dunnettreader + god-attributes   48

David Brakke - Gnosticism: From Nag Hammadi to the Gospel of Judas | The Great Courses
Gnosticism: From Nag Hammadi to the Gospel of Judas
Professor of religious studies and history at Ohio State
24 lectures
Uniformly rave reviews from people with good academic background in Early Christianity and comparative religion
Neoplatonism  theology  eschatology  ecclesiology  manichaean  gnostic  heterodoxy  creation  late_antiquity  hermeneutics  Early_Christian  archaeology  esotericism  manuscripts  audio  proto-orthodox  evil  soteriology  church_history  video  religious_history  courses  Trinity  God-attributes  heresy 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Sino Knuuttila - Medieval Theories of Future Contingents [updated 2015] | (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Related Entries
Auriol [Aureol, Aureoli], Peter | Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus | fatalism | free will: divine foreknowledge and | future contingents | Gersonides | Gregory of Rimini | Holkot [Holcot], Robert | modality: medieval theories of | prophecy
contingency  Boethius  modal_logic  logic  free_will  Cicero  divine_​omniscience  Aristotle  fate  Abelard  Aquinas  necessity  SCOTUS  Providence  prophecy  medieval_philosophy  future_contingents  God-attributes 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Ofri Ilany - From Divine Commandment to Political Act: The 18thC Polemic on the Extermination of the Canaanites | JSTOR - Journal of the History of Ideas (July 2012)
From Divine Commandment to Political Act: The Eighteenth-Century Polemic on the Extermination of the Canaanites -- Ofri Ilany, Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 73, No. 3 (July 2012), pp. 437-461 -- big bibliography especially of primary sources - heavy focus on the German tradition of historical Biblical_criticism -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  religious_history  17thC  18thC  Enlightenment  Enlightenment-conservative  anticlerical  Bible-as-history  Biblical_criticism  Biblical_authority  morality-divine_command  genocide  Moses  God-attributes  God-vengeful  Hebrew_commonwealth  Voltaire  Bolingbroke  German_theologians  cultural_history  cultural_change  bibliography  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Wireless Philosophy | Classical Theism 7 (Atheistic Arguments from Evil) | Wi Phi
Classical Theism 7 (Atheistic Arguments from Evil), Emeritus Professor, Philosophy, University of Toronto -- Last in series - Often it can seem like the existence of evil is incompatible with a good and omnipotent God. This video present an argument for that claim put forward by J.L. Mackie, and it examines the different ways that Classical Theism and Theistic Personalism respond to a version of it that concludes that there is no God
video  God-attributes  God-existence  philosophy_of_religion  theology  theodicy 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
John Sellars - Is God a Mindless Vegetable? Cudworth on Stoic Theology (2011) | Academia.edu
Intellectual History Review 21/2 (2011), 121-33 -- In the late sixteenth century a number of influential writers claimed Stoicism to be compatible with Christianity but by the mid eighteenth century, Stoicism had come to be associated with atheism. What happened during the course of the reception of Stoicism in the intervening period? While it remains unclear who was the first person to call the Stoics atheists, there is no doubt that the most philosophically sustained analysis of Stoic theology during this period is to be found in Ralph Cudworth's True Intellectual System of the Universe, published in 1678. Cudworth's aim in this work is to catalogue and then attack all existing forms of atheism and one of the four principal forms of atheism he identifies he calls ‘Stoical’. However, in Cudworth's complex taxonomy of different forms of theism and atheism, Stoicism appears twice, first as a form of atheism but also as a form of imperfect theism. The aim of this study is to examine Cudworth's claims about Stoic theology, assessing their fairness, but also placing them within the wider context of the early modern reception of Stoicism. -- Keywords: Atheism, Stoicism, Cambridge Platonism, and Ralph Cudworth -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  Academia.edu  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  Stoicism  theology  atheism  determinism  God-existence  God-attributes  Cambridge_Platonists  Cudworth  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Andrea Nightingale and David Sedley, eds. - Ancient Models of Mind: Studies in Human and Divine Rationality | Classical Philosophy | Cambridge University Press (hbk 2010, obk 2015)
In honor of A. A. Long: Publications 1963–2009 -- Table of Contents 1. Plato on aporia and self-knowledge, Andrea Wilson Nightingale -- 2. Cross-examining happiness: reason and community in the Socratic dialogues of Plato Sara Ahbel-Rappe -- 3. Inspiration, recollection, and mimesis in Plato's Phaedrus, Kathryn A. Morgan -- 4. Plato's Theaetetus as an ethical dialogue, David Sedley -- 5. Divine contemplating mind, Allan Silverman -- 6. Aristotle and the history of Skepticism, Alan Code -- 7. Stoic selection: objects, actions, and agents, Stephen White -- 8. Beauty and its relation to goodness in Stoicism, Richard Bett -- 9. How dialectical was Stoic dialectic?, Luca Castagnoli -- 10. Socrates speaks in Seneca, De vita beata 24-28, James Ker -- 11. Seneca's Platonism: the soul and its divine origin, Gretchen Reydams-Schils -- 12. The status of the individual in Plotinus, Kenneth Wolfe -- downloaded marketing materials to Note
books  kindle-available  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Hellenism  Plato  Platonism  Aristotle  Stoicism  Seneca  Plotinus  Neoplatonism  moral_philosophy  epistemology-moral  God-attributes  eudaimonia  aporia  soul  imago_dei  virtue_ethics  virtue  self-knowledge  self-examination  self-development  dialectic  beauty  good  sociability  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Design Arguments for the Existence of God | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Table of Contents -- 1. The Classical Versions of the Design Argument -- a. Scriptural Roots and Aquinas's Fifth Way -- b.The Argument from Simple Analogy -- c. Paley's Watchmaker Argument -- d. Guided Evolution **--** 2. Contemporary Versions of the Design Argument. -- a. The Argument from. -- b. Irreducible Biochemical Complexity -- c. The Argument from Biological Information. -- d. The Fine-Tuning Arguments -- (i) The Argument from Suspicious Improbability -- (ii) The Confirmatory Argument. **--** 3. The Scientifically Legitimate Uses of Design Inferences. **--** 4.References and Further Reading -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  medieval_philosophy  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  philosophy_of_religion  theology  natural_religion  rational_religion  Newtonianism  creation  design-nature  God-existence  God-attributes  Aquinas  analogy  Paley  complexity  cosmology  cosmological-fine-tuning  intelligent_design  creationism  natural_philosophy  evolution  Bible-as-history  bibliography  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Hartshorne: Biography and Psychology of Sensation | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
(..) he insisted that metaphysics and empirical science have different aims and methods, each ensuring in its own way a disciplined objectivity. His “neoclassical” or “process” metaphysics is in the same family of speculative philosophy that one finds in the works of CS Peirce and the later writings of AN Whitehead. Although he did not style himself a disciple of either, he made significant contributions to the study of these philosophers even as he developed his own views. Like them, he endeavored in his own metaphysical thinking to give full weight to the dynamic, relational, temporal, and affective dimensions of the universe. He emphasized, as few before him had, in logic and in the processes of nature, the foundational nature of asymmetrical relations. He was also a theist (...) the revival of the ontological or modal argument for God’s existence...He insisted, however, that it was unavailing to appeal to ...any theistic argument) as support for theism without first rethinking the concept of deity. He argued that thinking about God had been handicapped by lack of attention to the logically possible forms of theism, and in place of the unmoved mover of classical theology, he proposed “the most, and best, moved mover.” He endorsed a “dipolar” version of theism according to which God is both necessary and contingent, but in different respects. He sought a “panentheism” in which God includes the creatures without negating their distinctiveness. -- entry also covers his 1st book on perception -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  20thC  metaphysics  philosophy_of_religion  Peirce  Whitehead  theism  Hartshorne  natural_religion  rational_religion  God-attributes  God-existence  analytical_philosophy  logic  logic-Peirce  process_theology  panentheism  ontological_argument  cosmology  Aristotelian  sensation  perception  empiricism  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Hartshorne, Charles : Dipolar Theism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Hartshorne’s views on the existence of a divine reality are treated separately in another article, “Charles Hartshorne: Theistic and Anti-Theistic Arguments.” -- Hartshorne spent much of his career in a philosophical atmosphere in which the question was not so much “Does God exist?” as it was “Does ‘God’ name a coherent idea?” Philosophers from very diverse schools of thought—from Sartre to the Logical Positivists—rejected theism on the basis of alleged inconsistencies in the very idea of deity. Hartshorne himself remarked that there would be fewer atheists if theists had done a better job of making sense of the concept of God. Hartshorne’s response to this situation was to develop his dipolar or neoclassical concept of God. It can plausibly be claimed that Hartshorne accomplished at least two tasks: first, he introduced a sophisticated and religiously important form of theism heretofore unheard of or at least very poorly developed through philosophical argument and, second, he shifted the burden of proof onto those who claim that the concept of God is hopelessly muddled. -- downloaded pdf to Note
philosophy_of_religion  metaphysics  20thC  rational_religion  Whitehead  Hartshorne  God-attributes  analytical_philosophy  Logical_Positivism  existentialism  panentheism  theism  atheism  process_theology  modal_logic  ontological_argument  empiricism  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Hartshorne, Charles: Neoclassical Metaphysics | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - July 2015
Hartshorne (1897-2000) was an intrepid defender of the claims of metaphysics ...While many influential voices were explaining what speculative philosophy could not accomplish or even proclaiming an end to it, Hartshorne was trying to show what speculative philosophy could accomplish. Metaphysics, he said, has a future as well as a past. He believed that the history of philosophy exhibits genuine, albeit halting and uneven, progress towards a comprehensive understanding of the nature of existence. Philosophy was, for him, a dialogue that spans centuries, with partners whose wisdom has a perennial relevance. The 2 philosophers who most influenced him, and in whose work he found the greatest parallels with his own thinking, were Charles Sanders Peirce and Alfred North Whitehead. Hartshorne was co-editor with Paul Weiss of the first comprehensive edition of Peirce’s philosophical papers, and he served as Whitehead’s assistant during the most metaphysically creative period of the Englishman’s career. (...) there remained important differences between the two philosophers [i.e. H & W]. (..) theism was always a central element of Hartshorne’s metaphysics (addressed briefly here, but see “Charles Hartshorne: Dipolar Theism” and “Charles Hartshorne: Theistic and Anti-theistic Arguments”) whereas Whitehead was preoccupied for much of his career with a philosophy of nature and did not introduce God until he developed the speculative philosophy of his later works. -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  20thC  metaphysics  philosophy_of_religion  Peirce  Whitehead  theism  Hartshorne  natural_religion  rational_religion  God-attributes  God-existence  analytical_philosophy  logic-Peirce  ontological_argument  modal_logic  Quine  process_theology  panentheism  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Charles Taliaferro - Unknowable Truths and Omniscience: A Reply to Kvanvig | JSTOR: Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 61, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 553-566
The various attribute debates in analytical_philosophy tend to be piecemeal. They also often smuggle in positions on heavily debated issues such as free_will. Helpful pulling apart various threads of theism debates on attributes, determinism and theodicy -- didn't download
article  jstor  theology  Christianity  God-attributes  free_will  theodicy  cosmology  determinism  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Charles Taliaferro - God's Estate [Locke's theory of God's ownership of the cosmos] | JSTOR: The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Spring, 1992), pp. 69-92
This article defends John Locke's notion that the cosmos is owned by God and explores the ethical implications of such divine ownership. Locke's theory, recently revived by Baruch Brody, is modified and defended against criticisms leveled against it by Joseph Lombardi and Robert Young. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  theology  metaphysics  moral_philosophy  creation  theism  Plato-religion  soul  immortality  property  property_rights  God-attributes  obligation  morality-divine_command  morality-Christian  Locke-religion  Locke-2_Treatises  cosmology  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Charles Taliaferro - The Passibility of God | JSTOR: Religious Studies, Vol. 25, No. 2 (Jun., 1989), pp. 217-224
Responding to a recent book defending the thesis of the impassibility of God (eternally unchanging etc - reflecting the Platonic prejudice against change) he argues that the God of Christian theism must suffer, for theological and moral reasons. -- didn't download
article  jstor  theology  Christianity  Christology  soteriology  God-attributes  change-metaphysics  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Review by: Charles Taliaferro - Richard Swinburne, Providence and the Problem of Evil | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 197 (Oct., 1999), pp. 562-564
Swinburne, unlike Plantinga etc, admits there's enough of what we would term evil to require a theodicy from any Christian theologian or philosophers of religion more generally -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  find  reviews  jstor  intellectual_history  theology  theodicy  God-existence  God-attributes  creative_destruction  creation  agnosticism  theism  Christianity  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Alan Carter - On Pascal's Wager, or Why All Bets Are Off | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 198 (Jan., 2000), pp. 22-27
Short demonstration that if Pascal succeeds in showing it's rational to bet on a good god and lead a morally upstanding life, it's similarly rational to believe in an evil god and attempt to earn divine rewards by conducting our lives in the most morally repugnant way we can. - starts with a discussion of prior, less dramatic, objections to Pascal's Wager from e.g. Diderot onwards -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  French_Enlightenment  Pascal  religious_belief  God-existence  God-attributes  theodicy  universalism  comparative_religion  immortality  immorality  morality-divine_command  morality-Christian  morality-conventional  Diderot  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Devin Henry - Berkeley's Passive Mind | Minerva Vol 4, 2000
The question this paper is intended to answer is, ‘Can the existence of ideas of sense be reconciled with the nature of God within the context of Berkeley’s philosophy?’ The way Berkeley characterises the immediate perception of ideas of sense (how we first come to be furnished with ideas) entails that the mind is passive: ideas of sense are those which are "actually imprinted on the senses" (PR 1). Thus, the question we need to address is, ‘In what sense is the mind passive?’ The main thesis of this paper holds that the existence of ideas of sense is incompatible with God’s nature within Berkeley’s philosophy, and it is based on the assumption that for Berkeley, perception is the passive reception of ideas of sense. However, because there are obvious textual discrepancies between the notebooks on the one hand, and the Principles and Dialogues on the other, we must allow for two possible interpretations of "passive": passive qua inactive and passive qua receptive. Pursuing the consequences of both these interpretations will take up the majority of this paper. However, I will begin by taking a brief look at an historical example of the ‘directional error’ before turning to Berkeley’s own theory of perception. -- Online journal, no pdf for download
intellectual_history  18thC  Berkeley  epistemology  mind  perception  ideas-theories  God-attributes  imagination  empiricism  realism  idealism  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
"THE INTELLIGIBLE CREATOR-GOD AND THE INTELLIGENT SOUL OF THE COSMOS IN" by Jason G. Rheins | Penn Dissertations
Advisors - Charles H. Kahn and Susan Sauvé Meyer, Paul Guyer -- When Plato discusses the World-soul, cosmic intellect (nous), and the Demiurge, he approaches them theologically, i.e. as being the subjects of an account of the nature of the gods, but few works in the last half-century or more have addressed the ‘players’ in Plato’s theology as such. -- I analyze Plato’s various accounts of those divine things that are immanent in the world of change (e.g. the World-soul) and those that are said to be transcendent intelligibles (e.g. the Forms and the Demiurge) in order to determine what Plato’s gods are, and what roles they play in his system. -- The invention of the World-soul is revealed to be Plato’s way of instantiating intellect in the cosmos in order to suit the demands of his natural and moral philosophy, while his esoteric account of the Demiurge resolves any tensions between his immanent theology and his metaphysics, and suggests, semi-literally, the role that timeless, intelligible goodness plays in organizing the sensible world of change. -- Rheins, Jason G., "THE INTELLIGIBLE CREATOR-GOD AND THE INTELLIGENT SOUL OF THE COSMOS IN PLATO’S THEOLOGY AND METAPHYSICS" (2010). Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations. Paper 184. -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  religious_history  theology  metaphysics  moral_philosophy  creation  gods-antiquity  God-attributes  God-existence  immanence  transcendence  forms  ideas-theories  Plato  change-metaphysics  cosmology  good  time  timeless  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Alfred Caldecott, Hugh Ross Mackintosh, eds. - Selections from the Literature of Theism (1904 - 472 pgs) - Google Books
Thomas Aquinas *--* Descartes *--* Spinoza *--* The Cambridge Platonists *--* Berkeley *--* Kant *--* Schleiermacher *--* Cousin *--* Comte *--* Mansel *--* Lotze *--* Martineau *--* Janet *--* Ritschl -- each author introduced by brief essay but more interesting intellectual framework of the editors comes out in their footnotes -- not exactly a companion to Caldecott history of British and American philosophy of religion, since his history covers a large number of thinkers and doesn't include Continental except as needed to explain the Anglo-American authors, but still useful for the intellectual framework of increasingly confident academic approach to philosophy of religion as distinct from theology -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  Google_Books  intellectual_history  theology  philosophy_of_religion  17thC  18thC  19thC  Descartes  Spinoza  Spinozism  Cambridge_Platonists  Berkeley  Kant  Schleiermacher  Comte  German_Idealism  British_Idealism  Hegelian  hermeneutics  moral_philosophy  cosmology  materialism  mind-body  metaphysics  God-attributes  God-existence  realism  scepticism  intuitionism  sociology_of_religion  phenomenology  Fin-de-Siècle  modernity  Victorian  Edwardian  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Alfred Caldecott - The Philosophy of Religion in England and America (1901) - Google Books
Downloaded pdf to Note -- interesting from standpoint of how he classifies the philosophical elements - e.g. lumps Bolingbroke with Berkeley and Butler, not with Deists or Hume - clearly doesn't see how similar Bolingbroke and Hume really were, unlike Warburton who grasped it; also doesn't sneer like Leslie Stephen -- a specimen of fin de siècle academic professionalization after the divinity training raison d'être and "vocation" of Anglo-American universities had evaporated
books  etexts  Google_Books  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  theology  philosophy_of_religion  British_history  US_history  reason  revelation  cosmology  God-attributes  God-existence  creation_ex_nilho  creation  scepticism  theism  Cambridge_Platonists  Locke-religion  Deism  rational_religion  natural_religion  materialism  mind-body  mind-theory_of  idealism-transcendental  subjectivism  Butler  Berkeley  Bolingbroke  theodicy  comparative_religion  comparative_anthropology  monotheism  ecclesiology  Hegelian  British_Idealism  moral_philosophy  moral_sentiments  obligation  intuitionism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Michael Heyd - From a Rationalist Theology to Cartesian Voluntarism: David Derodon and Jean-Robert Chouet | JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 40, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1979), pp. 527-542
Shift from proto Leibniz determinism to extreme Voluntarism - 1660 and later in Geneva - Chouet introduced Cartesian mechanism to French Reformed - a perspective on the relationship between theology and 17thC mechanical philosophy -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  religious_history  science-and-religion  17thC  Geneva  Calvinist  rational_religion  God-attributes  determinism  voluntarism  laws_of_nature  Descartes  Cartesian  mechanism  natural_philosophy  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Marshall interview with Lisa Downing - Early Mod philosophy » 3:AM Magazine - May 2014
Lisa Downing is the philosopher who thinks all the time about the early modern philosophers of Europe, especially 17th and 18th century philosophy, about how philosophical analysis and historical exactitude compliment each other, on adding to the canonical philosophers of the period, on why Malebranch is the closest to re-entry, and Robert Boyle, on Descartes vs Newton, on avoiding anachronism, on the dynamism of the period, on primary and secondary qualities, on resisting the idea that historical views have to be relevant, on Berkeley, on tensions in Locke, on women philosophers of the time and on rejecting the occult. This one is kick-ass! Yo!
intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  Descartes  Cartesian  Malebranche  Locke  Boyle  Berkeley  Newton  Clarke  Leibniz  Hobbes  mind-body  causation  God-attributes  Providence  mechanism  substance  metaphysics  Aristotelian  qualia  perception  natural_philosophy  free_will  Scientific_Revolution  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Middle Knowledge [Molinism] - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
** Assumptions
** Scientia Media
** Objections to Middle Knowledge
** Rejection of Libertarian Freedom
** Libertarian Responses
** The Truth of Counterfactuals of Creaturely Freedom
** Objections to the Principle of Conditional Excluded Middle
** Molinist Responses
** Molinism and Determinism
** The Grounding Objection
** Molinist Responses
** The Usefulness of Middle Knowledge
** Viciously Circular
** Not True Soon Enough
** Molinist Responses
theology  theodicy  philosophy_of_religion  logic  modal_logic  God-attributes  free_will  Providence  Calvinist  Jesuits  Counter-Reformation  Genesis  creation_ex_nilho  EF-add 
april 2014 by dunnettreader
William Lane Craig - Molinism vs. Calvinism | Reasonable Faith
Detailed explanation of where he differs with Reformed theologians, though both see themselves as generally following Westminster Confession
theology  theodicy  God-attributes  Providence  salvation  free_will  evil  Calvinist  Kirk  EF-add 
april 2014 by dunnettreader
Clayton Littlejohn, review - Rob Lovering, God and Evidence: Problems for Theistic Philosopher // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Dec 2013
Rob Lovering presents a series of related problems for theism. Most of these have to do with our epistemic predicament. The bulk of the book is spent arguing that the fact of nonbelief should lead us to abandon a variety of theistic views (i.e., theistic inferentialism, theistic noninferentialism, and theistic fideism). In the book’s final chapter, he argues against the coherence of theism by arguing that there could not be an essentially omniscient being. Lovering’s book is a welcome addition to the literature. His arguments are novel and forceful. The problems he discusses deserve careful consideration. I shall briefly summarize the main moves in the text and then point to two places where I think the theist can push back. Although his arguments might not establish conclusively that the theistic views he discusses are mistaken, they show that these views are deeply problematic.
books  reviews  philosophy_of_religion  theology  theism  atheism  God-attributes  God-existence  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
the theological mistake of divine omnipotence | Carol P. Christ
The “zero fallacy” is a term philosopher Charles Hartshorne used to explain the “theological mistake” known as divine omnipotence.  Hartshorne pointed out that if God is omnipotent, then God has “all” or “100%” of the power. If this is so, then human beings and all other beings have “zero” power.  But if we have zero power, then do we even exist?  It is hard to imagine what “existence” means if it is a quality attributed to beings with zero power to affect the world. In fact, if God has 100% of the power, then no being other than the divine being can be said to exist. This is what Hindus may mean when they say that the world is “maya” or illusion.
philosophy_of_religion  theodicy  God-attributes  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
J. R. Jacob - Boyle's Atomism and the Restoration Assault on Pagan Naturalism | JSTOR: Social Studies of Science, Vol. 8, No. 2 (May, 1978), pp. 211-233
This paper places Boyle's atomism in its social context, and describes the political motives which underlay it. Boyle's physico-theology was designed to answer the ideological challenges thrown up by the turbulent events of mid-seventeenth-century England. After the Restoration, Boyle and the Royal Society continued to use his natural philosophy to this end. One important example is Boyle's A Free Enquiry... (written in 1666, but not published until 1686). This addresses itself to the heretical implications of scholastic natural philosophy. Scholasticism, argues Boyle, assumes a universe in which a purposive rationality works quite apart from God and divine providence, and in which there is no distinction between 'nature' and 'providence'; this may lead to some form of 'paganizing naturalism', and so must be overthrown. Boyle's strategy is first to show that the scholastic conception is not scientifically valid, and then to offer his corpuscular philosophy as a superior alternative. However, Boyle's real enemy was not scholastic theory per se, but those who relied on it - papists and paganizing deists. In showing that both cherished outmoded assumptions about nature, Boyle attacked both kinds of idolatry simultaneously. The timing of the appearance of A Free Enquiry also added to its effectiveness as a shrewd piece of Anglican apologetics. It was published just when, because of James II's religious policy, the threat of subversion by papists and 'atheists' bulked larger than ever before in the minds of Anglican churchmen. -- extensive bibliography -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  religious_history  church_history  natural_philosophy  17thC  Boyle  corpuscular  experimental_philosophy  Royal_Society  pagans  Deism  scholastics  anti-Catholic  natural_religion  Providence  God-attributes  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Maria Popova - Godliness in the Known and the Unknowable: Alan Lightman on Science and Spirituality | Brainpickings Jan 2014
Maria Popova on Alan Lightman (MIT physicist and author of fiction and nonfiction) -new essay collection 'The Accidental Universe: The World You Thought You Knew" - though an atheist thinks there are lots of ways to knowledge besides science, and that creativity and happiness requires embracing uncertainty and faith of various types
books  reviews  find  amazon.com  21stC  science-and-religion  physics  spirituality  secular_humanism  God-existence  God-attributes  Deism  atheism  natural_religion  cosmology  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik - WHO NEEDS GOD? | Pandaemonium February 2012
What I want to concentrate on today, however, is on the first type of argument. And that is because for me, as it is for many other atheists, this is the primary motivation for my atheism – I simply do not see the necessity for God.

There are three kinds of reasons often given for the necessity of God. First, there is the claim that God is necessary to explain Creation and the maintenance of the cosmos. Second, that God is a necessary source of moral values; that without God we would fall into the abyss of moral nihilism. And third, that without belief in God, there can be no purpose or meaning to life. Let us look at each of these claims in turn.
intellectual_history  theology  atheism  God-existence  God-attributes  voluntarism  moral_philosophy  morality-objective  morality-conventional  Biblical_criticism  Bible-as-history  Aquinas  cosmology  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik - WHAT DID THE GREEKS EVER DO FOR GOD? | Pandaemonium Dec 2013
Xenophanes (c 570-476 BCE), one of the earliest of the Presocratics, savaged Homer and Hesiod for ‘attributing to the gods everything that men find shameful and reprehensible – stealing, adultery and deceiving one another.’ Humans possessed false ideas of gods because they fashioned them in their own image. So, ‘Ethiopians say their gods are flat-nosed and black, and Thracians that theirs have blue eyes and red hair.’ And if horses and cows possessed gods, they would undoubtedly be ‘horse-like gods, cow-like gods’.

There could only be one God, Xenophanes insisted, ‘since it is sacrilege for any of the gods to have a master’. This God could be ‘in no way similar to mortal men in body or in thought’. God must have always existed, for there is nothing superior that could have created Him, and He could not have been created by an inferior being. He is a living being but unlike like organic beings there are no parts in Him. He has no physical contact with anything in the world but ‘remains for ever in the same place, entirely motionless’ and ‘effortlessly, he shakes all things by thinking with his mind.’ This notion of a wholly simple God came to be important in both Islam and Christianity.
theology  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  anthropomorphism  monotheism  polytheism  Plato  Aristotle  cosmology  God-attributes  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Nathaniel Peters, review: Denys Turner, Thomas Aquinas - The Common Doctor for Common People | America Magazine Oct 2013
Nathaniel Peters is a doctoral student in historical theology at Boston College.

As Turner argues, Thomas’ theology is deeply Dominican, marked above all by a concern for preaching. The Summa is, after all, a curriculum designed for men who are studying so that they can proclaim the Word of God and administer the sacraments. It is academic, but its study is aimed at proclamation. Attendant to the concern for preaching is a concern for poverty, which allows the preacher to back up his words with his own life. For all its erudition, the Summa is theology that friars can take with them to care for the people of God.

Turner begins his exposition of this theology in what might seem like an odd way: He argues that Thomas is a materialist—a materialist not according to the contemporary reductive sense that matter is all there is, but in a richer sense that matter is capable of bearing immense meaning. Hence he argues that we know truths about God and ourselves from our intellect’s grasp of material, worldly objects.

In a similar way, Thomas argues that human beings are body–soul composites. Contra Plato and his followers, the soul is not “the center of gravity of personhood,” to use Turner’s term. For Thomas, the person is the body and soul together, and not just the soul’s rational faculties, but even its more vegetative and animal ones.
books  biography  reviews  theology  Aquinas  materialism  dualism  God-existence  God-attributes  EF-add 
october 2013 by dunnettreader
Ian Hunter, review: The return of sacred history - Brad Gregory’s "The Unintended Reformation" « The Immanent Frame
Finally, let us return to the twin claims on which Gregory’s account is based: first, his claim that Protestant anti-sacramentalism facilitated a historical process by which “metaphysical univocity in combination with Occam’s razor opened a path that would lead through deism to Weberian disenchantment and modern atheism”; and, second, his claim that despite the “Western hyperpluralism” to which it gave rise, he can provide a true account of this history on the basis of a concept of a “transcendent creator God” whose compatibility with “all possible scientific findings” is grounded in a metaphysics that demonstrates God’s immanent presence in all scientific domains. How should we view these claims in light of the preceding evidences and observations? Well, the prima facie incompatibility between Gregory’s first claim and an array of significant historical evidence—taken in tandem with his relegation of anti-anachronist historiography altogether—suggests that his account should not be regarded as a contribution to trans-confessional historiography. Rather, it should be located, like Charles Taylor’s A Secular Age, in the genre of Catholic confessional metaphysical hermeneutics, where historical narratives are composed as unfoldings of predetermined metaphysical or theological doctrines.
books  reviews  religious_history  intellectual_history  cultural_history  Catholics  theology  metaphysics  Reformation  science-and-religion  Spinoza  monism  Deism  atheism  Hegelian  securitization  secularism  modernity  apostolic_succession  Thomism  historiography  historians-and-religion  church_history  history_of_science  Europe-Early_Modern  Germany  Biblical_criticism  philology  historicism  historiography-17thC  humanism  Duns_Scotus  God-attributes  transcendence  immanence  creation_ex_nilho  Early_Christian  Neoplatonism  Dioysius-Pseudo  forgeries  sacraments 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Amazon.com: Coleridge and Scepticism (Oxford English Monographs) eBook: Ben Brice: Books
Although Coleridge intuitively felt that nature had been constructed as a 'mirror' of the human mind, and that both mind and nature were 'mirrors' of a transcendent spiritual realm, he never found an explanation of such experiences that was fully immune to his own skeptical doubts. Coleridge and Scepticism examines the nature of these skeptical doubts, as well as offering a new explanatory account of why Coleridge was unable to affirm his religious intuitions. Ben Brice situates his work within two important intellectual traditions. The first, a tradition of epistemological 'piety' or 'modesty', informs the work of key precursors such as Kant, Hume, Locke, Boyle, and Calvin, and relates to Protestant critiques of natural reason. The second, a tradition of theological voluntarism, emphasizes the omnipotence and transcendence of God, as well as the arbitrary relationship subsisting between God and the created world. Brice argues that Coleridge's detailed familiarity with both of these interrelated intellectual traditions, ultimately served to undermine his confidence in his ability to read the symbolic language of God in nature...... Introduction. I. Theological Voluntarism and Protestant Critiques of Natural Reason. II. Hume's 'Fork': Scepticism and Natural Religion. III. 'That Uncertain Heaven': Coleridge's Poetry and Prose 1795 to 1805. IV. Between Flesh and Spirit: Coleridge's Prose Writings 1815 to 1825. Conclusion.
books  kindle-available  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  English_lit  Britain  theology  voluntarism  God-attributes  natural_religion  scepticism  Romanticism  nature  mind  Coleridge  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Ofri Ilany, From Divine Commandment to Political Act: The Eighteenth-Century Polemic on the Extermination of the Canaanites (2012)
Project MUSE - Ofri Ilany. "From Divine Commandment to Political Act: The Eighteenth-Century Polemic on the Extermination of the Canaanites." Journal of the History of Ideas 73.3 (2012): 437-461.Project MUSE. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://muse.jhu.edu/>.
The article discusses the ways in which eighteenth-century European writers treated the biblical account of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelites and the massacre of its inhabitants. The legitimacy of Canaanite extermination was one of the most controversial historical-theological questions in the Enlightenment’s Republic of Letters, as English Deists and other anti-clerical writers protested against the immorality of the extermination commandment. Conservative Bible scholars of the German historical-critical school, who attempted to defend the morality of the Bible, were forced to devise novel legal and theoretical tools in order to justify the conquest of the land by modern reasoning.
article  Project_MUSE  18thC  intellectual_history  religious_history  anticlerical  Old_Testament  Biblical_criticism  God-attributes  Bolingbroke  paywall  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
John E. Hare review: Angus Ritchie, From Morality to Metaphysics: The Theistic Implications of our Ethical Commitments // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews August 2013
The book looks awful but the review is quite interesting Ritchie's use of or failure to use the history of philosophy. Ritchie undertakes to show the failures of axiarchism, the view that the good has a causal role, making things to be a certain way just because it is good for them to be that way. This is a version of final causation, and is familiar to anyone who knows Aristotelian metaphysics. When Ritchie comes to discuss axiarchism without divine purposes, which is Aristotle's position, Aristotle is not mentioned. The whole move from teleology in nature (what was called in the nineteenth century 'teleonomy') to teleology confined to the purposes of designers (as in Duns Scotus, for example) is examined as though there had not been centuries of discussion about it. ..... The other quibble is about Robert M. Adams. Ritchie attributes to Adams the view that because God is loving, God will perform the most loving action (169). But Adams would deny the maximization thesis implied here. More importantly, Ritchie thinks that if we ground moral obligation in God's character as loving, that means we do not ground it in God's will. Adams would deny the dichotomy here, because he thinks that God's willing and God's character are necessarily harmonious (Finite and Infinite Goods, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, 47f). For Adams, God does constitute our obligations by command, which is an expression of will, but it is the expression of a loving will, not an arbitrary one (except in the antique sense of 'arbitrary' in which it means 'within a person's discretion,' in Latin arbitrium).
books  reviews  theism  metaethics  evolution  God-attributes  voluntarism  causation  teleology  obligation  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader

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