo_economicus  socialism  class_conflict  individualism  alienation  social_order  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - A Religious View of the Foundations of International Law (2011) :: SSRN - Charles E. Test Lectures in the James Madison Program at Princeton University
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 11-29 -- Lecture 1 begins from a specifically Christian point of view, though it also addresses the difficulties of sustaining a viewpoint of this kind in a multi-faith and indeed increasingly secular world. Lecture 2 considers nationhood, sovereignty, and the basis for the division of the world into separate political communities. A religious approach to international order will endorse the position of most modern international jurists that sovereign independence is not to be made into an idol or a fetish, and that the tasks of order and peace in the world are not to be conceived as optional for sovereigns. But sovereigns also have their own mission, ordering particular communities of men and women. Lecture 3 considers the rival claims of natural law and positivism regarding sources of international law. The most telling part of natural law jurisprudence from Aquinas to Finnis has always been its insistence on the specific human need for positive law. This holds true in the international realm as much as in any realm of human order - perhaps more so, because law has to do its work unsupported by the overwhelming power of a particular state. Lecture 3 addresses, from a religious point of view, the sources of law in the international realm: treaty, convention, custom, precedent, and jurisprudence. It will focus particularly on the sanctification of treaties. -- No of Pages : 73 -- Keywords: customary international law, international law, ius cogens, nationalism, natural law, positivism, public reason, religion, self-determination, sovereignty, treaties -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  international_law  natural_law  positivism-legal  IR  IR_theory  diplomacy  international_organizations  legal_system  international_system  sovereignty  nation-state  nationalism  public_sphere  liberalism-public_reason  deliberation-public  decision_theory  customary_law  self-determination  national_interest  national_security  responsibility_to_protect  treaties  universalism  precedent  conflict_of_laws  dispute_resolution  human_rights  community  trust  alliances  politics-and-religion  jurisprudence  jurisdiction  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - What is Natural Law Like? (2012) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 12-27 -- “The State of Nature,” said John Locke, “has a Law of Nature to govern it, which obliges every one.” But what is “a law of nature”? How would we tell, in a state of nature, that there was a natural law as opposed to something else...? What form should we expect natural law to take in our apprehension of it? This paper argues three things. (a) John Finnis’s work on natural law provides no answer to these questions; his “theory of natural law” is really just a theory of the necessary basis in ethics for evaluating positive law. (b) We need an answer to the question “What is natural law like” not just to evaluate the work of state-of-nature theorists like Locke, but also to explore the possibility that natural law might once have played the role now played by positive international law in regulating relations between sovereigns. And (c), an affirmative account of what natural law is like must pay attention to (1) its deontic character; (2) its enforceability; (3) the ancillary principles that have to be associated with its main normative requirements if it is to be operate as a system of law; (4) its separability ...from ethics and morality, even from objective ethics and morality; and (5) the shared recognition on earth of its presence in the world. Some of these points — especially 3, 4, and 5 — sound like characteristics of positive law. But the paper argues that they are necessary nevertheless if it is going to be plausible to say that natural law has ever operated (or does still operate) as law in the world. -- Number of Pages: 21 -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  IR  IR_theory  international_law  international_system  sovereignty  natural_law  positive_law  norms  Aquinas  Locke  Locke-2_Treatises  state-of-nature  enforcement  legal_validity  Finnis  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Franz-Stephan Grady - Meet the Elusive Man Responsible for Today’s Middle East Mayhem | The National Interest - June 2014
In the spring of 1915, bogged down British and French forces were desperately battling the Ottoman army on the Gallipoli peninsula trying to force the Dardanelles and occupy Istanbul. Amid the fighting, a 25-year-old Turkish officer, Lieutenant Muhammad Sharif Al-Faruqi, deserted to the British side on August 20, 1915. Trying to save his own skin and apparently determined to play a role in shaping the postwar future of the Middle-East, Al-Faruqi provided British intelligence with a host of assertions about himself and the Arab tribes under Ottoman suzerainty, which later turned out to be either wild exaggerations or plain lies. British intelligence, however, took Al-Faruqi’s statements at face value, which led the British to promise a great deal to the Arabs in exchange for revolting against the Turks. This in turn directly influenced the negotiations over the notorious Sykes-Picot agreement that in many ways has been at the root of much of the political upheaval in the Middle East ever since. Thus, Lieutenant Muhammad Sharif Al-Faruqi may very well be one of the greatest imposters in the history of international relations.
20thC  IR  political_history  military_history  spying  British_history  British_Empire  France  imperialism  Great_Powers  MENA  WWI  entre_deux_guerres  diplomatic_history  ethnic_conflict  sectarianism  Ottomans  Turkey  Iraq  Islamic_civilization  Shiites  Sunnis  Saudia_Arabia  Jordan  Israel  Great_Game  British_Empire-military  British_foreign_policy 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert Tiegs, review - Derek Croxton. Westphalia: The Last Christian Peace (2013) | H-Net Reviews
The work is divided into three sections covering the background, negotiations, and conclusions. The background section is the largest - its fifth chapter, “Structures,” is undoubtedly the highlight of the work. Croxton superbly places the negotiations in their baroque setting, showing how issues of precedence, prestige, gift giving, and logistics all affected the talks. The second section, covering the negotiations - In addition to attempting to resolve contentious religious issues, they also wrangled over the representation of imperial estates at the congress, territorial compensation, the independence of the United Provinces, and arrears for the Swedish soldiers. ...it was nearly impossible to settle any issue independently, and negotiations became a matter of brinksmanship. In the final section on consequences, Croxton takes aim at perceived errors in the historiography. ..he wants to place the focus back on the religious dimensions of negotiations, as the opening lines of the treaty clearly stated, “Let there be a Christian peace”. He believes that the notion of Westphalia as the foundation of modern diplomacy between independent sovereign states is erroneous. Alsace again provides a good example, as he points to the fact that the negotiations led to the curious situation where it was part of both the French crown and the empire. As this case makes clear, internal and external issues were not clear cut post-1648, thus European states were not independent and discrete sovereign units. In fact, he goes on to argue that Westphalia probably had the opposite effect, specifically “the continuation of the idea of mutual interference of states in each other’s internal affairs”.
books  reviews  17thC  diplomatic_history  military_history  religious_history  IR_theory  IR  nation-state  Westphalia  Thirty_Years_War  religious_wars  Holy_Roman_Empire  France  Sweden  Spain  Germany  Austria  Habsburgs  Dutch_Revolt  Dutch  state-building  balance_of_power  Great_Powers  sovereignty  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Stuart Elden, 2013 The Birth of Territory, reviewed by Gerry Kearns | Society and Space - Environment and Planning D
The Birth of Territory interrogates texts from various dates to see if they describe rule as the legal control over a determined space. Time after time we learn that a set of political writings that concern land, law, terrain, sovereignty, empire, or related concepts do not articulate a fully-fledged notion of territory. We may end up asking like the proverbial kids in the back of the car: “Are we there yet.” Elden is certainly able to show that earlier formulations are reworked in later periods, as with the discussion of Roman law in the medieval period; there is a lot in the political thought of each period, however, that relates to land and power but does not get reworked in later times. This means that what really holds many of the chapters together is that they are studies of how land and power were discussed at that time, and that is not so very far from taking land and power as quasi-universals. In fact, there is probably a continuum between categories that have greater or lesser historical specificity, rather than there being a clear distinction between the two. Yet, I must admit that this singular focus gives a welcome coherence to the book for all that it seems to discard large parts of the exposition as not required for later chapters. -- see review for Elden views on Westphalia and HRE contra Teschke ; review references classic and recent works on geography, terrain, law,mapping
books  reviews  kindle-available  intellectual_history  historiography  geography  bibliography  political_history  legal_history  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Roman_Empire  ancient_history  Early_Christian  late_antiquity  Augustine  Papacy  Holy_Roman_Empire  feudalism  Italy  medieval_history  Renaissance  city_states  citizenship  sovereignty  territory  maps  landowners  property  Roman_law  exiles  Absolutism  16thC  17thC  Wars_of_Religion  France  Germany  British_history  Ireland  Irish-Gaelic  IR  IR_theory  colonialism  legal_theory  legitimacy  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
David Armitage and Stella Ghervas The Power of Peace: Why 1814 Might Matter More Than 1914 | David Armitage - 2014
Armitage, David, and Stella Ghervas. 2014. “The Power of Peace: Why 1814 Might Matter More Than 1914”. E-International Relations (7 April 2014). -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  19thC  British_history  US_history  Early_Republic  War_of_1812  diplomatic_history  IR  IR-domestic_politics  Napoleonic_Wars  naval_history  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik - THE FORGOTTEN ROOTS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR | Pandaemonium - May 2014
Traditionally historians have divided between those who regarded the First World War as the inevitable outcome of long-term structural factors, such imperialist rivalries, the growth of nationalism, and the ossified system of alliances, and those who viewed it as the result of immediate or contingent causes, and of individual mendacity or foolishness. More recently, there has been a recognition that both long-term and contingent factors played a role in fomenting war. But however we understand the causes of the war, the fact remains that aggressive militarism was not confined to one side. Certainly, Germany had expansionist aims and a toxically racist culture. Britain, however, was not much different. We can only rewrite the conflict as a just war against German militarism by airbrushing out the reality of nineteenth and early-twentieth century imperialism.
19thC  20thC  British_Empire  imperialism  Germany  WWI  racialism  race  balance_of_power  international_political_economy  IR  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Stephan Lehne - Time to Reset the European Neighborhood Policy | Carnegie Europe Feb 2014
Through its European Neighborhood Policy (ENP), the European Union (EU) aims to support the structural transformation of its Eastern and Southern neighbors, promoting democracy, the rule of law, and successful market economies. Ten years after the ENP’s launch, it is clear that the policy is not working. Adjusting the ENP to the changing reality on the ground, sharpening its tools, and rebuilding its credibility should be a top priority for the EU’s foreign policy leadership.
Europe  EU  EU_governance  balance_of_power  geopolitics  Russia  MENA  Eastern_Europe  IR 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Louise Arbour - Are Freedom, Peace and Justice incompatible agendas? - International Crisis Group - Feb 2014
Address by the Honorable Louise Arbour, President & CEO of the International Crisis Group, on the occasion of the Inaugural Roland Berger Lecture on Human Rights and Human Dignity, 17 February 2014, Oxford. -- The UDHR, in other words, remains largely aspirational. Its commitments are ultimately hostage to the competing principle of state sovereignty which places on states, almost exclusively, the responsibility for the wellbeing of their citizens, and to the weak institutional structures designed to promote and protect human rights at regional and international levels. -- I would like to examine today how modern doctrines – in particular international criminal justice, the responsibility to protect and the rule of law – have contributed to the advancement of lasting peace, and how to make it more likely that they might do so in the future.
21stC  human_rights  international_law  international_system  international_organizations  sovereignty  nation-state  IR  rule_of_law  responsibility_to_protect  IR_theory  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Jörg Spieker - Foucault and Hobbes on Politics, Security, and War | JSTOR: Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, Vol. 36, No. 3 (August 2011), pp. 187-199
This article engages and seeks to develop Michel Foucault’s account of the nexus between modern politics, security, and war. Focusing on his 1976 lecture series Society Must Be Defended, the article considers Foucault’s tentative hypothesis about how the logic of war becomes inscribed into modern politics through the principle of security. Contra Foucault, it is suggested that this nexus can already be found in the proto-liberal political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. In order to make this argument, the article focuses on the ontological dimension of Hobbes' thought. It suggests that the relationship between the state of war and political order in Hobbes is more complex and more ambiguous than Foucault thought. Rather than being transcended, the Hobbesian state of war is appropriated by the state, and converted into the fundamental antagonism between reason and passion. The latter gives rise to a regime of security through which a relationship of war is inscribed into the Hobbesian commonwealth. Jörg Spieker - Department of War Studies, King’s College London, London, UK - doi: 10.1177/0304375411418596 Alternatives: Global, Local, Political August 2011 vol. 36 no. 3 187-199 -- on Sage -- sounds Weberian
article  jstor  paywall  IR  political_philosophy  17thC  20thC  Hobbes  Foucault  war  security  fear  nation-state  political_order  reason  emotions  human_nature  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Gunther Hellmann ed. --Forum - Pragmatism and International Relations (2009)
JSTOR: International Studies Review, Vol. 11, No. 3 (Sep., 2009), pp. 638-662 -- contributions by Gunther Hellmann, Helena Rytövuori-Apunen, Jörg Friedrichs, Rudra Sil, Markus Kornprobst and Patrick Thaddeus Jackson -- Wiley paywall -- Hellmann, G. (2009), Pragmatism and International Relations. International Studies Review, 11: 638–662. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2486.2009.00889.x -- jstor has all the references
article  Wiley  jstor  social_theory  social_sciences-post-WWII  pragmatism  Dewey  IR  21stC  bibliography  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Black, reviews - Alliances, Duelling, and Social Policy | Eighteenth-Century Studies (2011)
Project MUSE - Jeremy Black. "Alliances, Duelling, and Social Policy." Eighteenth-Century Studies 45.1 (2011): 140-142 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Works reviewed: --**-- Marco Cesa, Allies yet Rivals: International Politics in 18th Century Europe (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2010). Pp. xi + 294.$55.00. --**-- Stephen Banks, A Polite Exchange of Bullets: The Duel and the English Gentleman 1750–1850 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2010). Pp. vii + 317. $115.00. --**'- Joanna Innes, Inferior Politics: Social Problems and Social Policies in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009). Pp. xviii + 364. $110.00.
books  reviews  18thC  IR  alliances  balance_of_power  British_history  social_history  crime  local_government  honor  status  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
David Armitage: Edmund Burke and Reason of State (2000)
JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 61, No. 4 (Oct., 2000), pp. 617-634 -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  IR  international_system  raison-d'-état  natural_law  nation-state  18thC  Burke  Bolingbroke  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Richard H. Steinberg and Jonathan M. Zasloff: Power and International Law (2006)
JSTOR: The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 100, No. 1 (Jan., 2006), pp. 64-87 -- downloaded pdf to Note-- review of thinking re relationship between international law and power over past century -- 4 periods identified
article  jstor  intellectual_history  international_law  IR  social_sciences-post-WWII  20thC  power  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Iain Hampsher-Monk: Edmund Burke's Changing Justification for Intervention (2005)
JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Mar., 2005), pp. 65-100 -- downloaded pdf to Note Burke's justification for intervention in French internal affairs in the name of the international community has formed a powerful strand of thought in both diplomacy and international relations theory. However, the strength and openness of Burke's advocacy, traced here, changed according to his target audience, the domestic, and the international political context. Crucially, when he came to justify the case openly, the arguments changed completely. Beginning with a Grotian argument drawn from Vattel and premised on states as isolated rights-holders in a pro-social' state of nature', Burke always struggled to draw a justification for intervention in the case, allowed by Vattel, of irrevocable political disunion. This conflicted both with Burke's general conception of states as corporate wholes and his linked policy aspiration to restore the totality of French ancient institutions. Ultimately abandoning this, his final argument, fully set out only in the Letters on a regicide peace, is completely new. It is premised not on modern international law but on remedies to be found in Roman domestic law, invocation of which he justifies by claiming Europe to be a single juridical enclave, drawing on an eighteenth-century discourse of shared manners, law, and culture as constitutive of political identity and community.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  IR  international_system  natural_law  international_law  political_philosophy  legal_history  French_Revolution  Burke  British_politics  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Duncan S. A. Bell -- Language, Legitimacy, and the Project of Critique (2002)
JSTOR: Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, Vol. 27, No. 3 (July-Sept. 2002), pp. 327-350 -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_philosophy  IR  Cambridge_School  language-politics  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Nicholas Greenwood OnufSovereignty: Outline of a Conceptual History (1991) | Alternatives: Global, Local, Political on JSTOR
Sovereignty: Outline of a Conceptual History
Nicholas Greenwood Onuf
Alternatives: Global, Local, Political
Vol. 16, No. 4 (Fall 1991), pp. 425-446
Published by: Sage Publications, Inc.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40644726
article  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  bibliography  16thC  17thC  Bodin  20thC  democracy  ir-history  IR  sovereignty  19thC  nation-state  decision_theory  18thC  government-forms  downloaded 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Ben Holland: Sovereignty as Dominium? Reconstructing the Constructivist Roman Law Thesis (2010)
JSTOR: International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 54, No. 2 (June 2010), pp. 449-480 -- The constructivist authors John Gerard Ruggie, Friedrich Kratochwil, and Nicholas Onuf have each independently pressed the case that the concept of state sovereignty owes its genesis to the rediscovery of the Roman law of private property in the Renaissance. This article supports this conclusion, but argues that it was the notion of representation that Roman property law bequeathed which was of such significance. It makes this argument through analyses of the writings of Hobbes (on the temporally permanent state), Montesquieu (on the territorially bounded state), and Sieves (on the nation-state). It thus provides a fresh account of the rise of the nation-state within the framework of a powerful series of analyses of sovereignty that have been posited by scholars in the discipline of International Relations.
article  Wiley  jstor  paywall  intellectual_history  Renaissance  17thC  18thC  international_system  IR  constructivism  sovereignty  Roman_law  legal_history  political_philosophy  nation-state  state-building  property_rights  Hobbes  Montesquieu  Sieves 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Andrea Radasanu- Montesquieu on Ancient Greek Foreign Relations: Toward National Self-Interest and International Peace | Political Research Quarterly
Political Research Quarterly March 2013 vol. 66 no. 1, 3-17 -- Andrea Radasanu - Political Science Department, Northern Illinois University, 417 Zulauf Hall, DeKalb, IL 60115, USA. Email: aradasanu@niu.edu - Published online before print January 20, 2012, doi: 10.1177/1065912911431246 -- Montesquieu peace ancient republicanism empire confederate republic -- Montesquieu famously claims that modernity ushered in gentle mores and peaceful relations among countries. Consulting Montesquieu’s teaching on Greek foreign policy, both republican and imperial, elucidates the character of these peaceful mores. Montesquieu weaves a modernization tale from primitive ancient Greece to modern commercial states, all to teach the reader to overcome any lingering attachment to glory and to adopt the rational standards of national interest and self-preservation. This account provides important insights on the relationship between realism and idealism in Montesquieu’s international relations teaching and helps scholars to rethink how these categories are construed.
article  paywall  intellectual_history  IR  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  commerce  political_culture  political_economy  lessons-of-history  national_interest  glory  balance_of_power  international_system  imperialism  federalism  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Edgar Kiser, Kriss A. Drass and William Brustein: Ruler Autonomy and War in Early Modern Western Europe (1995)
JSTOR: International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Mar., 1995), pp. 109-138 -- Following Kant, many scholars have argued that rulers often benefit more from war than do their subjects, and thus that rulers with more autonomy from subjects will initiate more wars. They usually test this argument by focusing on whether democratic states are less prone to initiate wars than autocracies, and generally find little or no relationship. These are not adequate tests of the general argument, since they turn both ruler autonomy and the interests of actors into rough dichotomies (democracy vs. autocracy, rulers' interests vs. interests of all subjects), and they ignore opportunity costs. This article uses a model of state policy formation based on agency theory to provide a better measure of ruler autonomy by differentiating between institutional autonomy and resource autonomy. We also use a more nuanced specification of the interests of different groups of subjects, taking their opportunity costs into account. This model allows us to derive more precise propositions about the relationship between ruler autonomy and war initiation. An analysis of war in four Western European states (England, France, Sweden, and Spain) between 1400 and 1700, using logit regression and qualitative comparative analysis, provides some support for the central propositions of the theory.
article  jstor  social_theory  IR  democratic_peace_theory  15thC  16thC  17thC  fiscal-military_state  war  Britain  France  Spain  Sweden  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Richard Lachmann: Greed and Contingency: State Fiscal Crises and Imperial Failure in Early Modern Europe (2009)
JSTOR: American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 115, No. 1 (July 2009), pp. 39-73 -- paywall $14.00 -- Why do states lose the capacity to finance the expansionist military policies, economic development strategies, or domestic spending initiatives they once supported? The path‐dependent models offered by fiscal‐military, rational choice, and geopolitical theorists are evaluated in comparison with an elite conflict model of contingent historical change. The latter model is found to be better able to explain territorial and fiscal stagnation and decline as well as imperial expansion in the cases of early modern Spain, France, the Netherlands, and Britain.
article  jstor  paywall  social_theory  historical_sociology  state-building  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  fiscal-military_state  rational_choice  geopolitics  IR  balance_of_power  Spain  Dutch  Britain  France  British_Empire  find  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
H. M. A. Keens-Soper, "The French Political Academy, 1712: A School of Ambassadors," in The Art of Diplomacy: Francois de Callieres: ed H. M.A. Keens-Soper, Karl W. Schweizer | Amazon.com: Books
In 1716, the French diplomat and author Francois de CalliËres published the treatise "De la Maniere de negocier avec les souverains" an outstandingly successful manual of advice for diplomats, perhaps the best of its kind ever written. It has become the classic text, highly regarded by 18th century statesmen, who considered it essential reading for prospective diplomats, and by modern historians who have praised its insights into the conventions and techniques that remained a distinctive feature of European statecraft for almost 300 years.This book is the first, complete critical edition of Callieres' work based on an accurate but virtually unknown English translation of 1716. It also includes a biographical introduction, based on French manuscript sources, which provides an account of Callieres' life as writer and diplomat, a discussion of the origin of the work and an assessment of the intellectual and historical background to which the treatise belongs. In addition, the book includes appendixes on the French political academy, Callieres' library and a list of his publications as well as those of his father, Jacques, also a notable author in his day. The volume concludes with a bibliography of works on diplomatic theory covering the period 1648 to 1815.This reprint of the 1983 edition by Leicester University Press makes available once again this historical work of enduring value.
books  diplomacy  diplomatic_history  Peace_of_Utrecht  18thC  France  French_government  Louis_XIV  Regency-France  IR  international_system  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
William D. Grampp: The Third Century of Mercantilism (1944)
JSTOR: Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 10, No. 4 (Apr., 1944), pp. 292-302 -- analogies between 17thC England and France and 20thC entre deux guerres
article  jstor  economic_history  political_history  international_system  intellectual_history  international_political_economy  IR  trade  FX  mercantilism  17thC  20thC  Britain  France  entre_deux_guerres  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Review by: Andrea Zanini: Genoa and the Sea: Policy and Power in an Early Modern Maritime Republic, 1559-1684 by Thomas Allison Kirk
JSTOR: The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 67, No. 3 (Sep., 2007), pp. 813-814

Traces stages in evolution from a military fleet supported by Spanish financial links, decline of Spanish power in Mediterranean during 17thC, attempt to make Genoa an entrepôt free port, and putting paid to military aspirations by French bombardment 1684

Bibliography and recent work by historians of Genoa port are missin5, but overall scheme and conclusion look sound.
books  reviews  16thC  17thC  economic_history  political_history  IR  Spain  Mediterranean  Italy  sovereign_debt  military_history  naval_history  city_states  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Kevin Sharpe: Rebranding Rule: 1660-1720 | Kindle Store
In the climactic part of his three-book series exploring the importance of public image in the Tudor and Stuart monarchies, Kevin Sharpe employs a remarkable interdisciplinary approach that draws on literary studies and art history as well as political, cultural, and social history to show how this preoccupation with public representation met the challenge of dealing with the aftermath of Cromwell's interregnum and Charles II's restoration, and how the irrevocably changed cultural landscape was navigated by the sometimes astute yet equally fallible Stuart monarchs and their successors.
books  British_history  British_politics  cultural_history  religious_history  monarchy  Charles_II  James_II  William_III  Queen_Anne  George_I  Restoration  Exclusion_Crisis  Glorious_Revolution  War_of_Spanish_Succession  Hanoverian_Succession  aristocracy  Parliament  political_economy  political_culture  art_history  English_lit  Whigs  Whig_Junto  Tories  colonialism  IR  EF-add  English_constitution 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Against War and Empire :Geneva, Britain & France in the 18thC, Richard Whatmore (2012): Kindle Store
Richard Whatmore presents an intellectual history of republicans who strove to ensure Geneva’s survival as an independent state. Whatmore shows how the Genevan republicans grappled with the ideas of Rousseau, Voltaire, Bentham, and others in seeking to make modern Europe safe for small states, by vanquishing the threats presented by war and by empire. The Genevan attempt to moralize the commercial world, and align national self-interest with perpetual peace and the abandonment of empire, had implications for the French Revolution, the British Empire, and the identity of modern Europe.

Review

“Whatmore uncovers the considerable European intellectual impact of a small group of eighteenth-century Genevan reformers, who called themselves the Représentants. . . . In telling their story Whatmore reveals how political Adam Smith’s political economy became in the final decades of the eighteenth century and into the nineteenth century.”—Philippe Steiner, Paris-Sorbonne

“The fate of small states in a world of competing commercial hegemons is a contemporary quandary with Enlightenment roots. Richard Whatmore's deeply researched, tightly written study shows that a surprising number of those roots sprang from Geneva. Scholars of political thought, international relations and the rise and fall of empires in the late eighteenth century will all have to take account of this masterful book.”—David Armitage, Harvard

“Whatmore expertly narrates the attempts of Genevan radicals to transform European power politics and, in so doing, offers fascinating  insights into Rousseau’s Genevan and democratic credentials, emphasizing his relative conservatism and heterodoxy when compared to his Genevan friends and followers.”—Helena Rosenblatt, CUNY
books  kindle-available  18thC  Britain  France  Geneva  intellectual_history  political_economy  commerce  IR  political_philosophy  Rousseau  Smith  British_Empire  imperialism  Great_Powers  democracy  French_Revolution  radicals  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Geoffrey Parker: The Place of Tudor England in the Messianic Vision of Philip II of Spain: The Prothero Lecture (2001)
JSTOR: Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, Vol. 12 (2002), pp. 167-221

Messianic visions burgeoned simultaneously in Judaism, Christianity and Islam in the sixteenth century, directly involving sovereign rulers, and powerfully influencing international relations. This essay examines the propensity of Philip II (1556-98) to frame his policies in messianic terms, with special regard to England. It uses the Ridolfi plot (1570-1) and the Armada (1587-8) to show how the king disregarded strategic concerns, and failed to formulate fall-back strategies, because he expected God to provide a miracle to bridge the gap between means and ends. It also compares his vision with those of his Christian, Jewish and Muslim contemporaries.
jstor  article  16thC  Spain  British_history  Elizabeth  IR  politics-and-religion  Providence  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
John C. Rule: Review Article: Gathering Intelligence in the Age of Louis XIV (1992) | Taylor & Francis Online
Review and essay re Lucien Bély. Espions et Ambassadeurs au Temps de Louis XIV. Paris: Fayard, 1990. Pp. 905.

Price $37

The International History Review
Volume 14, Issue 4, 1992
pages 732-752
DOI:10.1080/07075332.1992.9640632
article  paywall  find  books  reviews  bookshelf  18thC  France  British_history  Dutch  Holy_Roman_Empire  Spain  Germany  Austria  War_of_Spanish_Succession  Peace_of_Utrecht  espionage  diplomacy  IR  diplomatic_history  Louis_XIV  Bolingbroke 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Don't Call It Isolationism - By Gordon Adams | Foreign Policy June 2013
The decision to pull back on massive engagements of military force does not mean force is not going to be used. It just goes underground. In fact, I would argue that today, the U.S. military is way, way out in front in setting the terms for future U.S. global engagement, and in ways that may not suit our national interests.

When the military (especially the ground forces) fail, the military does not shrink, sulking back into the barracks. Arguably, today the U.S. military is more involved than ever overseas, on a global basis, carrying out missions that extend well beyond classic military competencies.
US_foreign_policy  military  diplomacy  international_system  IR  EF-add  US_government  development  GWOT 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
A Murdie: The Curvilinear Effects of Civil−Military Conflict on International Crisis Outcome - Armed Forces & Society 2012
Pdf downloaded to Note
Abstract
Does civil–military conflict harm military effectiveness? Most previous empirical literature on the effects of civil–military conflict has utilized dichotomous indicators of the presence or absence of overall civilian control. However, the extant theoretical literature is clear that mid-levels of civil–military conflict could be good for innovation and overall decision making. In line with these arguments, the author argues that we should not expect all civil–military conflict to harm military effectiveness and, by extension, international crisis bargaining outcome. Instead, some civil–military conflict should have a positive effect on the overall success of the military.

Utilizing new events data that captures the level of civil–military conflict cross nationally from 1990 to 2004, the author examines how civil–military conflict actually has an inverse U-shaped relationship with crisis success. This project also adds to the theoretical literature by examining variations across different degrees of civil–military conflicts, drawing attention to the usefulness of mid-range civil–military “friction.”
IR  military  governance  international_crisis  post-Cold_War  downloaded 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
D Herspring: Creating Shared Responsibility through Respect for Military Culture: The Russian and American Cases - 2011 - Public Administration Review - Wiley Online Library
Pdf downloaded to Note
Abstract:
The key problem in civil-military relations in established polities such as Russia and the United States is not civilian control of the military, but rather how to create a symbiotic relationship of “shared responsibility” between senior military officers and civilian leaders. In such a situation, civilian leaders obtain much needed expertise from the military, but ultimately remain in control. The keys to symbiotic civil-military relations are a desire on the part of military officers to work with civilians and civilian respect for military culture. When civilians respect military culture—that is, the military’s (1) devotion to clear executive leadership, (2) commitment to corporate identity, (3) drive to increase professional expertise, and (4) dedication to political responsibility—a system of shared responsibility is likely to emerge. This thesis is elaborated by comparing recent civil-military relations in Russia and the United States.
US_foreign_policy  US_government  military  Russia  post-Cold_War  21stC  governance  downloaded  IR 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
A Murdie: Response to Herspring “Creating Shared Responsibility through Respect for Military Culture” - 2011 - Public Administration Review - Wiley Online Library
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Abstract:
Professor Dale R. Herspring argues that civil-military relations should move beyond a preoccupation with civilian control; instead, he says, the focus should be on the degree and nature of conflict within civil-military interactions. This alternative theoretical view adds much to the extant literature and allows future work to concentrate both on a more nuanced account of the effects of civil-military relations and, as Professor Herspring does, on the determinants of a “healthy” degree of civil-military conflict. This piece responds to Professor Herspring’s alternative view, arguing that future work building on his framework could incorporate much from within public administration
US_foreign_policy  US_government  Russia  military  governance  IR  downloaded 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
D Nexon: The Snowden Affair and International Hierarchy | Duck of Minerva July 2013
I don’t have a strong sense of the degree that other scholars associate me with the “new hierarchy studies,” but a major theme of my work is that we are better off understanding crticial aspects of international relations as structured by patterns of super- and subordination than as anarchical. Indeed, my sense is that two of the most prominent advocates of this view–Krasner andLake–overestimate the importance of anarchical relations in world politics. Still, both correctly note that de jure state sovereignty serves to deflect attention from the prevalence of hierarchical control among and across states.
IR  international_system  sovereignty  hierarchy  anarchy 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Eric Grinaviski: The Relational Sociology of Rational-Choice Theory » Duck of Minerva
The idea that rational action requires taking others perspectives—that role playing is crucial for social action—is a key concept in much of sociological thought. To take one example from pragmatic thought, think about the overlap between game theory and George H. Mead’s Mind, Self, and Society. The ideas of perspective taking in game theory is the play between the I and the me. For Mead, thinking occurred in a dialogue between my mental representation of what others would do (the me, or others collective attitudes and likely actions) and my response to the me (the I). In other words, what is captured in an extensive form game is the internal conversation of gestures that lies at the heart of Mead’s social psychology.

The same is true in rational choice theory. If I successfully navigate society, then society is ‘in me’ because I can accurately guess what others are going to do in response to my actions; I have internalized the generalized other (and many specific others as well).

Comment from PTJ [snipped]:
 I read Mead as going through that whole exercise in order to demonstrate the fundamental inadequacy of starting with individuals in order to explain social arrangements; instead, we ought to start with relational/transactions flows and patterns. Which is what I am suggesting we might want to do, instead of building in autonomous individuals at the ground floor of our conceptions the way that decision-theoretic accounts do.Your strategy seems to be to show how constitutively autonomous individuals are interconnected. I'd prefer to start someplace else.

Eric response to PTJ [snipped]:
. I have the entirely opposite reaction to Mead. And, the difference in our interpretation is important. If individuals always rightly interpreted social gestures, then of course the importance of the 'individual' drops out strictly speaking because perfect cognition makes cognition uninteresting. Neat features happen when individuals are wrong.
social_theory  IR  methodology  rational_choice 
june 2013 by dunnettreader
Buzan & Lawson: The global transformation: the nineteenth century and the making of modern international relations - LSE Research Online
Buzan, Barry and Lawson, George (2012) The global transformation: the nineteenth century and the making of modern international relations. International studies quarterly, online . ISSN 0020-8833 (In Press)
19thC  IR  global_system  English_School  historical_sociology  imperialism  capitalism  Wiley 
june 2013 by dunnettreader
Noah Millman: Too Many Imperialisms June 2013 - TAC
Taxonomy for assorted US hawks and liberal internationalists in response to Peter Beinhart. Neocons distinctive belief in Green Lantern effective will.
US_foreign_policy  US_politics  IR  EF-add 
june 2013 by dunnettreader
Can Obama be a realist … even if he wanted to? | Sean Kay sub for S Walt @ FP
Review of post Cold War shift to Grand Strategy of maintenance of global hegemony. Obama seems to be trying to turn the aircraft carrier in a more realist direction, but the forces committed to hegemony (even within the Administration) may defeat his efforts.
US_foreign_policy  IR  realism  links 
june 2013 by dunnettreader
Cynicism, realism, and Syria | Justin Logan sub for S Walt @ FP
Response to Drezner. US policy not "realist" since realists oppose Grand Strategy of getting mixed up with minor players in region. Off shore balancing would contain major potential troublemakers (eg Iran) & ignore the rest. Humanitarian costs of meddling without active intervention gives wrongly characterized realism a bad name.
US_foreign_policy  Syria  IR  realism 
june 2013 by dunnettreader
Defining the Sino-American relationship - Drezner
China's behavior isn't more "assertive" despite overegged punditry - lots of good links
China  US-China  US_foreign_policy  IR  links 
june 2013 by dunnettreader
China is giving Europe a harsh lesson - Philip Stephens
Redefining Great Powers and Trans-Pacific vs Trans-Atlantic trade talks
trade  US_foreign_policy  IR  China  US-China  EU 
june 2013 by dunnettreader

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