dunnettreader + charles_ii   27

Dan Bogart - "There Can Be No Partnership with the King": Regulatory Commitment and the Tortured Rise of England's East Indian Merchant Empire | via Brad DeLong - Equitablog
Dan Bogart, Department of Economics, UC Irvine - : “There Can Be No Partnership with the King”: Regulatory Commitment and the Tortured Rise of England’s East Indian Merchant Empire: “The English East India Company helped build Britain’s colonial empire, but the Company was not a leader in East Asian trade for nearly a century after its founding in 1600. This paper argues that its early performance was hindered by a problem of regulatory commitment. It gives a brief history of the torturous renegotiations over its monopoly trading privileges and the fiscal demands by the monarchy. It also analyzes the effects of political instability, warfare, and fiscal capacity on the Company’s investment in shipping tonnage. Regressions show the growth of shipping tonnage declined significantly when there were changes in government ministers, when Britain was at war in Europe and North America, and when shipping capacity exceeded central government tax revenues. The findings point to the significance of regulatory institutions in Britain’s development and its links with politics and war. They also provide an important case where regulatory uncertainty lowers investment.” paper dated Jan 2015 -- downloaded pdf to Note
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february 2015 by dunnettreader
N.H. Keeble - The Restoration: England in the 1660s (2002) | Wiley Online Library
This cultural history challenges the standard depiction of the 1660s as the beginning of a new age of stability, demonstrating that the de following the Restoration was just as complex and exciting as the revolutionary years that preceded it. -- very large endnotes available as free access -- downloaded pdf to Air
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january 2015 by dunnettreader
Peter Elmer, review - Paul Kleber Monod, Solomon's Secret Arts: the Occult in the Age of Enlightenment (Yale University Press 2013) | Reviews in History
Peter Elmer, University of Exeter -- This important work provides the first informed, well-researched and highly nuanced account of the fortunes of ‘occult’ thought and practice in England from the mid17thC to its demise at the end of the 18thC. Building on the work of a wide range of scholars from various disciplines, (..) the fortunes of the occult are argued to have peaked in the second half of the 17thC, dipped in the period from the Glorious Revolution to 1760, and then re-emerged in the last 4 decades of the 18thC in somewhat different but revitalized form. As Monod shows (..) the occult (defined broadly as alchemy, astrology and natural magic) was rarely perceived as a uniform movement of ideas, its adherents frequently picking and choosing those elements of the ‘occult’ which most appealed to them. It was thus a protean body of ideas, susceptible to frequent re-interpretation according to the personal preoccupations of the initiated. At the same time, while some of its adherents may have (in the earlier period especially) seen it as a body of ideas capable of replacing older systems of science and philosophy, it more often than not was studied and developed alongside other, competing systems of thought. (..) What is invigoratingly original here is Monod’s application of the same accommodating features of occult thinking with regard to Newtonianism and the Enlightenment in the later period. (..) it is hard to disagree with his conclusion that ‘the assumption of many historians, that occult thinking was debunked by experimental science … is essentially wrong’.(..) all the arguments against astrology, alchemy and natural magic had been fully developed long before 1650. This is equally true of witchcraft, (..) The occult was not simply argued out of existence. Only wider factors can help to explain this process. (..) in order to understand this process, we need to pay more heed to the wider social, religious and political context in which these ideas were promoted and debated. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
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january 2015 by dunnettreader
Lorena S. Walsh, review - Nuala Zahedieh, The Capital and the Colonies: London and the Atlantic Economy, 1660-1700 (2010) | EH.net Review - Feb 2011
Zahedieh finds increasing concentration of plantation commerce among large merchants specializing in particular commodities and regions in the 1680s, when falling commodity prices and increased taxes eroded profit margins and drove out small traders. Colonial merchants seldom invested in overseas property, but made a massive contribution to expansion of empire in the form of short-term credit extended to settlers. The larger operators accumulated enough capital to diversify investment into shipbuilding, slave-trading, joint-stocks, insurance, wharves, industry, landed property, loans, and public credit. This decade was a turning point, as merchant concentration and specialization led to improved productivity, economies of scale, and reduced costs. (..) attempts of the later Stuarts to corner the profits of empire by restricting free trade among Englishmen as having limited success. (..) she sees the effect of the Glorious Revolution, not as leading to an economically optimal political arrangement, but as consolidating the capacity of the transatlantic trading elite to enforce regulation in its own interests and enhance the value and scale of rent-seeking enterprises at the expense of competition and efficiency, leading to a period of slower growth in colonial trade and shipping at the end of the century. Unlike trade with Europe, colonial commerce required an unusually large fixed capital investment in the greater tonnage needed to transport large volumes of bulky goods over long distances. (..) English- and plantation-built ships were better suited to most colonial commerce than were Dutch (..) it was long-distance commerce, rather than the protection of the Navigation Acts, that revived the English shipbuilding industry. By 1700 plantation shipping accounted for 40% of London's overseas trading capacity. (..) increased education among mariners (..) managerial skills, (..) navigational instruments. (..) London's prosperity by stimulating the construction of wharfs and warehouses, (.) naval refitting, repair, and provisioning trades. Although technology and unit input costs were fairly stable across the period, increased volumes and growing experience with colonial conditions led to organizational improvements which made more efficient use of inputs. - page encoding a mess on Note - try to save page or copy to EF in Air
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january 2015 by dunnettreader
- DAVID LEWIS JONES - British Parliaments and Assemblies: A Bibliography of Printed Materials (2009) Parliamentary History - Wiley Online Library
Each section a pdf downloaded to Note - combined, c 25,000 entries *--* Section 1: Preface, Introduction, The Westminster Parliament 1-4005. **--** Section 2: The Medieval Parliament 4006-4728 **--** Section 3: Tudor Parliaments 4729-5064 **--* Section 4: Stuart Parliaments 5063-6805 **--** Section 5: The Unreformed Parliament 1714-1832 6806-9589. **--** Section 6: The Reformed Parliament 1832-1918 9590-15067 **--** Section 7: Parliament 1918-2009 15068-21582. **--** Section 8: The Judicial House of Lords 21583-21835. -- The Palace of Westminster 21836-22457. -- The Irish Parliament 22458-23264 -- The Scottish Parliament (to 1707) 23265-23482 -- The New Devolved Assemblies 23483-23686 -- The Scottish Parliament (1999-) 23687-24251 -- Northern Ireland 24252-24563 -- The National Assembly for Wales 24537-24963 -- Minor Assemblies
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december 2014 by dunnettreader
John Emerich Edward Dalberg, Lord Acton, Historical Essays and Studies, edited by John Neville Figgis and Reginald Vere Laurence (London: Macmillan, 1907) - Online Library of Liberty
A collection of Acton’s articles from journals such as the Quarterly Review, the English Historical Review, the Nineteenth Century, the Rambler, the Home and Foreign Review, the North British Review, and the Bridgnorth Journal. *--* I: WOLSEY AND THE DIVORCE OF HENRY VIII. *-* II: THE BORGIAS AND THEIR LATEST HISTORIAN. &-* III: SECRET HISTORY OF CHARLES II. *-* IV: THE CIVIL WAR IN AMERICA ITS PLACE IN HISTORY. *-* V: THE RISE AND FALL OF THE MEXICAN EMPIRE *-* VI: CALVIN *-* VII: THE CAUSES OF THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR *-* VIII: THE WAR OF 1870 *-* IX: GEORGE ELIOT’S LIFE. *-* X: MR. BUCKLE’S THESIS AND METHOD. *-* XI: MR. BUCKLE’S PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY. *-* XII: GERMAN SCHOOLS OF HISTORy. *-* XIII: TALLEYRAND’S MEMOIRS. *-* XIV: THE LIFE OF LORD HOUGHTON *-* XV: A HISTORY OF THE PAPACY DURING THE PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION. *-*. XVI: A SHORT HISTORY OF NAPOLEON THE FIRST. By John Robert Seeley THE FIRST NAPOLEON: A SKETCH, POLITICAL AND MILITARY. By John Codman Ropes. *-* XVII: MABILLON ET LA SOCIÉTÉ DE L’ABBAYE DE SAINT-GERMAIN-DES-PRÉS À LA FIN DU XVIIE SIÈCLE. Par Emmanuel de Broglie. *-* XVIII: A HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 1837-1880.1 By the Rev. J. Franck Bright, D.D., Master of University College, Oxford. *-* XIX: A HISTORY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. By H. Morse Stephens. Vol. II. *-* XX: WILHELM VON GIESEBRECHT -- downloaded kindle version of html
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september 2014 by dunnettreader
The Works of John Locke, vol. 9 (Letters and Misc. Works) - Online Library of Liberty
Letters in Latin reflecting correspondence in Republic of Letters; miscellaneous writings on topics he was interested in, including viticulture for the 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, a history of navigation, and his book collection Of particular interest, a collection published in 1719 - A COLLECTION OF SEVERAL PIECES OF Mr. JOHN LOCKE. published by Mr. DESMAIZEAUX, under the direction of ANTHONY COLLINS, Esq. *-* THE character of Mr. Locke, by Mr. Peter Coste. *-* The fundamental constitutions of Carolina. *-* A letter from a person of quality to his friend in the country; giving an account of the debates and resolutions of the house of lords, in April and May 1675, concerning a bill, intitled, “An act to prevent the dangers which may arise from persons disaffected to the government.” *-* Remarks upon some of Mr. Norris’s books, wherein he asserts F. Malebranche’s opinion of “our seeing all things in God.” *-* A letter to Mr. Oldenburg, secretary to the Royal Society. *-* Letters to Anthony Collins, Esq. *-* A letter to * * * on Dr. Pococke. *-* Letters to the Rev. Mr. Richard King. *-* Rules of a society which met once a week, for their improvement in useful knowledge, and for the promoting of truth and christian charity --- in Vol 2 of this edition, Elements of natural philosophy. *-* Some thoughts concerning reading and study for a gentleman. -- downloaded mobi to Note
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august 2014 by dunnettreader
The Works of John Locke, vol. 8 (Some Thoughts Concerning Education, Posthumous Works [Malebranche, Miracles, Life of 1st Earl of Shaftesbury], Familiar Letters) [1824 edition] - Online Library of Liberty
SOME THOUGHTS CONCERNING EDUCATION. *--* POSTHUMOUS WORKS OF JOHN LOCKE, Esq. [OF THE CONDUCT OF THE UNDERSTANDING. - in Vol 2 of this edition] - AN EXAMINATION OF P. MALEBRANCHE’S OPINION OF SEEING ALL THINGS IN GOD. -- A DISCOURSE OF MIRACLES. -- MEMOIRS RELATING TO THE LIFE OF ANTHONY First Earl of Shaftesbury. *--* SOME FAMILIAR LETTERS BETWEEN Mr. LOCKE, AND SEVERAL OF HIS FRIENDS. [Principally between Locke and Molyneux. Also Leibniz's comments on the Essay] -- downloaded mobi to Note
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august 2014 by dunnettreader
ANDERS INGRAM -- THE OTTOMAN SIEGE OF VIENNA, ENGLISH BALLADS, AND THE EXCLUSION CRISIS (2014).| The Historical Journal, 57, pp 53-80.- Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
ANDERS INGRAM - National University of Ireland, Galway --The second Ottoman siege of Vienna (1683) generated a higher volume of English writing than any other seventeenth-century event involving the Ottomans. This article focuses upon ballads written in the immediate aftermath of the siege and relates them to the concurrent English political context of the Tory reaction to the exclusion crisis. Situating these ballads within the publication milieu of pamphlet news and political polemic, it examines the figures who produced them and the audiences they were aimed at. Following from this, it shows how the use of commonplace images and associations with the ‘Turk’ as a recurring figure in early modern writing allowed these ballads to find, or depict, synchronicities between the events of the siege of Vienna, and the English political scene. -* I am grateful to Daniel Carey and Christine Woodhead for their help and comments at various stages.
article  paywall  find17thC  British_history  British_politics  political_culture  Exclusion_Crisis  Tories  Ottomans  Austria  Holy_Roman_Empire  military_history  Christendom  Christianity-Islam_conflict  despotism  popular_politics  popular_culture  political_press  ballads  pamphlets  newspapers  1680s  Charles_II  Whigs  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
The Roots of Liberty: Magna Carta, Ancient Constitution, and the Anglo-American Tradition of Rule of Law, ed. Ellis Sandoz, - Online Library of Liberty
Ellis Sandoz, The Roots of Liberty: Magna Carta, Ancient Constitution, and the Anglo-American Tradition of Rule of Law, edited and with an Introduction by Ellis Sandoz (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2008). 07/12/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2180> -- This is a critical collection of essays on the origin and nature of the idea of liberty. The authors explore the development of English ideas of liberty and the relationship those ideas hold to modern conceptions of rule of law. The essays address early medieval developments, encompassing such seminal issues as the common-law mind of the sixteenth century under the Tudor monarchs, the struggle for power and authority between the Stuart kings and Parliament in the seventeenth century, and the role of the ancient constitution in the momentous legal and constitutional debate that occurred between the Glorious Revolution and the American Declaration of Independence. Authors -- Corinne Comstock Weston - John Phillip Reid - Paul Christianson - Christopher W. Brooks - James Clarke Holt - Editor: Ellis Sandoz -- a lot of historiography discussion of legal history, politics and political philosophy - interesting to see their take on Pocock - original publication date 1993, so bibliography will be a bit dated and the articles won't reflect all the waves of revisionism but important place to start -- downloaded pdf to Note
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july 2014 by dunnettreader
Joyce Lee Malcom, The Struggle for Sovereignty: 17thC English Political Tracts, vol. 2 of 2 - Online Library of Liberty
Joyce Lee Malcom, The Struggle for Sovereignty: Seventeenth-Century English Political Tracts, 2 vols, ed. Joyce Lee Malcolm (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1999). Vol. 2. 07/12/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1824> -- Vol 1 covers 1603 to 1660, Vol 2 from the Restoration (starting with Vane's defense) through the flurry after the Glorious_Revolution, including Sherlock on the rule of William and Mary now settled, debates over loyalty oath and bill of rights. -- An entire literature of political discourse resulted from this extraordinary outpouring – and vigorous exchange – of views. The results are of a more than merely antiquarian interest. The political tracts of the English peoples in the 17thC established enduring principles of governance and of liberty that benefited not only themselves but the founders of the American republic. These writings, by the renowned (Coke, Sidney, Shaftesbury) and the unremembered (“Anonymous”) therefore constitute an enduring contribution to the historical record of the rise of ordered liberty. Each volume includes an introduction and chronology. -- downloaded pdf to Note
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july 2014 by dunnettreader
John Millar, An Historical View of the English Government [1803], eds. Mark Salber Philips and Dale R. Smith - Online Library of Liberty
John Millar, An Historical View of the English Government, From the Settlement of the Saxons in Britain to the Revolution in 1688, in four volumes, edited by Mark Salber Philips and Dale R. Smith, introduction by Mark Salber Philips (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2006). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1886> -- An Historical View of the English Government consists of three parts, concerned with the most substantive revolutions in English government and manners: from the Saxon settlement to the Norman Conquest, from the Norman Conquest to the accession of James I, and from James I to the Glorious Revolution. Through these three phases Millar traces the development of the “great outlines of the English constitution”—the history of institutions of English liberty from Saxon antiquity to the revolution settlement of 1689. Millar demonstrates serious concern for the maintenance of liberties achieved through revolution and maintains that the manners of a commercial nation, while particularly suited to personal and political liberty, are not such as to secure liberty forever.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  British_history  British_politics  historiography-Whig  historiography-18thC  historians-and-politics  ancient_constitution  English_constitution  Anglo-Saxons  Norman_Conquest  Magna_Carta  Tudor  Elizabeth  James_I  Charles_I  Charles_II  James_II  William_III  English_Civil_War  Restoration  Glorious_Revolution  Revolution_Principles  commerce  liberty  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  monarchy  civil_liberties  civilizing_process  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Mark Noll - American Christian Politics, review essay - Michael P. Winship, Godly Republicanism: Puritans, Pilgrims, and a City on a Hill | Books and Culture 2012
Fabulous summary by Noll of the different religious groups in 17thC England and the New England migrations -- Winship also challenges the many accounts of early-modern republicanism that have pictured it as an essentially secular ideology strongly inimical, with its all-out focus on worldly power, to the Puritans' strict Calvinism. Instead, he argues that the "godly republicanism" of early New England came directly from spiritual sources. The Puritans' greatest desire was to bring about biblical reform of churches corrupted by abuses of unchecked power. -- Explicitly Christian virtue thus grounded the health of the "commonwealth," an expressly republican term. Those scholars, including myself, who have described the republicanism of the Revolutionary era as secular may reply that the early Puritan arrangement was soon modified by the Puritans themselves and then completely abrogated when Massachusetts was taken over as a royal colony in 1684. But Winship nonetheless makes a strong case for a definite Christian root to the founding republican principles of the United States. This re-interpretation of early New England history hinges on careful discrimination among the different varieties of English and American Puritans. Never, one might think, has a scholar made so much of so little. Yet paying close heed to how he describes these Puritan varieties is, in the end, convincing. The following chart, which sets things out as an "invention" in the Ramist logic so beloved by the Puritans, summarizes those distinctions, though it would have clarified Winship's argument if he himself had provided such a scorecard.
books  reviews  kindle-available  historiography  17thC  British_history  US_history  British_politics  religious_history  church_history  Church_of_England  religious_culture  religious_belief  Puritans  Arminian  Presbyterians  Congregationalist  English_Civil_War  New_England  Massachusetts  political_philosophy  political_culture  republicanism  politics-and-religion  Biblical_authority  civic_virtue  American_colonies  Charles_II  James_II  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  UK_government-colonies  commonwealth  Christendom  religion-established  abuse_of_power  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Frank H. Ellis - "Legends no Histories" Part the Second: The Ending of "Absalom and Achitophel" @| JSTOR: Modern Philology, Vol. 85, No. 4 (May, 1988), pp. 393-407
Revisionist history of what Dryden was doing with the poem, the history of the political context and reactions. Following earlier Philip Harth article "Legends no Histories" (1975) which was an "explosion" of the traditional story. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  English_lit  literary_history  17thC  Dryden  satire  politics-and-literature  political_culture  court_culture  Whigs  Charles_II  Exclusion_Crisis  Popish_Plot  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Kevin Sharpe, review essay - Print, Polemics, and Politics in 17thC England | JSTOR: Journal of British Studies, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Apr., 2002), pp. 244-254
Writing and Society: Literacy, Print and Politics in Britain, 1590-1660 by Nigel Wheale; Whores of Babylon: Catholicism, Gender and Seventeenth-Century Print Culture by Frances E. Dolan; Political Passions: Gender, The Family and Political Argument in England, 1680-1714 by Rachel Weil; The Age of Faction: Court Politics, 1660-1702 by Alan Marshall -- downloaded pdf to Note
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may 2014 by dunnettreader
George McFadden - Political Satire in 'The Rehearsal' | JSTOR: The Yearbook of English Studies, Vol. 4 (1974), pp. 120-128
Claims everyone has tagged The Rehearsal as both a political and cultural satire but attempts to figure out all the references and targets have fallen short or been mistaken, so McFadden takes on the task -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  cultural_history  literary_history  politics-and-literature  17thC  British_history  British_politics  theatre-Restoration  theatre-politics  Dryden  Charles_II  court_culture  Marvell  popery  Absolutism  Restoration  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Torrey Shanks - Feminine Figures and the "Fatherhood": Rhetoric and Reason in Locke's "First Treatise of Government" | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 39, No. 1 (February 2011), pp. 31-57
Traditionally neglected, Locke's First Treatise of Government has taken on new significance with feminist interpretations that recognize the importance of its sustained engagement with patriarchal power. Yet feminist interpreters, both critics and admirers alike, read Locke as a champion of the "man of reason," a figure seemingly immune to the influences of passions, imagination, and rhetoric. These interpreters wrongly overlook Locke's extended engagement with the power of rhetoric in the First Treatise, an engagement that troubles the clear opposition of masculine reason and its feminine exclusions. Taking Locke's rhetoric seriously, I argue, makes the First Treatise newly important for what it shows us about Locke's practice of political critique. In following the varied and novel effects of Locke's feminine figures, we find a practice of political critique that depends on a mutually constitutive relation between rhetoric and reason. -- paywall Sage -- see bibliography on jstor information page
article  jstor  paywall  find  libraries  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  literary_history  rhetoric  rhetoric-political  17thC  Locke-1st_Treatise  women-rights  women-property  patriarchy  authority  metaphor  Popish_Plot  Exclusion_Crisis  Filmer  Dryden  Shaftesbury_1st_Earl  Charles_II  masculinity  femininity  reason  philosophy_of_language  emotions  practical_reason  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Darrick N. Taylor -thesis - L'Estrange His Life: Public and Persona in the Life and Career of Sir Roger L'Estrange, 1616-1704 (2011)
KU ScholarWorks: Authors: Taylor, Darrick N. Advisors: Clark, Jonathan C.D. .....Downloaded pdf to Note..... The subject of this dissertation is the life and career of Roger L'Estrange, who was a licenser of Books and Surveyor of the Press for Charles II, as well as a royalist pamphleteer. It seeks to answer the question of how conceptions of public and private changed in late seventeenth century England be examining the career of L'Estrange, which involved him in many of the major pamphlet campaigns of the Restoration period. It argues that there was no stable "public sphere" in seventeenth century England, one that clearly marked it off from a private sphere of domesticity. It argues that the classical notion of office, in which reciprocal obligation and duty were paramount, was the basic presupposition of public but also private life, and that the very ubiquity of ideals of office holding made it semantically impossible to distinguish a stable public realm from a private one. Furthermore, the dissertation also argues that the presupposition of officium not only provided the basis for understanding relationships between persons but also of individual identity in seventeenth century England. It argues that L'Estrange saw his own identity in terms of the offices he performed, and that his individual identity was shaped by the antique notion of persona--of a mask that one wears, when performing a role--than to modern notions of individual identity. Lastly, it will argue that people in seventeenth century England still understood their world in terms of offices, but that changes in the way they understood office, visible in L'Estrange's writings, helped prepare the way for the reception of more modern ideas about public and private spheres that would eventually come to fruition in the nineteenth century.
thesis  cultural_history  political_history  political_culture  17thC  Britain  British_politics  Restoration  Exclusion_Crisis  Glorious_Revolution  1680s  1690s  1700s  L'Estrange  Charles_II  James_II  Whigs  Tories  political_press  pamphlets  censorship  propaganda  politics-and-religion  public_sphere  office  persona  identity  self  obligation  moral_philosophy  domesticity  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Review by: Mark Goldie - Subjects and Sovereigns: The Grand Controversy over Legal Sovereignty in Stuart England by C. C. Weston; J. R. Greenberg (1983)
JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 26, No. 4 (Dec., 1983), pp. 1029-1030 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- nice little essay on what goes wrong when try to map Left-Right assumptions re political theory since antiquity onto 17thC English religious politics -- the players in fact don't wind up where the authors put them, ignoring the discrepancies
books  reviews  political_history  religious_history  church_history  Church_of_England  dissenters  Whigs  Tories  Absolutism  tolerance  political_culture  religious_culture  Charles_II  James_II  English_Civil_War  Restoration  Parliament  sovereignty  Locke  Shaftesbury_1st_Earl  Marvell  Erastianism  ecclesiology  downloaded  EF-add  English_constitution 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Kevin Sharpe: Rebranding Rule: 1660-1720 | Kindle Store
In the climactic part of his three-book series exploring the importance of public image in the Tudor and Stuart monarchies, Kevin Sharpe employs a remarkable interdisciplinary approach that draws on literary studies and art history as well as political, cultural, and social history to show how this preoccupation with public representation met the challenge of dealing with the aftermath of Cromwell's interregnum and Charles II's restoration, and how the irrevocably changed cultural landscape was navigated by the sometimes astute yet equally fallible Stuart monarchs and their successors.
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july 2013 by dunnettreader

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