James Thompson - After the Fall: Class and Political Language in Britain, 1780-1900 | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Sep., 1996), pp. 785-806
The fall of class in nineteenth-century British history has become a familiar tale. Its rise in the historiography of eighteenth-century Britain has been less noted. This essay explores the reasons for this divergence and emphasizes its methodological origins. It highlights the need for a comprehensive history of class society and identity to replace the confused and contradictory picture of particular classes and communities that is currently on offer. To understand better the constitution of class society, it urges historians to talk less of consciousness and more of identity and to recognize that class is an imagined community much like any other. It proceeds to use this understanding of class identity to assess the turn to political language amongst social historians interested in class. The paper offers a sustained examination of the recent work of Joyce and Wahrman in particular and argues that insufficient attention has been paid to the variety of usable political languages and to the particular discursive contexts in which they are employed. It is argued that to acknowledge that class is so constructed is not to deny its existence or its importance and that historians need to look beyond political discourse to explain how class became so central to the self and the social in the nineteenth century. -- extensive references on British social history as well as postmodern historiography debates -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  historiography  social_history  political_history  cultural_history  British_history  British_politics  18thC  19thC  classes  class_conflict  working_class  middle_class  lower_orders  elites  elite_culture  popular_culture  bourgeoisie  identity  identity_politics  political_participation  political_press  rhetoric-political  aristocracy  gentry  gentleman  social_order  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Patrick H. Hutton - Vico and the End of History | JSTOR: Historical Reflections / Réflexions Historiques, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Fall 1996), pp. 537-558
Uses Paul Kennedy as comparator for finding patterns in the past to think about the future, and Fukuyama for apocalyptic philosophy of history -- downloaded pdf to Note - in separate folder for the papers from this special issue
article  jstor  intellectual_history  historiography  philosophy_of_history  Vico  Hegelian  eschatology  declinism  cycles  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Alexander U. Bertland - The Significance of Tacitus in Vico's Idea of History | JSTOR: Historical Reflections / Réflexions Historiques, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Fall 1996), pp. 517-535
Suggests Vico found in Tacitus a 3 stage cycle that concludes with "the barbarism of reflection" though in Vico's own narrative he doesn't make the link explicit but slides over the decline and fall of the Roman Empire -- downloaded pdf to Note - in separate folder for the papers from this special issue
article  jstor  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_history  Vico  Tacitus  historiography-18thC  ancient_history  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Roman_Empire  cycles  stadial_theories  declinism  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Patrick H. Hutton - Vico for Historians: An Introduction [dedicated issue to Vico for historians for our time] | JSTOR: Historical Reflections / Réflexions Historiques, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Fall 1996), pp. 479-493
Introduction gives a brief biography and discusses each of the papers in the issue, plus a short "further reading" -- Contents *--* Community, Prereflective Virtue, and the Cyclopean Power of the Fathers: Vico's Reflections on Unexpected Consequences (pp. 495-515) Edmund E. Jacobitti. *--* The Significance of Tacitus in Vico's Idea of History (pp. 517-535) Alexander U. Bertland. *--* Vico and the End of History (pp. 537-558) Patrick H. Hutton. *--* Vico, Rhetorical Topics and Historical Thought (pp. 559-585) Catherine L. Hobbs. *--* Situating Vico Between Modern and Postmodern (pp. 587-617) Sandra Rudnick Luft. *--* Interpretations and Misinterpretations of Vico (pp. 619-639) Cecilia Miller -- Introduction and all papers downloaded to Note and in separate folder in Dropbox
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  Vico  Enlightenment  historicism  historiography-18thC  historiography-19thC  ancient_history  poetry  rhetoric  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_history  stadial_theories  Tacitus  oral_culture  postmodern  reading  reader_response  readership  cycles  human_nature  humanism  hermeticism  hermeneutics  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
John P. Diggins - Dos Passos and Veblen's Villains | JSTOR: The Antioch Review, Vol. 23, No. 4 (Winter, 1963-1964), pp. 485-500
Explains apparent shift from radical Left to Goldwater Right as consistent champion of productivist classes - craftsmen, engineers, and labor generally - first against Veblen's villains, the captains of finance capital, the PR men, and the managerialist ethos driven by profit at the expense of productive values of quality, know-how etc -- post WWII, Dos Passos added big government and labor bosses to his villains
article  jstor  19thC  20thC  US_history  US_society  entre_deux_guerres  post-WWII  intellectual_history  political_culture  political_economy  social_order  finance_capital  production  labor  industry  profit  craftsmanship  capitalism  Veblen 
august 2014
Ian Ward - Helping the Dead Speak: Leo Strauss, Quentin Skinner and the Arts of Interpretation in Political Thought | JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Apr., 2009), pp. 235-255
In the wake of the "hermeneutical turn" two approaches to textual interpretation have come to wield considerable disciplinary influence in North American political theory circles: those of Leo Strauss and Quentin Skinner. Their respective approaches to texts in the history of political thought are generally regarded as competitor endeavors; indeed, the view that these approaches are downright antithetical enjoys the status of a disciplinary commonplace. I interrogate this commonplace and attempt to clarify what exactly is at stake in the differences between these two thinkers' interpretative approaches. Such efforts are repaid, I believe, by a more nuanced methodological self-awareness that discloses a more cooperative, and less antagonistic, view of the relationship between the two thinkers' hermeneutical understandings. -- check bibliography on jstor information page -- paywall
article  jstor  paywall  intellectual_history  historiography  political_philosophy  Skinner  Strauss  Cambridge_School  Straussians  hermeneutics  Gadamer  concepts  concepts-change  meaning  philosophy_of_language  rhetoric  bibliography  EF-add 
august 2014
Review by: Ian Ward - Quentin Skinner, Hobbes and Republican Liberty | JSTOR: Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 8, No. 3 (September 2010), pp. 948-949
Overview of debates re different types of liberty, what relations between liberalism and republicanism, etc in both intellectual_history and political_philosophy in the decades after Skinner's Foundations in 1978. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  jstor  bookshelf  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  17thC  18thC  Hobbes  social_contract  liberty  liberalism-republicanism_debates  liberalism  liberty-positive  liberty-negative  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  limited_monarchy  civic_virtue  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Ian Ward, review - Charles Taylor, A Secular Age | JSTOR: The Journal of Religion, Vol. 88, No. 3 (July 2008), pp. 420-422
Certain aspects of A Secular Age are bound to generate controversy, particularly among scholars trained in the study of religion. Those suspicious of the category of religious “experience,” given the ahistorical and covertly apologetic uses to which it has been put in the past, will be wary of Taylor’s idea of a “sense of fullness,” which draws upon the earlier work of Mircea Eliade, Rudolf Otto, and William James. --Most importantly, there is also the issue of where to place A Secular Age—who is Taylor arguing against and engaging in dialogue with? What are the relevant competitor views upon which we should bring it to bear? Given its size and complexity, one of the most obvious competitor accounts of secularity and modernity would be Hans Blumenberg’s The Legitimacy of the Modern Age, but Taylor’s explicit references to Blumenberg, while suggestive, are infrequent and parenthetical. Taylor does, more explicitly, situate his account against what he calls “subtraction” theories of secularity, which posit a “uniform and unilinear effect of modernity on religious belief and practice” (461). However, given that prominent scholars of secularization (such as Peter Berger and Jürgen Habermas) do not defend such a position, we might ask whether Taylor’s scholarly target remains a live one. -- didn't download
books  reviews  kindle-available  jstor  religious_history  cultural_history  secularization  secularism  religious_belief  religious_culture  religious_experience  sociology_of_religion  modernity  Blumenberg  Enlightenment  progress  Providence  Taylor_Charles 
august 2014
Clifford Ando, review - James B Rives, . Religion in the Roman Empire | JSTOR: The Journal of Religion, Vol. 88, No. 4 (October 2008), pp. 552-554
Reviewed work(s): James B Rives, . Religion in the Roman Empire. Blackwell Ancient Religions. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007. xiv+237 pp. $81.95 (cloth); $32.95 (paper). -- Clifford Ando - University of Chicago. -- review helpful re what it does and doesn't do and recommends complementary sources
books  reviews  jstor  religious_history  Roman_Empire  pagans  ritual  gods-antiquity 
august 2014
Review by: Georges Dicker - Don Garrett, Cognition and Commitment in Hume's Philosophy | JSTOR: The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 52, No. 2 (Dec., 1998), pp. 447-449
Summary, chapter by chapter, without critique of Garrett take on Hume as a cognitive psychologist, and especially his brand of scepticism re induction, causation and self, but also covering moral philosophy (moral sentiments and role of reason in moral judgment). Where Garrett sees Hume diverging from Locke -- didn't download
books  reviews  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  Hume  Hume-ethics  Hume-causation  scepticism  reason-passions  moral_sentiments  moral_philosophy  morality-conventional  Locke  self  identity 
august 2014
Charles Taliaferro - Unknowable Truths and Omniscience: A Reply to Kvanvig | JSTOR: Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 61, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 553-566
The various attribute debates in analytical_philosophy tend to be piecemeal. They also often smuggle in positions on heavily debated issues such as free_will. Helpful pulling apart various threads of theism debates on attributes, determinism and theodicy -- didn't download
article  jstor  theology  Christianity  God-attributes  free_will  theodicy  cosmology  determinism  EF-add 
august 2014
Charles Taliaferro - God's Estate [Locke's theory of God's ownership of the cosmos] | JSTOR: The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Spring, 1992), pp. 69-92
This article defends John Locke's notion that the cosmos is owned by God and explores the ethical implications of such divine ownership. Locke's theory, recently revived by Baruch Brody, is modified and defended against criticisms leveled against it by Joseph Lombardi and Robert Young. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  theology  metaphysics  moral_philosophy  creation  theism  Plato-religion  soul  immortality  property  property_rights  God-attributes  obligation  morality-divine_command  morality-Christian  Locke-religion  Locke-2_Treatises  cosmology  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Charles Taliaferro - The Passibility of God | JSTOR: Religious Studies, Vol. 25, No. 2 (Jun., 1989), pp. 217-224
Responding to a recent book defending the thesis of the impassibility of God (eternally unchanging etc - reflecting the Platonic prejudice against change) he argues that the God of Christian theism must suffer, for theological and moral reasons. -- didn't download
article  jstor  theology  Christianity  Christology  soteriology  God-attributes  change-metaphysics  EF-add 
august 2014
Charles Taliaferro - Dualism and the Problem of Individuation | JSTOR: Religious Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2 (Jun., 1986), pp. 263-276
Quite helpful review of various metaphysical debates from Descartes onwards, how the "substance" debates have evolved, including the old identity of indiscernables claim that's been thoroughly challenged in post WWII analytical_philosophy. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  20thC  Descartes  Locke  Butler  Reid  metaphysics  ontology  substance  soul  dualism  physicalism  mind-body  consciousness  immortality  universals  particulars  identity  self  analytical_philosophy  logic  Leibniz  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Anthony Chemero and Michael Silberstein - After the Philosophy of Mind: Replacing Scholasticism with Science | JSTOR: Philosophy of Science, Vol. 75, No. 1 (January 2008), pp. 1-27
We provide a taxonomy of the two most important debates in the philosophy of the cognitive and neural sciences. The first debate is over methodological individualism: is the object of the cognitive and neural sciences the brain, the whole animal, or the animal—environment system? The second is over explanatory style: should explanation in cognitive and neural science be reductionist‐mechanistic, interlevel mechanistic, or dynamical? After setting out the debates, we discuss the ways in which they are interconnected. Finally, we make some recommendations that we hope will help philosophers interested in the cognitive and neural sciences to avoid dead ends. -- partially a lit survey so good bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  philosophy_of_science  metaphysics  mind  mind-body  neuroscience  reductionism  mechanism  cognition  ontology  methodology  levels_of_analyis  critical_realism  emergence  individualism-methodology  unit_of_analysis  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Review by: Jose Luis Bermudez - Jonathan Lowe, Subjects of Experience | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 195 (Apr., 1999), pp. 272-275
Lowe develops his anti-physicalist approach to self, mind-body etc - Cartesian that self is substantial, Locke that it's primarily psychological, Aristotle that it's not immaterial -- implications for other areas beyond philosophy of mind, such as language -- an earlier version of his publications in the 2000s before his death? -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  jstor  metaphysics  ontology  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-body  Descartes  Locke  physicalism  dualism  nominalism  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Michael P. Lynch, review essay - Beyond the Walls of Reason: The Last Word by Thomas Nagel | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 197 (Oct., 1999), pp. 529-536
Nagel attacks primarily perspectivism, lumping naturalists (e.g. Quine, Dennett) and contextualists (e.g. Rorty, Putnam) with (certain forms of? ) relativism -- Lynch teasing apart threads in Nagel's argument looks interesting -- Nagel accuses perspectivism of having to adopt a "view from nowhere" whereas one of the motivations for perspectivism is that absolute reason, truth etc requires the "view from nowhere" or God's eye view -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  jstor  metaphysics  epistemology  perspectivism  relativism  logic  Nagel  Quine  Dennett  Rorty  Putnam  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
A. W. Moore and Peter Sullivan - Ineffability and Nonsense (debate) | JSTOR: Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes, Vol. 77 (2003), pp. 169-193+195-223
[A. W. Moore] There are criteria of ineffability whereby, even if the concept of ineffability can never serve to modify truth, it can sometimes (non-trivially) serve to modify other things, specifically understanding. This allows for a reappraisal of the dispute between those who adopt a traditional reading of Wittgenstein's Tractatus and those who adopt the new reading recently championed by Diamond, Conant, and others. By maintaining that what the nonsense in the Tractatus is supposed to convey is ineffable understanding, rather than ineffable truth, we can do considerable justice to each of these readings. We can also do considerable justice to the Tractatus. /// [Peter Sullivan] Moore proposes to cut between 'traditional' and 'new' approaches to the Tractatus, suggesting that Wittgenstein's intention is to convey, through the knowing use of nonsense, ineffable understanding. I argue, first, that there is indeed room for a proposal of Moore's general kind. Secondly, though, I question whether Moore's actual proposal is not more in tune with Wittgenstein's later thought than with the attitude of the Tractatus. -- nearly 200 references -- should provide an overview of the Old vs New Wittgenstein positions, who's who and background for Moore's modern metaphysics book (kindle) -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  20thC  21stC  metaphysics  philosophy_of_science  Logical_Positivism  philosophy_of_language  Wittgenstein  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Kevin Cahill - Ethics and the "Tractatus": A Resolute Failure | JSTOR: Philosophy, Vol. 79, No. 307 (Jan., 2004), pp. 33-55
He's in the New Wittgenstein camp. Very useful development of themes across the New Wittgenstein crowd, distinguishing PI from Tractatus and why Wittgenstein came to see the Tractatus as a failure, not only in method, but in still being wedded to the intellectualizing impulse of philosophy, to elaborate the world as it really is by unlocking the central problem. His ethical objectives in the Tractatus have been developed by New Wittgenstein proponents, with analogies to Kierkegaard, St Paul and Augustine. -- read online, didn't download
article  jstor  20thC  21stC  philosophy_of_language  moral_philosophy  dogmatism  analytical_philosophy  Wittgenstein  Frege  Russell_Bertrand  Kierkegaard  Paul  Augustine  logic  Logical_Positivism  syntax  language-bad_metaphysics  language_games  concepts  propositions  predicate  bibliography  EF-add 
august 2014
Review by: Timothy Chappell - John Cottingham, Philosophy and the Good Life: Reason and the Passions in Greek, Cartesian and Psychoanalytic Ethics | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 197 (Oct., 1999), pp. 560-562
Cottingham doesn't think much of current moral_philosophy that treats "beliefs" and "desires" as transparent entities that can be manipulated in theory -- they have abandoned not only Freudian insights but even the purported ultra rationalist Descartes who was clued in to the physiology of emotions, and that reason is embodied -- Chappell highly recommends -- didn't download
books  find  reviews  jstor  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  psychoanalysis  mind-body  passions  reason-passions  emotions  Aristotle  Descartes 
august 2014
Review by: Charles Taliaferro - Richard Swinburne, Providence and the Problem of Evil | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 197 (Oct., 1999), pp. 562-564
Swinburne, unlike Plantinga etc, admits there's enough of what we would term evil to require a theodicy from any Christian theologian or philosophers of religion more generally -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  find  reviews  jstor  intellectual_history  theology  theodicy  God-existence  God-attributes  creative_destruction  creation  agnosticism  theism  Christianity  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Robert N. Johnson - Internal Reasons: Reply to Brady, Van Roojen and Gert | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 53, No. 213 (Oct., 2003), pp. 573-580
Scholasticism at its finest - Johnson goes through his objections to theories that try to link rational deliberation and desires for both explaining motivations of moral action and ability to justify action choices -- the gaps, especially conditionals positing best deliberative rationality, are all over the place -- it's a short piece that updates the discussions since Williams identified a split in external and internal reasons and the desiderata of each approach, way back in Moral Luck -- may be useful when reviewing the collections on Williams (2 on kindle) -- didn't download
article  jstor  metaethics  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  reasons-internalism  reasons-externalism  Williams_Bernard  EF-add 
august 2014
Alan Carter - On Pascal's Wager, or Why All Bets Are Off | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 198 (Jan., 2000), pp. 22-27
Short demonstration that if Pascal succeeds in showing it's rational to bet on a good god and lead a morally upstanding life, it's similarly rational to believe in an evil god and attempt to earn divine rewards by conducting our lives in the most morally repugnant way we can. - starts with a discussion of prior, less dramatic, objections to Pascal's Wager from e.g. Diderot onwards -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  French_Enlightenment  Pascal  religious_belief  God-existence  God-attributes  theodicy  universalism  comparative_religion  immortality  immorality  morality-divine_command  morality-Christian  morality-conventional  Diderot  EF-add 
august 2014
Abraham D. Stone - On Husserl and Cavellian Scepticism | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 198 (Jan., 2000), pp. 1-21
Yikes! Cavell sets up both metaphysics and (external world) scepticism as dogmatic, and asks whether Husserl was a sceptic. Stone starts from position that both Kant and Husserl would agree with Cavell re dogmatism. Works his way 1st through Kant’s shift from metaphysics (unanswerable) to epistemology (bounds on the answerable) and then how Husserl, who is post Kantian in rejecting the noumenal, uses some of Kant and Thomism to deal with knowable. As soon as he starts framing the structural concepts Husserl uses I'm lost. He winds up putting his explication of Husserl in comparison with Wittgenstein (Cavell's version of W?) -- if I get into phenomenology, Husserl and where Wittgenstein fits, probably worth returning to -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  20thC  metaphysics  epistemology  idealism-transcendental  Kant  Husserl  phenomenology  scepticism  Wittgenstein  Cavell  EF-add 
august 2014
Review by: Graham Bird - Rae Langton, Kantian Humility: Our Ignorance of Things in Themselves | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 198 (Jan., 2000), pp. 105-108
Another detailed critique re range of interpretations of Kant's thing-in-itself and transcendental idealism framed between traditionalist (e, g. P Strawson) and revolutionary (quasi deflationary, e.g. Alyson) -- didn't download
books  reviews  jstor  articles  intellectual_history  18thC  Kant  metaphysics  epistemology  idealism-transcendental  noumena  phenomena  properties  relations  essence  EF-add 
august 2014
Lucy Allais - Intrinsic Natures: A Critique of Langton on Kant | JSTOR: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 73, No. 1 (Jul., 2006), pp. 143-169
This paper argues that there is an important respect in which Rae Langton's recent interpretation of Kant is correct: Kant's claim that we cannot know things in themselves should be understood as the claim that we cannot know the intrinsic nature of things. However, I dispute Langton's account of intrinsic properties, and therefore her version of what this claim amounts to. Langton's distinction between intrinsic, causally inert properties and causal powers is problematic, both as an interpretation of Kant, and as an independent metaphysical position. I propose a different reading of the claim that we cannot know things intrinsically. I distinguish between two ways of knowing things: in terms of their effects on other things, and as they are apart from these. I argue that knowing things' powers is knowing things in terms of effects on other things, and therefore is not knowing them as they are in themselves, and that there are textual grounds for attributing this position to Kant. -- useful bibliography of past few decades of both Kant debate and powers, properties etc metaphysics -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  books  intellectual_history  18thC  Kant  metaphysics  epistemology  causation  Hume-causation  Locke  Leibniz  noumena  phenomena  properties  essence  substance  relations  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Galen Strawson - The Identity of the Categorical and the Dispositional | JSTOR: Analysis, Vol. 68, No. 4 (Oct., 2008), pp. 271-282
Attacks the bad metaphysics that results from projecting our ability to conceptualize different aspects of objects etc separately, project them onto reality where those concepts can't exist independently, and then draw elaborate metaphysical non puzzles from the mess -- quotes Ramsey and Nietzsche, not Wittgenstein -- ftbt Ramsey 1925: 60.
He agrees with Nietzsche, who writes that 'language is built in terms of the most naive prejudices ... we read disharmonies and problems into things because we think only in the form of language - thus believing in the "eternal truth" of "reason" (e.g. subject, predicate, etc.). ... That we have a right to distinguish between subject and predicate - ... that is our strongest belief; in fact, at bottom, even the belief in cause and effect itself, in conditio and conditionatum, is merely an individual case of the first and general belief, our primeval belief in subject and predicate. ... Might not this belief in the concept of subject and predicate be a great stupidity?'" -- claims but without developing that Locke's consistent with his approach read but didn't download
article  jstor  metaphysics  analytical_philosophy  concepts  realism  properties  modal_logic  possible_worlds  Locke  language-bad_metaphysics  EF-add 
august 2014
Galen Strawson - Realism and Causation | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 148 (Jul., 1987), pp. 253-277
This looks like early work towards his "necessary connexion" book on Hume that challenges the standard regularity interpretation of Hume on causality. Bibliography looks useful -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  metaphysics  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_science  18thC  Hume-causation  causation  realism  scepticism  positivism  properties  laws_of_nature  powers  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Walter Ott - LOCKE'S EXCLUSION ARGUMENT | JSTOR: History of Philosophy Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 2 (APRIL 2010), pp. 181-196
A different take on Locke's superaddition argument re thinking matter that would align him with materialism that treats mental events as mere epiphenomenal, neither identity with physical, nor supervenience -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  20thC  21stC  mind  mind-body  consciousness  soul  materialism  determinism  Locke  thinking_matter  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Frans Svensson - THE ROLE OF VIRTUE IN DESCARTES' ETHICAL THEORY, OR: WAS DESCARTES A VIRTUE ETHICIST? | JSTOR: History of Philosophy Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3 (JULY 2010), pp. 215-236
Looks useful 1st by trying to set criteria to distinguish virtue ethics from concern with virtue in other metaethics (deontology, consequentialism, eudaimonia) - he then looks at Descartes's letters to Queen Christina , supplemented with some remarks on moral psychology in Passions of the Soul. Contra Lisa Shapiro in a recent Blackwell Companion, his verdict is No. -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  metaethics  virtue_ethics  virtue  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  good  reason  reason-passions  free_will  Descartes  EF-add 
august 2014
Mark Collier - HUME'S THEORY OF MORAL IMAGINATION | JSTOR: History of Philosophy Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3 (JULY 2010), pp. 255-273
See re neuroscience research re mirroring processes and different types of empathy that suggest something similar to Hume's explanation of two different processes for near and dear vs strangers. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  neuroscience  18thC  Hume-ethics  human_nature  empathy  mirroring  moral_sentiments  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Adam Pelser - BELIEF IN REID'S THEORY OF PERCEPTION | JSTOR: History of Philosophy Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 4 (OCTOBER 2010), pp. 359-378
Looks very useful in clarifying Reid vs his empiricist predecessors, cites to recent work on Reid, including the Cambridge Companion (bookshelf) -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  empiricism  ideas-theories  perception  cognition  scepticism  idealism  realism  Common_Sense  Reid  Locke  Hume  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Michael LeBuffe - SPINOZISTIC PERFECTIONISM | JSTOR: History of Philosophy Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 4 (OCTOBER 2010), pp. 317-333
Perfectionism seems to imply simply capable of improvement -- explains Spinoza's Ethics as differing from the virtue ethics sort as not based on something like the essence of humans -- the article gives an outline of what he thinks are the attractive features of Spinoza's moral_philosophy disentangled from some of the more obscure or less plausible parts of Spinoza's system, while recognizing that since Spinoza is a super systematic philosopher, some of his metaphysical concepts are key to his moral_philosophy, which LeBuffe attempts to spell out -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  20thC  21stC  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  virtue_ethics  virtue  good  hedonistic  happiness  improvement  perfectibility  Spinoza  morality-conventional  morality-objective  perspectivism  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014
Nancy Cartwright on RCTs | LARS P. SYLL - July 2014
I’m fond of science philosophers like Nancy Cartwright. With razor-sharp intellects they immediately go for the essentials. They have no time for bullshit. And neither should we. In Evidence: For Policy — downloadable here — Cartwirght has assembled her papers on how better to use evidence from the sciences “to evaluate whether policies that have been tried have succeeded and to predict whether those we are thinking of trying will produce the outcomes we aim for.” Many of the collected papers center around what can and cannot be inferred from results in well-done randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A must-read for everyone with an interest in the methodology of science -- downloaded pdf to Note
methodology  methodology-quantitative  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  evidence  downloaded 
august 2014
Chris Dillow - Stumbling and Mumbling: Am I a Tory? - July 2014
Am I a Tory, or is Jesse Norman a socialist? I'm prompted to ask because the other day he reminded me of his superb lecture (pdf) on Burke and Oakeshott. What I mean is that, as Jesse says, both men, in their different ways, supported tradition against rationalism. This anti-rationalism, says Jesse, is "one of the central intellectual roots of conservatism through the ages." -- Jesse continues: Rationalism can be seen in totalitarian societies, which seek to capture and organize the staggeringly diverse potential of human beings, and frame it on some Procrustean bed". It certainly can. But for me, managerialist rationalism is also totalitarian, in the sense both that it wants to extend to places such as universities where it is unwarranted, and that it seeks to suppress diversity in favour of conformist careerism. So, it seems that me, Jesse, Burke and Oakehott have much in common. And, indeed, Jesse is well aware (pdf) that crony capitalism and excessive CEO pay are inconsistent with conservative tradition he praises. -- downloaded pdfs
political_economy  political_philosophy  political_culture  conservatism  Tories  Burke  Oakeshott  MacIntyre  managerialism  totalitarian  ideology  capitalism  power  crony_capitalism  corporate_governance  rationalist 
july 2014
Karl Marx - The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature. with an Appendix - Doctoral Dissertation of Karl Marx | marxists.org
Written: March 1841; - First Published: 1902; -- Source: Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 1; -- Publisher: Progress Publishers; -- Transcription/Markup: Andy Blunden; -- Online Version: Brian Baggins (marxists.org) 2000.
etexts  19thC  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  intellectual_history  Marx  Hegel  natural_philosophy  cosmology  atomism  laws_of_nature  Democritus  Epicurean  EF-add 
july 2014
Review Essay: Legal Thought in Enlightenment's Wake by Jeffrey A. Pojanowski :: SSRN - 4 Jurisprudence, 2013, Forthcoming
Notre Dame Legal Studies Paper No. 12-80 -- This review essay considers Steven D. Smith’s most recent book, The Disenchantment of Secular Discourse. Rather than focusing on the book’s argument about the practices and pathologies of the public square, this essay uses Smith’s chapter on scientific thought as a platform for exploring connections between Disenchantment and Smith’s prior work in legal theory. The catalyst for these reflections is Scandinavian legal realism. Considering these elements together sheds light on both the limits and virtues of central ideas about legal obligation and authority in contemporary jurisprudence. Such perspective points to a broader argument that jurisprudential debates about methodology and concepts may be as much about how we read the universe as they are about how we understand law. -- Keywords: jurisprudence, legal theory, obligation, authority, conceptual analysis, legal positivism
books  reviews  philosophy_of_law  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  obligation  secularism  secularization  legal_realism  authority  legal_theory  analytical_philosophy  concepts  legal_culture  positivism-legal  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
Steven D. Smith, review essay - Discourse in the Dusk: The Twilight of Religious Freedom? | JSTOR: Harvard Law Review, Vol. 122, No. 7 (May, 2009), pp. 1869-1907
Reviewed work(s): Religion and the Constitution — Volume 2: Establishment and Fairness by Kent Greenawalt -- Smith claims a millennium of tradition re church and state is unraveling (a la MacIntyre decadent tradition) and US policy and jurisprudence tends to ignore erosion of their fundamental justifications -- starts with Pope Gregory and Henry IV and investiture controversy -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  theology  religion-established  religious_culture  religious_history  church_history  civil_liberties  freedom_of_conscience  tolerance  pluralism  secularism  US_constitution  bill_of_rights  legal_theory  philosophy_of_law  medieval_history  Papacy  Reformation  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
JON GARTHOFF - LEGITIMACY IS NOT AUTHORITY | JSTOR: Law and Philosophy, Vol. 29, No. 6 (November 2010), pp. 669-694
The two leading traditions of theorizing about democratic legitimacy are liberalism and deliberative democracy. Liberals typically claim that legitimacy consists in the consent of the governed, while deliberative democrats typically claim that legitimacy consists in the soundness of political procedures. Despite this difference, both traditions see the need for legitimacy as arising from the coercive enforcement of law and regard legitimacy as necessary for law to have normative authority. While I endorse the broad aims of these two traditions, I believe they both misunderstand the nature of legitimacy. In this essay I argue that the legitimacy of a law is neither necessary nor sufficient for its normative authority, and I argue further that the need for legitimacy in law arises regardless of whether the law is coercively enforced. I thus articulate a new understanding of the legitimacy and authority of law. -- didn't download -- bibliography heavily classic modern and contemporary philosophers
article  jstor  social_theory  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  philosophy_of_law  institutions  authority  legitimacy  legal_culture  legal_validity  liberalism  social_contract  consent  reasons  enforcement  deliberation-public  Habermas  democracy  norms  normativity  obligation  Enlightenment  Locke  Mill  Rawls  bibliography  EF-add 
july 2014
Scott D. Gerber, review essay - The Republican Revival in American Constitutional Theory | JSTOR: Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Dec., 1994), pp. 985-997
Reviewed work(s): We the People: Foundations by Bruce A. Ackerman; Traces of Self-Government by Frank I. Michelman; Laws Republic; The Partial Constitution by Cass R. Sunstein - 1980s interest in classical republicanism, citizen participation and common good and how to reconcile with a liberalism of private interests and rights -- all 3 authors criticized for (1) excessive reliance on the "least dialogic" institution, the judiciary, as protector an/or promoter of the republican dimension of "liberal republicanism" and (2) a selective misreading of the Founders -- didn't download
article  review  jstor  US_constitution  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  US_politics  judiciary  judicial_review  natural_rights  property_rights  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  liberalism-republicanism_debates  liberalism  legal_history  legal_theory  Congress  EF-add 
july 2014
Diarmaid MacCulloch - Putting the English Reformation on the Map: The Prothero Lecture | JSTOR: Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, Vol. 15 (2005), pp. 75-95
The essay examines how the international Protestant identity of the English Church came to be in tension with the later assertion of sacramentalist or Catholic values within it. It chronicles how the Reformation in England came to align not with Lutheranism but with Reformed Protestantism, and compares Henry VIII's reforms with contemporary Reformations in mainland Europe seeking a 'middle way'. Edward VI's Church is contrasted with the temperature perceptible in Elizabeth I's religious settlement - which nevertheless asserted Protestant values with no concessions to Catholicism. The anomalous role of the cathedrals in England is identified as a major source of the English Church's later deviation from mainstream European Reformed Protestantism, which itself produced attempts to recreate a Reformed Church in the English north American colonies. -- tackles branch of Anglican historiography that buries the Protestant Reformation aspects of the Church of England especially the 16thC -- didn't download
article  jstor  16thC  British_history  British_politics  Reformation  Lutherans  Calvinist  Tudor  Henry_VIII  Edward_VI  Elizabeth  theology  ecclesiology  via_media  Catholics-England  liturgy  sacraments  EF-add 
july 2014
Jonathan Den Hartog, review - Religion in American History: Reviewing Eric Schlereth's "An Age of Infidels" | Religion in American History
Eric Schlereth's An Age of Infidels: The Politics of Religious Controversy in the Early United States, University of Pennsylvania Press -- Schlereth's work fits within a percolating academic study of unbelief in American history. The topic was really opened up with James Turner's Without God, Without Creed: The Origins of Unbelief in America. J. Rixey Ruffin's A Paradise of Reason: William Bentley and Enlightenment Christianity in the Early Republic traced how rationalism might alter belief even among clergy. Christopher Grasso's "Deist Monster" article in the Journal of American History, which looked at the perceived threat of deism in the 1780s, has quickly become an oft-cited piece on this topic. ...other scholars such as Kirsten Fischer ...doing significant research. -- In defining infidelity, Schlereth notes that by the later 18th century, the concept of infidelity expanded out of an attack on deism to conflate it "with all forms of religious disbelief, doubt and anti-Christian sentiment." Infidelity became shorthand for its opponents, while the religious skeptics admitted to being deists or claimed such mantles as "Theophilanthropists" or "Free Enquirers." They stressed their Rationalist credentials and questioned received religious truths.Chronologically, the book stretches from 1770 to 1840, although the bulk of the text is devoted to two periods of especially intense debate over religious infidelity--the 1790s and the 1820s-1830s.
books  reviews  kindle-available  intellectual_history  religious_history  US_history  US_politics  Early_Republic  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  Deism  politics-and-religion  political_culture  religious_culture  public_sphere  religious_lit  Evangelical  atheism_panic  EF-add 
july 2014
James Mawdesley, review - Leif Dixon, Practical Predestinarians in England, c. 1590-1640 ( 2013) | Reviews in History - IHR
Mr James Mawdesley, University of Sheffield --- Preaching before James I early in his reign, Anthony Maxey told the King that predestination ‘containeth the whole summe of our religion’ (p. 1). The 17th article of the Church of England’s doctrinal statement, the Thirty-Nine Articles, had been statutory since 1571, and outlined a belief in predestination. In this interesting book, Leif Dixon is keen that the historian leaves their modern assumptions at the door of historical investigation. The idea of predestination is one which leaves many people today feeling theologically cold, and it has become fair game to presume that those who attended Church of England services at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries probably felt the same, especially given that their parish minister probably not only believed in the doctrine, but actively preached it too, at least in some form. (1) Dixon, though, does not believe this, and boldly proclaims in his introduction that rather than predestinarian beliefs resulting in a generation of spiritually anxious English parishioners, the doctrine and its promotion actually had much potential for providing spiritual comfort (p. 7). Indeed, the Jacobean preacher Richard Crakanthorp told a congregation at St. Mary’s church in Oxford that predestination was ‘the chiefest comfort which can enter into the heart of a mortall man’ (p. 2).
books  reviews  16thC  17thC  British_history  religious_history  Calvinist  predestination  Church_of_England  Thirty-Nine_Articles  religious_culture  religious_belief  Puritans  godly_persons  Arminian  EF-add 
july 2014
Flavius Philostratus, On Heroes - trans. Ellen Bradshaw Aitken and Jennifer K. Berenson Maclean | The Center for Hellenic Studies
In addition to the Introduction by the translators, there's an important "Preliminaries" to Philostratus's On Heroes by Casey Dué and Gregory Nagy - who have taught courses on ancient heroes at Harvard for years. Nagy has a book (kindle-available) and MOOC Ancient Heroes in 24 Hours, in which Philostratus is an important late antiquity (3rdC AD) source
books  etexts  ancient_history  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Roman_Empire  religious_history  religious_culture  pagans  heroes  Achilles  Homer  EF-add 
july 2014
The 10 best New Yorker articles on health care - Vox - July 2014
The New Yorker has recently made its post-2007 archives open to the non-subscribing public for the next several months. (Some pieces published before 2007 are available, as well.) My colleagues Libby Nelson and Brandon Ambrosino have put together collections of the magazine's best education and religion writing, and I am shamelessly cribbing their idea for the health care beat. -- selected articles to Evernote
US_society  health_care  medicine  poverty  neuroscience  public_health  public_policy  welfare  Evernote 
july 2014
Kevin Mitchell -- Wiring the Brain: Exciting findings in schizophrenia genetics – but what do they mean? - July 2014
Study of genome in huge number of people (with the disease and controls) doesn't solve the question of the architecture, but locates lots of areas to look at for not just mutations but interactions
genetics  neuroscience  psychology 
july 2014
Stuart Glennan - Aspects of Human Historiographic Explanation: A View from the Philosophy of Science (2014)
While some philosophers of history have argued that explanations in human history are of a fundamentally different kind than explanations in the natural sciences, I shall argue that this is not the case. Human beings are part of nature, human history is part of natural history, and human historical explanation is a species of natural historical explanation. In this paper I shall use a case study from the history of the American Civil War to show the variety of close parallels between natural and human historical explanation. In both instances, I shall argue that these explanations involve narrative descriptions of causal mechanisms. I shall show how adopting a mechanistic approach to explanation can provide resources to address some important aspects of human historiographic explanation, including problems concerning event individuation, historical meaning, agency, the role of laws, and the nature of contingency. -- This is a preprint version of this chapter. The final publication is available to purchase at Springer. -- Glennan, Stuart. "Aspects of Human Historiographic Explanation: A View from the Philosophy of Science." Explanation in the Special Sciences: The Case of Biology and History. Eds. Marie I. Kaiser, Oliver R. Scholz, Daniel Plenge, and Andreas Hüttemann. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014. 273-291. -- downloaded pdf to Note
historiography  history_of_science  causation  causation-social  mechanisms-social_theory  natural_history  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
Betty Rose Nagle, review - William Fitzgerald, How to Read a Latin Poem: If You Can’t Read Latin Yet (2013) | Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2014.01.07
This engagingly written and cleverly organized book contains sophisticated discussions of a wide range of poets, periods, and genres, primarily in the form of close readings of the Latin originals. By what means, and how successfully, does its author accommodate that hypothetical Latinless reader? He does not do this by dumbing anything down; these are readings from which the proficient can profit, too. The poets and works included come mostly from the “greatest hits” list, but there are some unorthodox choices as well, such as Sulpicia in the chapter on love poetry, several Priapea included with Catullus and Martial in a chapter on invective, and Persius as the featured satirist. The first two chapters treat antithetical topics (love, hate); the middle two treat respectively a collection (Horace’s Odes) and a corpus (Virgil’s works) written during the same period; the fifth treats another pair of contemporaries, the Neronians Petronius [actually Lucan?] and Seneca; and the sixth, thematic again, pairs Lucretius and Ovid as philosophical and narrative “science fiction.” There is also an introduction for his readers, cleverly followed by a “Prelude” discussing two poems addressed to their readers, and a brief “Epilogue,” using Hadrian’s animula as a bridge to a few comments about the very different poetry of Christian hymns. Ancillaries include a pronunciation guide, suggestions for further reading, a glossary of terms, an index of names and topics, and another of poems. -- Oxford University Press - only hdbk on amazon.com - ebook available on Google_Books for c $20 - is OUP having a kindle fight? From Google preview, looks fabulous
books  reviews  buy  Google_Books  Latin_lit  Horace  Virgil  Ovid  Seneca  Lucretius  satire  Augustan_Rome  politics-and-literature  ancient_Rome  Roman_Empire  poetry  EF-add 
july 2014
Robert Parker, review - Radcliffe G. Edmonds III, Redefining Ancient Orphism: A Study in Greek Religion (2013) | Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2014.07.13
This learned and intelligent work [seeks] to give us an Orphism without original sin, without, that is, the myth that mankind carries a burden of inherited guilt because they were born from the Titans who devoured the baby Dionysus, son of Persephone. -- His Orphism has no fixed traditions, no central myths, nor could it have them, given the unstable channels through which religious traditions were diffused in the ancient world. --The label ‘Orphic’, he writes, is as vague as ‘New Age’, ‘a set of ideas loosely defined by their distance from mainstream religious activity’. -- Yet he does not jettison ‘Orphism’ completely. If one thinks in terms not of an essence but of Wittgenstein’s family resemblances, the family of Orphic rituals and ideas is marked for Edmonds by (claims to) ‘extraordinary purity, sanctity, antiquity, and strangeness’. -- Suppose one follows Edmonds in removing mankind’s descent from the slayers of Dionysus from our picture of Orphism: what then? We are still left with the extraordinary wild Orphic variants on theogonic myth to try to understand; in particular, the point of the Titans’ crime against the baby Dionysus has become obscure. We are still left with Orphic doctrines of the soul that imply a drastic rejection of accepted Greek views about life in the body. There is still an association with vegetarianism. There is still a descent from Titans which may have left us polluted. -- Orphism surely is exceptional within Greek religion — or perhaps one should rather say ‘early Orphism’, with M.P. Nilsson. The link between books and rites so marked in the early testimonia fades away in the hellenistic period, and Orphism virtually disappears as a distinct and dynamic force in lived religion , until it re-emerges in late antiquity in a quite new form. I cling — habit or obstinacy perhaps — to several aspects of a pre-Edmonds vision of Orphism. But let me stress that this is a lucid, powerful and thoroughly instructive work, a major contribution.
books  reviews  religious_history  religious_culture  ancient_Greece  Hellenism  late_antiquity  Orphism  ritual  sacred_texts  soul  immortality  underworld  ancient_religions  gods-antiquity  purification  original_sin 
july 2014
Devin Henry - "Embryological Models in Ancient Philosophy" by | Phronesis 50.1 (2005): 1-42.
Devin Henry, The University of Western Ontario -- Historically embryogenesis has been among the most philosophically intriguing phenomena. In this paper I focus on one aspect of biological development that was particularly perplexing to the ancients: self-organisation. For many ancients, the fact that an organism determines the important features of its own development required a special model for understanding how this was possible. This was especially true for Aristotle, Alexander, and Simplicius who all looked to contemporary technology to supply that model. However, they did not all agree on what kind of device should be used. In this paper I explore the way these ancients made use of technology as a model for the developing embryo. However, my purpose here is more than just the historical interest of knowing which devices were used by whom and how each of them worked; I shall largely ignore the details of how the various devices actually worked. Instead I shall look at the use of technology from a philosophical perspective. As we shall see, the different choices of device reveal fundamental differences in the way each thinker understood the nature of biological development itself. Thus, the central aim of this paper is to examine, not who used what devices and how they worked, but why they used those particular devices and what they thought their functioning could tell us about the nature of embryological phenomena. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  Aristotle  natural_philosophy  history_of_science  ancient_Greece  biology  generation  inheritance  development-biological  embryology  scientific_culture  scientific_method  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
Devin Henry. "Organismal Natures" | Apeiron: a journal for ancient philosophy and science (2008): 47-74.
Aristotle agrees with the negative conclusion of Galen that the growth and development of living things cannot be due to material forces operating according to chance. For Aristotle, the process of development is structured according to the form of the organism being generated by it. Development ‘follows upon’ the organism’s substantial being and exists for the sake of it rather than vice versa. This confers a certain order and direction on the process that cannot be accounted for in terms of the random motions of atoms or the undirected actions of Love and Strife (Empedocles). He accepts that natural generation involves material-level forces of the sort Democritus proposed; however, he insists that when operating by themselves these undirected causes would only produce a living thing by chance. And generation is far too regular for that. But Aristotle rejects the further inference — endorsed by Galen — that the teleological structure imposed on a developing organism must be traced to an intelligent agent that puts the organism together according to its end like some kind of internalized Demiurge. Nature, Aristotle says, does not deliberate. -- By invoking ‘natures’ as the cause of development, Galen says, Aristotle offers an account which is entirely vacuous. On the other hand, Denis Walsh has recently argued that the concept of Aristotelian natures plays the same role in development as the modern concept of phenotypic plasticity and that in this sense Aristotelian natures have an indispensable role to play contemporary evolutionary biology. -- My aim in this paper is not to defend an Aristotelian approach to modern biology but rather to explore the concept of organismal natures in the context of Aristotle’s teleology. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  Aristotle  natural_philosophy  history_of_science  biology  generation  inheritance  development-biological  teleology  design-nature  materialism  Democritus  Empedocles  Galen  forms  evolutionary_biology  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
Devin Henry - "Aristotle's Pluralistic Realism" | The Monist 94.2 (2011): 198-222
The University of Western Ontario -- In this paper I explore Aristotle’s views on natural kinds and the compatibility of pluralism and realism, a topic that has generated considerable interest among contemporary philosophers. I argue that, when it came to zoology, Aristotle denied that there is only one way of organizing the diversity of the living world into natural kinds that will yield a single, unified system of classification. Instead, living things can be grouped and regrouped into various cross-cutting kinds on the basis of objective similarities and differences in ways that subserve the explanatory context. Since the explanatory aims of zoology are diverse and variegated, the kinds it recognizes must be equally diverse and variegated. At the same time, there are certain constraints on which kinds can be selected. And those constraints derive more from the causal structure of the world than from the proclivities of the classifier (hence the realism). This distinguishes Aristotle’s version of pluralistic realism from those contemporary versions (like Dupré’s “promiscuous realism”) that treat all or most classifications of a given domain as equally legitimate and not just a sub-set of kinds recognized by the science that studies it. By contrast, Aristotle privileges scientifically important kinds on the basis of their role in causal investigations. On this picture natural kinds are those kinds with the sort of causal structure that allows them to enter into scientific explanations. In the final section I argue that Aristotle’s zoology should remain of interest to philosophers and biologists alike insofar as it combines a pluralistic form of realism with a rank-free approach to classification. - didn't download
article  intellectual_history  Aristotle  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  ancient_philosophy  analytical_philosophy  natural_kinds  classification  species  explanation  causation  biology  animals  EF-add 
july 2014
Devin Henry - Berkeley's Passive Mind | Minerva Vol 4, 2000
The question this paper is intended to answer is, ‘Can the existence of ideas of sense be reconciled with the nature of God within the context of Berkeley’s philosophy?’ The way Berkeley characterises the immediate perception of ideas of sense (how we first come to be furnished with ideas) entails that the mind is passive: ideas of sense are those which are "actually imprinted on the senses" (PR 1). Thus, the question we need to address is, ‘In what sense is the mind passive?’ The main thesis of this paper holds that the existence of ideas of sense is incompatible with God’s nature within Berkeley’s philosophy, and it is based on the assumption that for Berkeley, perception is the passive reception of ideas of sense. However, because there are obvious textual discrepancies between the notebooks on the one hand, and the Principles and Dialogues on the other, we must allow for two possible interpretations of "passive": passive qua inactive and passive qua receptive. Pursuing the consequences of both these interpretations will take up the majority of this paper. However, I will begin by taking a brief look at an historical example of the ‘directional error’ before turning to Berkeley’s own theory of perception. -- Online journal, no pdf for download
intellectual_history  18thC  Berkeley  epistemology  mind  perception  ideas-theories  God-attributes  imagination  empiricism  realism  idealism  EF-add 
july 2014
Lennon, Thomas M., Stainton, Robert J. (Eds.) 2008 The Achilles of Rationalist Psychology
Downloaded Introduction pdf to Note -- Series: Studies in the History of Philosophy of Mind, Vol. 7 -- newly written papers addressing each of the main contributors to the discussion of the Achilles. Despite the historical importance and intrinsic interest of the argument, very little has been written about it. *--* Contents. *--* Did Plato Articulate the Achilles Argument?. *-- Aristotle on the Unity of Consciousness. *-- The Neoplatonic Achilles. *-- The Unity of the Soul and Contrary Appetites in Medieval Philosophy. *-- Hume, Spinoza and the Achilles Inference. *-- Locke and the Achilles Argument. *-- The Reverse Achilles in Locke. *-- Cudworth and Bayle: An Odd Couple?. *-- The Achilles Argument and the Nature of Matter in the Clarke Collins Correspondence. *-- Leibniz’s ‘Achilles’. *-- Hume’s Reply to the Achilles Argument. *-- Kant and Mendelssohn on the Implications of the ‘I Think’. *-- Kant on the Achilles Argument. *-- William James and the Achilles Argument. *-- The Binding Problem: Achilles in the 21st Century.
books  intellectual_history  mind  mind-body  consciousness  perception  thinking_matter  materialism  soul  immortality  substance  Plato  Neoplatonism  Aristotle  Aquinas  Duns_Scotus  Ockham  Augustine  Descartes  Spinoza  Malebranche  Cartesian  Bayle  Locke  Clarke  Collins_Anthony  Leibniz  Hume  Kant  Mendelssohn  Fichte  cognition  neuroscience  psychology  natural_philosophy  metaphysics  rationalist  James_William  history_of_science  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
Devin Henry - "The Failure of Evolution in Antiquity" in Blackwell Companion to Ancient Science, Medicine and Technology (2014)
Devin Henry, The University of Western Ontario -- This paper traces the emergence and rejection of evolutionary thinking in antiquity. It examines Empedocles' original theory of evolution and why his ideas failed to gain traction among his predecessors. -- Devin Henry. "The Failure of Evolution in Antiquity" Blackwell Companion to Ancient Science, Medicine and Technology. Ed. Georgia Irby. Blackwell-Wiley, 2014. -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  natural_philosophy  biology  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  evolutionary_biology  evolution  time  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
"The Modal Status of Kant's Postulate of God's Existence" by Mathew Jonathan Snow | U of Wisconsin Masters thesis (2013)
Masters thesis -- Kant is traditionally read as arguing that moral agents are rationally required to postulate the actual existence of God, but contemporary commentators' reconstructions of the argument only seem sufficient to warrant postulating the merely possible existence of God. There have been three attempts to address this seeming lacuna between what the argument is supposed to justify and what it does justify. Allen Wood defends the traditional interpretation - that Kant postulated the actual existence of God. M Jamie Ferreira proposes a revisionary interpretation - that Kant postulated the possible existence of God. Finally, Paul Guyer simply criticizes Kant for postulating the actual existence of God when his argument only justifies postulating the possible existence of God. I argue that Allen Wood's defense is insufficient to ground the appropriate propositional attitude toward the postulates while M Jamie Ferreira's proposal cannot pass as a reading of Kant. Nonetheless, I argue that Kant need not be criticized because the seeming lacuna does not arise if we are sufficiently sensitive to the modality of the judgment Kant takes to be required for rational pursuit of the highest good. --Snow, Mathew Jonathan, "The Modal Status of Kant's Postulate of God's Existence" (2013). Theses and Dissertations. Paper 308. -- downloaded pdf to Note
thesis  intellectual_history  18thC  Kant-ethics  God-existence  moral_philosophy  reason  practical_reason  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
Ulrich Lehner, review - Jeffrey Burson, "The Rise and Fall of Theological Enlightenment: Jean-Martin De Prades and Ideological Polarization in 18thC France" | Theological Studies - 2011
Ulrich Lehner, Marquette University -- Published version. Theological Studies, Vol. 72, (2011): 99–101. ©2011 Theological Studies, Inc. Used with permission. -- Ulrich Lehner. "Review of "The Rise and Fall of Theological Enlightenment: Jean-Martin De Prades and Ideological Polarization in Eighteenth-Century France" by Jeffrey Burson" Theological Studies (2011). -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  intellectual_history  religious_history  18thC  France  French_Enlightenment  Enlightenment  theology  Catholics  Counter-Enlightenment  Jesuits  Jansenists  Parlement  Paris  scandale  philosophes  censorship  free-thinkers  religion-established  reason  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
"Trinitarian Thought in the Early Modern Era" by Ulrich Lehner in The Oxford Handbook of the Trinity (2011)
Ulrich Lehner, Marquette University -- Published version. "Trinitarian Thought in the Early Modern Era" in The Oxford Handbook of the Trinity. Eds. Gilles Emery, and Matthew Levering. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011: 240-253. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199557813.001.0001. Copyright © 2011 Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Used with permission. -- This article explores Catholic and Protestant Trinitarian theology from 1550 to 1770. It discusses various issues, from the mystical visions of Ignatius of Loyola to the Augustinian approach of Jonathan Edwards. It considers the growing variety of eclectic views and the influence of anti-Trinitarian thinkers, beginning with Michael Servetus and Faustus Socinus. It also highlights the rise of confessionalism and anti-Trinitarianism and the explosion of mystical theology during this period. -- downloaded pdf to Note
religious_history  theology  Reformation  Counter-Reformation  16thC  17thC  18thC  Trinity  anti-Trinitarian  heterodoxy  Jesuits  Augustinian  Edwards_Jonathan  Socinians  confessionalization  mysticism  Calvinist  Christology  soteriology  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
Advisors - Charles H. Kahn and Susan Sauvé Meyer, Paul Guyer -- When Plato discusses the World-soul, cosmic intellect (nous), and the Demiurge, he approaches them theologically, i.e. as being the subjects of an account of the nature of the gods, but few works in the last half-century or more have addressed the ‘players’ in Plato’s theology as such. -- I analyze Plato’s various accounts of those divine things that are immanent in the world of change (e.g. the World-soul) and those that are said to be transcendent intelligibles (e.g. the Forms and the Demiurge) in order to determine what Plato’s gods are, and what roles they play in his system. -- The invention of the World-soul is revealed to be Plato’s way of instantiating intellect in the cosmos in order to suit the demands of his natural and moral philosophy, while his esoteric account of the Demiurge resolves any tensions between his immanent theology and his metaphysics, and suggests, semi-literally, the role that timeless, intelligible goodness plays in organizing the sensible world of change. -- Rheins, Jason G., "THE INTELLIGIBLE CREATOR-GOD AND THE INTELLIGENT SOUL OF THE COSMOS IN PLATO’S THEOLOGY AND METAPHYSICS" (2010). Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations. Paper 184. -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  religious_history  theology  metaphysics  moral_philosophy  creation  gods-antiquity  God-attributes  God-existence  immanence  transcendence  forms  ideas-theories  Plato  change-metaphysics  cosmology  good  time  timeless  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
Lawrence A. Vogel - "The Responsibility of Thinking in Dark Times: Hannah Arendt versus Hans Jonas" | New School - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal, 2008
C Lawrence A. Vogel, Connecticut College -- Initially published in Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal, 2008, p.253-293. © 2008 The Graduate Faculty Journal of the New School for Social Research -- http://www.newschool.edu/nssr/GFPJ/GFPJ/hmimg.html -- Vogel, Lawrence. "The Responsibility Of Thinking In Dark Times: Hannah Arendt Versus Hans Jonas." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 29.1 (2008): 253-293. Web -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  Germany  Holocaust  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  Arendt  Jonas_Hans  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
"Empiricism and Multiculturalism" by Kenneth P. Winkler
Kenneth P. Winkler, Wellesley College -- This paper relates the work of the great British empiricists – Locke, Berkeley, and Hume – to issues of multiculturalism. It is argued that these philosophers can help to provide us with some of the tools we need to craft an appropriate response to the diversity of cultures. -- Winkler, Kenneth P. (2004) "Empiricism and Multiculturalism," Philosophic Exchange: Vol. 34: Iss. 1, Article 4. -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  social_theory  21stC  human_nature  17thC  18thC  empiricism  Locke  Berkeley  Hume  multiculturalism  comparative_anthropology  diversity  tolerance  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
"Adventures in Rationalism" by Michael Della Rocca
Michael Della Rocca, Yale University -- Rationalism is the thesis that the world and all the things in the world are intelligible, through and through. Nothing happens for no reason. On the contrary, whatever takes place, whatever exists, takes place or exists for a reason. Everything. On this view there are no brute facts. Each thing that exists has a reason that is sufficient for explaining the existence of the thing. According to perhaps the most extreme implication of this view, even the world itself, the totality of all that exists, exists for a reason, has an explanation. Many philosophers today think that rationalism is a crazy view. However, this paper argues in support of rationalism, and explores its implications. -- Della Rocca, Michael (2013) "Adventures in Rationalism," Philosophic Exchange: Vol. 43: Iss. 1, Article 1. -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  metaphysics  rationalist  causation  cosmology  Leibniz  Spinoza  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
"Toward a Radical Integral Humanism: MacIntyre’s Continuing Marxism" by Jeffery L. Nicholas
Jeffery L. Nicholas, Providence College -- I argue that we must read Alasdair MacIntyre’s mature work through a Marxist lens. I begin by discussing his argument that we must choose which God to worship on principles of justice, which, it turns out, are ones given to us by God. I contend that this argument entails that we must see MacIntyre’s early Marxist commitments as given to him by God, and, therefore, that he has never abandoned them in his turn to Thomistic-Aristotelianism. I examine his reading of Marx, with its emphasis on the concept of alienation as a Christian concept, and explain how this reading differs from the dominant scientific-determinist reading of Marx. This examination then leads to a discussion of why MacIntyre abandoned both Marxism and Christianity in 1968. Finally, I turn to his more recent writing on Marx. I contend that if we view them through his argument about the principles of justice and which God to worship, we see MacIntyre’s mature philosophy as more Marxist than most people, perhaps even MacIntyre himself, would allow. -- Jeffery L. Nicholas. "Toward a Radical Integral Humanism: MacIntyre’s Continuing Marxism" Studia Philosophica Wratislaviensia (2014): 223-241. -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  modernity  cultural_critique  humanism  Marxist  MacIntyre  human_nature  Thomism  Aristotelian  virtue_ethics  justice  natural_law  divine_command  human_rights  self-interest-cultural_basis  self  alienation  moral_psychology  social_theory  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
Mark C. Modak-Truran, Mississippi College School of Law -- The unexpected vitality of religion has motivated scholars in many fields like anthropology, sociology, political science, international relations, and philosophy to revisit their assumptions about the supposed secularization of their disciplines. The secularization of law arguably constitutes the most widely-held but least-examined assumption in contemporary legal theory. Legal scholars and philosophers have surprisingly ignored one exception—Jürgen Habermas’s discourse theory of law. Relying on Max Weber's social theory, Habermas argues that the rationalization of society (i.e., secularization) has eliminated religious and metaphysical justifications for law and has differentiated law from politics and morality so that law must be legitimated in a seemingly paradoxical manner: by its legality. Habermas claims that legality can legitimate the law based on the discourse principle in the discourse of justification by voluntary, intersubjective agreement among all those affected and that the law can be impartially applied in the discourse of application via the principle of appropriateness without judges relying on personal moral, political, or religious convictions. At the same time, Habermas recognizes that the law is indeterminate so that strong legal formalism no longer maintains the secularization of law. The failure of Habermas’s discourse theory of law represents a watershed moment for contemporary legal theory. Contemporary legal theory needs to comprehend that the widespread acceptance of legal indeterminacy calls into question current conceptions of the secularization of law and arguably demarcates the desecularization of the law. -- Mark C. Modak-Truran. "SECULARIZATION, LEGAL INDETERMINACY, AND HABERMAS'S DISCOURSE THEORY OF LAW" 35 Fla. St. U. L. Rev. 73 (2007). -- downloaded pdf to Note
philosophy_of_law  political_philosophy  social_theory  legitimacy  foundationalism  legal_indeterminancy  legal_theory  discourse-political_theory  discourse_ethics  Habermas  secularism  post-secular  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
To move beyond theocracy (pre-modern) and secularism (modern), this article closes by identifying the trajectory for a new constructive postmodern paradigm that embraces legal indeterminacy and secularizing the text of the law but argues that a plurality of religious convictions implicitly legitimates and thereby desecularizes the law. Desecularizing the law does not result in the imposition of the religion of the ruler (theocracy) in a pluralistic democratic society. Rather, the constructive postmodern paradigm of law and religion allows for the religious pluralism in society to provide a plurality of religious ontologies that implicitly legitimate the law and close the ontological gap between legal theory and legal practice. -- Mark C. Modak-Truran. "BEYOND THEOCRACY AND SECULARISM (PART I): TOWARD A NEW PARADIGM FOR LAW AND RELIGION" Mississippi College Law Review 27.1 (2008): 159-233. -- downloaded pdf to Note
philosophy_of_law  ontology  ontology-social  social_theory  foundationalism  moral_philosophy  secularism  secular_humanism  post-secular  postmodern  legal_indeterminancy  values  pluralism  legal_theory  legal_culture  political-theology  politics-and-religion  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
Mark C. Modak-Truran, Mississippi College School of Law -- Aristotle's discussion of corrective justice has been generally thought to mark the beginning of the philosophical examination of tort law. Many scholars also consider corrective justice, of one form or another, the main normative alternative to the economic analysis of law. Most discussions of Aristotle’s conception of corrective justice in the law review literature, however, have failed to account for the established reading of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics as proposing a teleological form of ethics. Accordingly, Corrective Justice and the Revival of Judicial Virtue argues for a teleological interpretation of Aristotle's conception of corrective justice. The teleological conception of corrective justice does not attempt to analyze corrective justice merely as a formal (Weinrib), substantive (Wright), or political (Heyman) conception of equality or freedom that can be applied by technical reason to various circumstances. Rather, it maintains that corrective justice is a moral virtue of the judge that cannot be fully understood without specifying its relationship to practical wisdom and the telos of the good life. Under this reading, Aristotle’s conception of corrective justice specifies a method of judicial decision making whereby only the practically wise (i.e., morally virtuous) judge can know the content of corrective justice in all cases. Judging requires moral virtue not technical, philosophical or legal, expertise. Consequently, this article advocates a revival of Aristotle’s notion that judicial virtue requires moral virtue. -- Mark C. Modak-Truran. "CORRECTIVE JUSTICE AND THE REVIVAL OF JUDICIAL VIRTUE" Yale Journal of Law and the Humanities 12.2 (2000): 249-298. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  moral_philosophy  Aristotle  virtue_ethics  phronesis  eudaimonia  justice  torts  law-and-economics  civic_virtue  judiciary  juddgment-moral  judgment-aesthetics  judgment-political  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
Mark C. Modak-Truran, Mississippi College School of Law -- Two contemporary quandaries in legal theory provide an occasion for a revival of interest in natural law theories of law. First, the debate about legal indeterminacy has made it clear that law cannot function autonomously—as a self-contained set of rules—but requires a normative justification of judges’ decisions in hard cases. In addition, Steven D. Smith has persuasively argued that there is an "ontological gap" between the practice of law, which presupposes a classical or religious ontology, and legal theory, which presupposes a scientific ontology (i.e., scientific materialism) that rejects religious ontology. This article demonstrates how the process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead and the radical empiricism of William James support a new process theory of natural law. Under this theory, judges resolve legal indeterminacy by determining what maximizes the telos beauty—in accordance with the circumstances of the case and the social perfection possible within that society—rather than by relying on fixed, antiquated natural laws. Process natural law also closes the ontological gap by providing an ontology that unifies the moral insights of religion with the insights of modern science. -- Mark C. Modak-Truran. "PROLEGOMENA TO A PROCESS THEORY OF NATURAL LAW" HANDBOOK OF WHITEHEADIAN PROCESS THOUGHT (1st ed). Ed. Michel Weber and Will Desmond. Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag, 2008. 507-536. -- downloaded pdf to Note
philosophy_of_law  political_philosophy  legal_history  legal_theory  natural_law  foundationalism  anti-foundationalism  social_theory  process_theology  laws_of_nature  divine_command  divine_right  legitimacy  authority  Whitehead  James_William  moral_philosophy  materialism  reductionism  science-and-religion  theology  ancient_philosophy  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  pragmatism  legal_indeterminancy  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
"LEGITIMATION" by Mark C. Modak-Truran
Mark C. Modak-Truran, Mississippi College School of Law -- This article identifies 3 conceptions of legitimation - pre-modern, modern, and post-secular - -- Pre-modern conceptions of legitimation consider governments and rulers legitimate if they are ordained by God or if the political system is ordered in accordance with the normative cosmic order. Contemporary proponents of the pre-modern conception range from those in the US who maintain that the government has been legitimated by the “Judeo-Christian tradition” to those in predominantly Muslim countries like Iran that have constitutional theocracies. -- the prevailing modern conception of legitimation in constitutional democracies stems from the “consent of the governed,” which includes 2 principles of legitimation - democracy (or popular sovereignty) and constitutionalism (or the rule of law). The critical challenges to these principles include the internal challenges of identity politics and religious fundamentalism and the external challenge of globalization. The dramatic return of religion and the surprising rise of political theology are two prominent developments supporting a shift to a post-secular conception of legitimation and a new post-secular social imaginary. -- Mark C. Modak-Truran. "LEGITIMATION" Encyclopedia of Political Thought. Ed. Michael T. Gibbons, Diana Coole, & Kennan Ferguson. Wiley-Blackwell, 2014. -- downloaded pdf to Note
political_philosophy  legitimacy  authority  divine_right  divine_command  democracy  constitutionalism  consent  social_contract  rule_of_law  post-secular  modernity  secularization  secularism  constitutional_law  government-forms  accountability  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014
"Locating Rousseau's Legislator in Social Contract" by Courtney C. Nussbaumer (2011)
Courtney C. Nussbaumer, Macalester College -- It is challenging to define precisely what role the legislator plays in Rousseau’s Social Contract; however, when viewed in light of the ancient guardians, the role of the legislator becomes less obscure. This paper pursues the similarities between Rousseau’s concept of the legislator and Plato’s concept of the guardian while also exploring the poignant differences between the two. One cannot help but notice their fundamental similarities such as the superior character and intelligence of the legislator and how each communicates with the people. Their ultimate purpose and legitimacy differs, however, in that the legislator plays a more esoteric role in his relation to the people to order to persuade them of his ideas. Conversely, the guardian’s purpose is one of enlightenment through reason; he never has to persuade anyone of anything. -- Nussbaumer, Courtney C. (2011) "Locating Rousseau's Legislator in the Social Contract," The Macalester Review: Vol. 1: Iss. 1, Article 4. Available at: http://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/macreview/vol1/iss1/4 -- downloaded pdf to Note
political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  Plato  Plato-Republic  Rousseau  social_contract  leaders  reason  legitimacy  lawmaker  downloaded 
july 2014
"Corporate Shaming Revisited: An Essay for Bill Klein" by David A. Skeel Jr. | Penn Law School
C David A. Skeel Jr., University of Pennsylvania -- published as 2 Berkeley J. L. & Bus. 105 -- Recommended Citation -- Skeel, David A. Jr., "Corporate Shaming Revisited: An Essay for Bill Klein" (2005). Faculty Scholarship. Paper 692. - http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/faculty_scholarship/692 -- downloaded pdf to Note
corporate_governance  corporate_citizenship  corporate_law  busisness-ethics  downloaded 
july 2014
« earlier      later »
15thc 16thc 17thc 18thc 19thc 20thc 21stc absolutism aesthetics american_colonies american_revolution analytical_philosophy ancient_greece ancient_philosophy ancient_rome article austerity banking bibliography bolingbroke books bookshelf britain british_empire british_history british_politics capital capital_flows capital_markets capitalism central_banks change-social china church_history church_of_england civic_virtue civil_liberties climate cognition colonialism commerce corporate_governance cosmology cultural_history democracy development downloaded economic_culture economic_growth economic_history economic_models economic_sociology economic_theory ef-add elite_culture elites emerging_markets empiricism english_civil_war english_lit enlightenment entre_deux_guerres epistemology epistemology-social etexts eu europe-early_modern eurozone fed financial_crisis financial_regulation financial_system financialization find fiscal_policy france french_enlightenment french_language french_lit french_revolution germany global_economy global_governance globalization great_recession hegel historical_sociology historicism historiography historiography-19thc history_of_science hobbes human_nature humanism hume industrial_revolution inequality innovation instapaper institutional_economics institutions intellectual_history interest_rates international_finance international_political_economy investment ir italy jstor judiciary kant kindle-available labor labor_markets legal_history legal_system legal_theory legitimacy liberalism links lit_crit literary_history local_government locke macroeconomics medieval_history metaphysics mind modernity monarchy monetary_policy moral_philosophy moral_psychology nation-state national_id natural_law natural_philosophy neuroscience novels papacy paper parliament parties paywall philosophy_of_history philosophy_of_language philosophy_of_law philosophy_of_science philosophy_of_social_science pocket poetry political_culture political_economy political_history political_participation political_philosophy political_press politics-and-religion post-wwii postmodern poverty pragmatism property property_rights psychology public_opinion public_policy public_sphere publishing reformation religious_belief religious_culture religious_history renaissance republicanism reviews risk scepticism scottish_enlightenment self social_history social_order social_sciences social_sciences-post-wwii social_theory sociology_of_knowledge sovereign_debt sovereignty ssrn taxes technology theology tolerance trade trade-policy unemployment us_constitution us_economy us_foreign_policy us_government us_history us_politics video wages website

Copy this bookmark: