Skin findings associated with nutritional deficiencies.
Certain vitamin and mineral deficiencies may be recognized by their cutaneous signs. This case-based article reviews deficiencies of zinc and vitamins A, B2, B3, B6, and C, discussing their consequences and skin findings.
skin  deficiency  zinc  riboflavin  niacin  b6  vitb6  vita 
18 days ago
How To Make Oven-Roasted Corn: 3 Simple Methods
Roasting Corn in the Husk
30 minutes at 350 degrees in the oven. Remove outer husk, trim tassels.
cornOnCob  cooking 
11 weeks ago
New cause of cell aging discovered
Many senescent cells have two nuclei and stop producing nucleotides.
aging  senescence 
12 weeks ago
Biotin Is Required for the Zinc Homeostasis in the Skin.
Patients with biotin deficiency present symptoms that are similar to those in patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica (inherent zinc deficiency). However, the association between biotin and zinc deficiency remains unknown. We have previously shown that epidermal keratinocytes of mice fed zinc-deficient (ZD) diets secreted more adenosine triphosphate (ATP) than those of mice fed zinc-adequate (ZA) diets and that epidermal Langerhans cells are absent in ZD mice. Langerhans cells highly express CD39, which potently hydrolyzes ATP into adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Thus, a lack of Langerhans cells in ZD mice leads to non-hydrolysis of ATP, thereby leading to the development of ATP-mediated irritant contact dermatitis. In this study, we examined if biotin-deficient (BD) mice showed the same underlying mechanisms as those in ZD mice. BD mice showed reduced serum zinc levels, disappearance of epidermal Langerhans cells, and enhanced ATP production in the skin. Consequently, irritant contact dermatitis was significantly enhanced and prolonged in BD mice. In conclusion, the findings of our study showed that biotin deficiency leads to zinc deficiency because of which patients with biotin deficiency show similar symptoms as those with acrodermatitis enteropathica.
zinc  biotin 
12 weeks ago
serum biotin and zinc in male androgenetic alopecia.
A positive significant correlation was found between serum zinc and serum biotin

Serum zinc showed subnormal value and adding zinc supplement in MAGA treatment is recommended. Serum biotin showed a suboptimal level in MAGA patients that is not correlated with patients' age or disease severity. Biotin supplement in MAGA treatment may add value to hair quality and texture. We recommend future biotin evaluation in serum combined with its metabolites in MAGA patients' urine.
zinc  biotin  hair  hairloss  malePatternBaldness 
12 weeks ago
Mayor offers reward to first couple to have a boy in village where only girls are born – The First News
Over the last nine years, only girls have been born in the village of Miejsce Odrzańskie
genetics  poland 
12 weeks ago
Subclinical zinc deficiency impairs pancreatic digestive enzyme activity and digestive capacity of weaned piglets
even slight zinc deficiency in an animal's diet impedes pancreatic digestive activity and results in significant digestive impairment, even at an early stage

In conclusion, (1) subclinical Zn deficiency impaired pancreatic exocrine enzymes, (2) this response was connected to pancreatic Zn metabolism and (3) the decline in catalytic activity impaired faecal digestibility already after 1 week of insufficient alimentary Zn supply and very early before clinical deficiency symptoms arise.
zinc  pancreas  pancreatitis 
july 2019
Effect of taurine supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels of the middle-aged Korean women. - PubMed - NCBI
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of taurine supplementation on plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels, an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The subjects consisted of 22 healthy middle-aged women (33 to 54 years). Serum lipids, plasma taurine and plasma Hcy levels were measured before and after supplying 3 g taurine per day for 4 weeks. The concentration of plasma taurine was significantly increased from 63.7 +/- 14.2 micromol/L to 73.8 +/- 16.6 micromol/L after taurine supplementation (p < 0.001). On the other hand, the concentration of plasma Hcy was significantly decreased from 8.5 +/- 1.2 micromol/L to 7.6 +/- 1.1 micromol/L after taurine supplementation (p < 0.05). The effect of taurine on the levels of plasma Hcy was assessed by regression analysis (R2 = 0.304). After taurine supplementation, plasma taurine and Hcy concentration exhibited a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). In conclusion, taurine is an effective nutrient that antagonizes Hcy levels. Therefore, this study suggests that sufficient taurine intake might be an effective way of preventing cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis.
taurine  homocysteine 
july 2019
Reduced plasma taurine level in Parkinson's disease: association with motor severity and levodopa treatment.
The plasma taurine levels of PD patients were decreased when compared with controls and negatively associated with motor severity but not non motor symptoms. Moreover, treated PD patients exhibited lower levels of plasma taurine than non treated PD patients. Interestingly, plasma taurine levels negatively correlated with cumulative levodopa dosage in treated PD. After controlling for potential confounders, the association between taurine and levodopa remained significant.
taurine  parkinson's 
july 2019
Randomised clinical trial: oral taurine supplementation versus placebo reduces muscle cramps in patients with chronic liver disease.
Oral supplementation with 2 g taurine/d results in a clinically significant reduction in the frequency, duration, and intensity of muscle cramps in patients with chronic liver disease.
taurine  cramps  musclecramp  magnesium 
july 2019
Role of Taurine Accumulation in Keratinocyte Hydration
Epidermal keratinocytes are exposed to a low water concentration at the stratum corneum-stratum granulosum interface. When epithelial tissues are osmotically perturbed, cellular protection and cell volume regulation is mediated by accumulation of organic osmolytes such as taurine. Previous studies reported the presence of taurine in the epidermis of several animal species. Therefore, we analyzed human skin for the presence of the taurine transporter (TAUT) and studied the accumulation of taurine as one potential mechanism protecting epidermal keratinocytes from dehydration. According to our results, TAUT is expressed as a 69 kDa protein in human epidermis but not in the dermis. For the epidermis a gradient was evident with maximal levels of TAUT in the outermost granular keratinocyte layer and lower levels in the stratum spinosum. No TAUT was found in the basal layer or in the stratum corneum. Keratinocyte accumulation of taurine was induced by experimental induction of skin dryness via application of silica gel to human skin. Cultured human keratinocytes accumulated taurine in a concentration- and osmolarity-dependent manner. TAUT mRNA levels were increased after exposure of human keratinocytes to hyperosmotic culture medium, indicating osmosensitive TAUT mRNA expression as part of the adaptation of keratinocytes to hyperosmotic stress. Keratinocyte uptake of taurine was inhibited by β-alanine but not by other osmolytes such as betaine, inositol, or sorbitol. Accumulation of taurine protected cultured human keratinocytes from both osmotically induced and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that taurine is an important epidermal osmolyte required to maintain keratinocyte hydration in a dry environment.
taurine  hyperosmolar  dryskin 
july 2019
Zinc absorption as a function of the dose of zinc sulfate in aqueous solution.
Increases in aqueous zinc doses >20 mg result in relatively small and progressively diminishing increases in absorbed zinc in healthy adults.

20 mg resulted in 11 absorbed while 30mg resulted in 11.2 absorbed
11.0 +/- 4.4, and 11.2 +/- 2.1 mg
zinc  absorption  zincUptake 
june 2019
A Descriptive Study of Alopecia Patterns and their Relation to Thyroid Dysfunction
Thyroid dysfunction is connected to alopecia and male pattern baldness above 40
thyroid  alopecia  hair  hairloss  malePatternBaldness 
june 2019
Retinoids Putting the “A” in Alopecia
Vitamin A (vitA) has many roles in human biology. With respect to hair, knockout mice for vitA receptor, hairless, and vitamin D genes have similar phenotypes, and follicle loss occurs during catagen. Hypovitaminosis A from inadequate vitA intake causes hair loss. This work suggests that dietary vitA may have a role in precipitating and maintaining alopecias as well.
alopecia  vita 
june 2019
The role of calcium in pancreatic secretion and disease.
Hypercalcemia stimulates enzyme secretion in the pancreas, hypocalcemia inhibits it.
calcium  pancreas  pancreatitis  bicarbonate 
june 2019
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (beta-trace) is a newly recognized type of retinoid transporter.
We found that the enzyme binds all-trans- or 9-cis-retinoic acid and all-trans- or 13-cis-retinal, but not all-trans-retinol, with affinities (Kd of 70-80 nM) sufficient for function as a retinoid transporter. All-trans-retinoic acid inhibited the enzyme activity in a noncompetitive manner, suggesting that it binds to the same hydrophobic pocket as prostaglandin H2, the substrate for prostaglandin D synthase, but at a different site in this pocket. It is likely that this enzyme is a bifunctional protein that acts as both retinoid transporter and prostaglandin D2-producing enzyme.
retinol  retinolBindingProtein  prostaglandin  hair 
june 2019
Sertoli cell prostaglandin D2 synthetase is a multifunctional molecule: its expression and regulation.
As PGD-Synthetase is a known retinoid transporter, the effects of all-trans-retinoic acid and all-trans-retinal on Sertoli cell PGD-Synthetase expression were also assessed. Both compounds were found to induce Sertoli cell PGD-Synthetase expression. (From other articles: Furthermore, PTGDS and its product PGD2 are elevated in the bald-scalp areas of men with male pattern baldness )
prostaglandin  retinol  retinolBindingProtein  hair  vita 
may 2019
Vitamin E can reduce blood pressure in mild hypertensives.
, it was found that the vitamin E supplement had caused a remarkable decrease in SBP (-24% in DG versus -1.6% in PG) and a less remarkable decrease in DBP (-12.5% in DG versus -6.2% in PG) (p < 0.05). The change in heart rate was -4.3% in DG, and -14.0% in PG (p < 0.05). It is concluded that a vitamin E supplement of 200 IU/day can be effective in mild hypertensive patients in the long term, probably due to nitric oxide, and improve their blood pressure status.
vite  bloodpressure 
april 2019
Biochemical vitamin E deficiency in chronic pancreatitis.
patients without pancreatic steatorrhoea also had significantly lower levels of plasma vitamin E and the ratio vitamin E/total lipids when compared to controls. We conclude that biochemical vitamin E deficiency is common in chronic alcohol-induced pancreatitis, particularly in patients with steatorrhoea, and that factors other than fat malabsorption may be responsible for vitamin E deficiency in pancreatic non-steatorrhoea.
pancreatitis  steatorrhea  vite 
april 2019
Sniffing out Parkinson's disease
The data revealed the presence of hippuric acid, eicosane and octadecanal, which indicate the altered levels of neurotransmitters found in Parkinson's patients, along with several other biomarkers for the disease. Milne confirmed the signature musk of Parkinson's when presented with laboratory-prepared samples containing these compounds in a controlled olfactory environment.
parkinson's  scent  smell 
march 2019
Chronic Kidney Disease Alters Vitamin A Homeostasis via Effects on Hepatic RBP4 Protein Expression and Metabolic Enzymes
Other articles indicated that hyperthyroidism can lower gfr and raise vitamin A.

This article indicates ckd is associated with high vitamin A levels. But it sounds as though vitamin A is not being converted to the right form.
vita  kidney  kidneyFailure  gfr 
march 2019
Zinc Status in Chronic Pancreatitis and its Relationship with Exocrine and Endocrine Insufficiency
This study demonstrates zinc deficiency in chronic pancreatitis patients, and that zinc deficiency correlates with exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Further studies may clarify the possible benefits of zinc supplementation in chronic pancreatitis.
zinc  pancreas  pancreatitis 
march 2019
Blood donations, iron stores, and risk of Parkinson's disease. - PubMed - NCBI
Multiple blood donations likely induce a deficiency in riboflavin. Which is why there is an increased risk of Parkinson's after multiple recent donations.
parkinson's  riboflavin  Iron 
march 2019
Artificial intelligence senses people through walls
Human bodies interfere with radio signals enough that a neural network cqan sense people through walls.
wireless  artificialIntelligence 
march 2019
Pancreatic acinar cell regeneration following copper deficiency-induced pancreatic necrosis. - PubMed - NCBI
Copper deficiency causes the pancreas to shrink to 30% in size. Copper supplementation causes it to regenerate.

This may be because of the large amount of endoplasmic reticulum and golgi in the pancreas due to its role in secreting a large number of substances. The ER and golgi are fragmented in cholesterol deficiency and cholesterol metabolism would be definitely inhibited by a copper deficiency.
copper  pancreas  cholesterol  hdl  ldl 
march 2019
Project Chrono: An Open Source Multi-physics Simulation Engine
Chrono is a physics-based modelling and simulation infrastructure based on a platform-independent open-source design implemented in C++. A PROJECTCHRONO library can be embedded in a software project to simulate, for instance, wheeled and tracked vehicles operating on deformable terrains, robots, mechatronic systems, compliant mechanisms, and fluid solid interaction phenomena. Systems can be made of rigid and flexible/compliant parts with constraints, motors and contacts; parts can have three-dimensional shapes for collision detection.
Robotics  dynamics  simulation  Physics  roboticsSimulation  physicsSimulation 
march 2019
Lower serum calcium levels are a risk factor for a decrease in eGFR in a general non-chronic kidney disease population
Lower serum Ca levels are a significant risk for rapid decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
kidney  calcium  kidneyFailure 
march 2019
Niacin in patients with chronic kidney disease: Is it effective and safe?
niacin treatment improved the glomerular filtration rate compared to baseline values.

niacin administration improves renal tissue lipid metabolism, renal function and structure, hypertension, proteinuria, and histological tubulointerstitial injury in an animal model of 5/6 nephrecomized rats
niacin  kidney 
march 2019
Circulating Retinol-Binding Protein-4 Concentration Might Reflect Insulin Resistance–Associated Iron Overload
Serum RBP4 concentration decreased after iron depletion in type 2 diabetic patients 

iron supplementation significantly increased plasma retinol and RBP4
retinol  rbp4  iron 
february 2019
Nutrition effects on pancreas
zinc deficient diet leads to reduced pancreatic secretory volume and bicarbonate by large percentages.
pancreas  nutrition  zinc  selenium  iron  copper  bicarbonate 
february 2019
Exocrine pancreas ER stress is differentially induced by different fatty acids.
mono-unsaturated oleic acid attenuated the ER stress response of the pancreas. Oleic acid is most abundant in olive oil.
pancreas  pancreatitis  fattyAcids  oliveOil 
february 2019
Effects of niacin on biliary lipid output in the rat.
Thus, increased biliary secretion of cholesterol explains, at least in part, the hypocholesterolaemic action of niacin.

Niacin treatment for 2 or 4 weeks lowered serum cholesterol concentrations by 13% or 29%, respectively, with the greatest decrease occurring in the low density lipoprotein fraction. This was accompanied by relatively large increases in biliary cholesterol output (114% and 130% after 2 and 4 weeks treatment, respectively) with smaller increases in the biliary output of phospholipid (18% and 45%) and bile acid (26% and 14%).
bile  niacin  cholesterol  ldl 
february 2019
Liner Gloves with TurtleSkin Protection
Needle stick protection that can go under latex/nitrile gloves
gloves  ppe 
february 2019
Dietary intake of micronutrients and the risk of developing bladder cancer: results from the Belgian case–control study on bladder cancer risk
We observed a positive association between calcium intake and bladder cancer (OR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.00–3.15; p-trend = 0.049) and increased odds, although not statistically significant, for highest tertile of phosphorus intake (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 0.95–3.49; p-trend = 0.06). We identified possible modification of the effects of both calcium and phosphorus by level of magnesium intake. Increased odds of bladder cancer were also observed for participants with highest intake of phosphorus and lowest intake of vitamin D (OR: 4.25; 95% CI: 1.44–12.55) and among older participants with the highest intakes of calcium (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.08–3.36) and phosphorus (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.05–3.92).
bladder  cancer  calcium  phosphate  magnesium 
february 2019
Prostaglandin D2 Inhibits Hair Growth and Is Elevated in Bald Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia
Testosterone is necessary for the development of male pattern baldness, known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA); yet, the mechanisms for decreased hair growth in this disorder are unclear. We show that prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels in bald scalp compared to haired scalp of men with AGA. The product of PTGDS enzyme activity, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), is similarly elevated in bald scalp. During normal follicle cycling in mice, Ptgds and PGD2 levels increase immediately preceding the regression phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect on hair growth. We show that PGD2 inhibits hair growth in explanted human hair follicles and when applied topically to mice. Hair growth inhibition requires the PGD2 receptor G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide)–coupled receptor 44 (GPR44), but not the PGD2 receptor 1 (PTGDR). Furthermore, we find that a transgenic mouse, K14-Ptgs2, which targets prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 expression to the skin, demonstrates elevated levels of PGD2 in the skin and develops alopecia, follicular miniaturization, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, which are all hallmarks of human AGA. These results define PGD2 as an inhibitor of hair growth in AGA and suggest the PGD2-GPR44 pathway as a potential target for treatment.
niacin  prostaglandin  hairloss  alopecia  malePatternBaldness  dihydrotestosterone  baldness 
february 2019
Tolerance to nicotinic acid flushing.
The mechanism of tolerance to nicotinic acid flushing was determined in subjects during a 5-day course of treatment. Objective measures of skin blood flow were used to confirm the development of tolerance. Plasma levels of nicotinic acid showed marked intraindividual variability but were not decreased with the development of tolerance. However plasma levels of 9-alpha 11-beta prostaglandin F2, a stable metabolite of prostaglandin D2, became undetectable in most subjects with the development of tolerance. Thus tolerance is not associated with decreased levels of nicotinic acid or development of tolerance to the prostaglandin mediator, but with decreased levels of the mediator.
prostaglandin  hairloss  niacin  alopecia  malePatternBaldness 
february 2019
Prostaglandin D2
is the primary mediator of vasodilation (the "niacin flush") after ingestion of niacin (nicotinic acid).

A 2012 research paper indicates a causal link between elevated levels of localized PGD2 and hair growth inhibition.[4] Applied topically, the researchers found PGD2 prevents hair growth, and mice that were genetically inclined to produce higher levels of PGD2 had inhibited hair growth. The researchers also found PGD2 levels were much higher in balding scalp tissue than nonbalding scalp tissue, through increased levels of prostaglandin D2 synthase. The paper suggested that inhibition of hair growth involved binding of PGD2 to a receptor called GPR44, and that GPR44 therefore would be a therapeutic target for androgenic alopecia in both men and women with hair loss and thinning.[5] Because PGD2's relation to asthma has been known for several years, several drugs that seek to reduce the effect of PGD2 through blocking the GPR44 are already in clinical trials.
hairloss  alopecia  niacin  malePatternBaldness 
february 2019
Nicotinamide attenuates aquaporin 3 overexpression induced by retinoic acid through inhibition of EGFR/ERK in cultured human skin keratinocytes.
The most common adverse effects that are related to all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) treatment are irritation and dryness of the skin. atRA therapy is reported to impair barrier function as achieved by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL). Treatment with nicotinamide prior to initiation of atRA therapy provides additional barrier protection and thus reduces susceptibility of retinoic acid. Our previous studies showed that atRA upregulates aquaporin 3 (AQP3) in cultured human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Others have demonstrated that in atopic dermatitis, overexpression of AQP3 is linked to elevated TEWL and that nicotinamide treatment reduces skin TEWL. In this study, we observed that while atRA upregulates AQP3 expression in cultured human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), nicotinamide attenuates the effect of atRA in a concentration-dependent manner. atRA treatment induces EGFR and ERK activation. PD153035, an EGFR inhibitor, and U0126, an ERK inhibitor, inhibit atRA-induced upregulation of AQP3. Nicotinamide also inhibits atRA-induced activation of EGFR/ERK signal transduction and decreases water permeability by downregulating AQP3 expression. Collectively, our results indicate that the effect of atRA on AQP3 expression is at least partly mediated by EGFR/ERK signaling in cultured human skin keratinocytes. Nicotinamide attenuates atRA-induced AQP3 expression through inhibition of EGFR/ERK signal transduction and eventually decreases water permeability and water loss. Our study provides insights into the molecular mechanism through which nicotinamide reverses the side effects of dryness in human skin after treatment with atRA.
hydration  niacin  vita  retinol  aquaporin 
february 2019
Niacin and hydration
Many people know about niacin's curious effect of the "hot flush," a feeling of warmth that covers the chest and neck, occasionally the entire body. 

However, many people are unaware of the fact that hydration can block this effect. In fact, many people who were not advised of this will come to the office describing miserable experiences with niacin--hot flushes that last for hours, intolerable itching, etc.--only to experience little or none of these effects with generous hydration. 

The vast majority of the time, two 8-12 oz glasses of water when the hot flush occurs will eliminate the flush within a few minutes. 

Sometimes, the hot flush will occur many hours after taking niacin. Nine times out of ten, this delayed effect is also due to poor hydration. For instance, you might be engrossed in your work and forget to keep up with fluid demands. Or, it may be warm and you've lost fluids through sweating. That's when you begin to feel the hot flush creep up on you. 
niacin  hydration 
february 2019
Niacin information
Really good article on niacin!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
february 2019
Niacin metabolite excretion in alcoholic pellagra and AIDS patients with and without diarrhea.
Patients with diarrhea excreted less N1MN in urine than did those without diarrhea. These patients may have an impaired niacin nutritional status, possibly associated with increased metabolic needs.
niacin  diahrrea  digestion  steatorrhea  stomach_acid  bile 
february 2019
Pellagra: an analysis of 18 patients and a review of the literature.
The clinical and laboratory features of 18 adult pellagrins are reviewed. Only four patients (22%) had the full trial of dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia. Dermatitis alone occurred in six(33%), dementia in five(28%) and dermatitis and diarrhea in three(17%). In one patient, dermentia was the initial sign of a relapse. Steatorrhea was found in six patients and was usually associated with marked alopecia. Edema without evidence of cardiac failure was present in seven patients. A diffuse increase in slow wave activity on the electroencephalogram was characteristic in patients with dementia. Fever occurred in 14 patients, and an infection was documented in 10 of these. Common laboratory abnormalities included a normochromic, normocytic anemia, lymphopenia, eosinopenia hyperuricemia, and low serum levels of albumin, urea, cholesterol, carotene, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Adrenal and thyroid function were normal, but a low serum T4, high serum free T4, and an elevated T3 resin uptake were frequently observed. These abnormalities were corrected with treatment of the underlying nutritional disorder. In two patients initially treated with thiamine alone, and in one who received inadequate amounts of niacin and protein, there was marked deterioration of mental function, which responded to administration of niacin and proper diet.
february 2019
Co-administration of equimolar doses of betaine may alleviate the hepatotoxic risk associated with niacin therapy. - PubMed - NCBI
It is proposed that this hepatotoxicity reflects the high demand for methyl groups imposed by niacin catabolism, leading to a reduction in hepatic levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Depletion of the hepatic SAM pool has likewise been shown to mediate, at least in part, the hepatotoxic effects of ethanol, methotrexate, and niacinamide.
niacin  betaine 
february 2019
niacin fact sheet
People with inadequate riboflavin, pyridoxine, and/or iron intakes
People who do not consume enough riboflavin (vitamin B2), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), or iron convert less tryptophan to niacin because enzymes in the metabolic pathway for this conversion depend on these nutrients to function
niacin  riboflavin  b6  iron 
february 2019
Choline deficiency impairs intestinal lipid metabolism in the lactating rat. - PubMed - NCBI
In addition, there was lower (P < .05) villus height in Choline Deficiency dams, which indicated a reduced absorptive surface area in the intestine. Choline is critical for the absorption of fat in lactating rats and choline deficiency alters intestinal morphology and impairs chylomicron secretion by limiting the supply of PhosphatidylCholine.
choline  folate  intestine  digestion  diahrrea 
february 2019
Hardware supply company, items include dimensions as well as solidworks files so the hardware can be used in a solidworks project.
hardware  solidworks  screws  bolts 
february 2019
Prevalence of folic Acid and vitamin B12 deficiencies in patients with thyroid disorders.
In multivariable linear regression analysis folic acid, but not B12, was associated with TSH levels
february 2019
New technology uses lasers to transmit audio
Researchers have demonstrated that a laser can transmit an audible message to a person without any type of receiver equipment. The ability to send highly targeted audio signals over the air could be used to communicate across noisy rooms. In The Optical Society (OSA) journal Optics Letters, researchers from the MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory report using two different laser-based methods to transmit various tones, music and recorded speech at a conversational volume.

“Our system can be used from some distance away to beam information directly to someone's ear,” said research team leader Charles M. Wynn. “It is the first system that uses lasers that are fully safe for the eyes and skin to localize an audible signal to a particular person in any setting.”

The new approaches are based on the photoacoustic effect, which occurs when a material forms sound waves after absorbing light. In this case, the researchers used water vapor in the air to absorb light and create sound.
laser  audio  sound  voice 
february 2019
Effect of folic acid supplementation on oxidative gastric mucosa damage and acid secretory response in the rat
Pre-treatment with folic acid prevented the formation of ulcers by 32%, and attenuated the inhibition of mucus by 14%.

Basal and stimulated acid secretions were significantly reduced in the treated when compared with control animals. Folic acid produced a 21% reduction in the basal acid output when compared with the control animals (P < 0.05), and 140% reduction in histamine-induced acid response.
folate  gastricUlcer  stomach_acid 
january 2019
Intakes of dietary folate and other B vitamins are associated with risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's esophagus, and reflux esophagitis.
A total of 256 controls and 223 EAC, 220 BE, and 219 RE cases participated. EAC risk decreased with increasing folate intake (OR highest vs. lowest = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.31, 1.00; P-trend < 0.01). Similar trends were found for BE (P-trend < 0.01) and RE (P-trend = 0.01). Vitamin B-6 intake was significantly inversely related to risks of all 3 lesions. Riboflavin intake was inversely associated with RE.
folate  heartburn  digestion  diahrrea  b6 
january 2019
Folate-deficiency neuropathy and indirect thiamine deficiency
In addition, thiamine is poorly absorbed during folate deficiency, because of frequent diarrhea as a result of damaged gastrointestinal mucosa. At the cellular level, a folate deficiency may cause an indirect thiamine deficiency. Even though thiamine is present, it cannot be activated to thiamine pyrophosphate-- its biologically active form--due to a deficient dihydrofolate reductase activity.[4,5] It is possible that the clinical features of a folate-deficiency neuropathy may be partly caused by indirect thiamine deficiency. Even with adequate folate supplementation, the patients in the study showed some residual deficits.
folate  thiamine 
january 2019
Pharmacokinetics of high-dose oral thiamine hydrochloride in healthy subjects
Thiamine only absorbs at a 3-5% absorption rate. But high dosing is helpful 500mg to 1500 mg per dosage, multiple times a day.

Oral dosing of thiamine up to 100 mg/kg divided three times a day have been reported to be required to treat children with genetic abnormalities of pyruvate dehydrogenase. For 175 lbs, this is equivalent to 8000 mg a day.

In studies of Alzheimer's disease, subjects were treated with 1000 mg of oral thiamine hydrochloride three times a day for 2 to 12 months without any reports of adverse effects
thiamine  dosing 
january 2019
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