aries1988 + policy   33

Social Media Is Warping Democracy - The Atlantic

For example, in “Federalist No. 10,” James Madison wrote about his fear of the power of “faction,” by which he meant strong partisanship or group interest that “inflamed [men] with mutual animosity” and made them forget about the common good. He thought that the vastness of the United States might offer some protection from the ravages of factionalism, because it would be hard for anyone to spread outrage over such a large distance. Madison presumed that factious or divisive leaders “may kindle a flame within their particular States, but will be unable to spread a general conflagration through the other States.” The Constitution included mechanisms to slow things down, let passions cool, and encourage reflection and deliberation.

Social media pushes people of all ages toward a focus on the scandal, joke, or conflict of the day, but the effect may be particularly profound for younger generations, who have had less opportunity to acquire older ideas and information before plugging themselves into the social-media stream.

citizens are now more connected to one another, in ways that increase public performance and foster moral grandstanding, on platforms that have been designed to make outrage contagious, all while focusing people’s minds on immediate conflicts and untested ideas, untethered from traditions, knowledge, and values that previously exerted a stabilizing effect. This, we believe, is why many Americans—and citizens of many other countries, too—experience democracy as a place where everything is going haywire.
social-network  psychology  history  constitution  usa  research  policy  society  instability 
10 weeks ago by aries1988
‘Absolutely No Mercy’: Leaked Files Expose How China Organized Mass Detentions of Muslims - The New York Times

“The methods that our comrades have at hand are too primitive,” Mr. Xi said in one talk, after inspecting a counterterrorism police squad in Urumqi. “None of these weapons is any answer for their big machete blades, ax heads and cold steel weapons.”
“We must be as harsh as them,” he added, “and show absolutely no mercy.”

In free-flowing monologues in Xinjiang and at a subsequent leadership conference on Xinjiang policy in Beijing, Mr. Xi is recorded thinking through what he called a crucial national security issue and laying out his ideas for a “people’s war” in the region.

Although he did not order mass detentions in these speeches, he called on the party to unleash the tools of “dictatorship” to eradicate radical Islam in Xinjiang.

“The psychological impact of extremist religious thought on people must never be underestimated,” Mr. Xi told officials in Urumqi on April 30, 2014, the final day of his trip to Xinjiang. “People who are captured by religious extremism — male or female, old or young — have their consciences destroyed, lose their humanity and murder without blinking an eye.”

Mr. Xi argued that Islamic extremism had taken root across swaths of Uighur society.

Mr. Xi’s remarks suggest he was alarmed by the revival of public piety. He blamed lax controls on religion, suggesting that his predecessors had let down their guard.

“We say that development is the top priority and the basis for achieving lasting security, and that’s right,” Mr. Xi said. “But it would be wrong to believe that with development every problem solves itself.”

Thousands of officials in Xinjiang were punished for resisting or failing to carry out the crackdown with sufficient zeal.

xinjiang  ccp  leak  confidential  2019  policy 
november 2019 by aries1988
hongkong  separatist  policy  explained  from instapaper
october 2019 by aries1988
书号收缩下的大陆出版业:从自我审查到紧跟“党政方针”|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
去年,一家出版社重新翻译并打算再版托尼·朱特(Tony Judt)的《重估价值:反思被遗忘的20世纪》(Reappraisals: Reflections on the Forgotten Twentieth Century)——该书的旧版曾于2013年付印。新版的书稿在经过质检环节后被打回,原因是多处“涉及‘共产主义’的评价不符现行政策、法规”。
publishing  china  today  policy  moi  book  censorship 
august 2019 by aries1988
Politically correct cross-dressing in China - Dolled up for the party
Mr Xi, however, has allowed Mr Wang’s style of drag to flourish. That is because it has a long and respected history in traditional Chinese opera, an art form which Mr Xi has been trying to promote. It used to be that female operatic roles, or dan, were always played by men. Such acting requires considerable skill as well as the wearing of elaborate make-up and full-length traditional costume that leaves no skin showing from the neck down.
from:rss  live  female  lgbt  policy  culture  clothing  business  tradition  politics 
july 2019 by aries1988
Good and Bad Muslims in Xinjiang - Made in China Journal

if China was pursuing an anti-Muslim policy, then wouldn’t we expect it to also sweep up the Sinophone Hui Muslims in Xinjiang? Uyghurs seem to be ending up in internment camps not because they are Muslims, but because they are Uyghurs.

Muslims who conform to the stereotype of the brown-skinned Muslim. Simply put, they will not be racialised as Muslim. Similarly, we might posit that in Xinjiang the Uyghurs have become racially Muslim in ways that the Sinophone Hui have not. Their Central Asian features increasingly signify the category ‘Muslim’, that is to say, more so than they do the category ‘Uyghur’, a classification which is losing its salience at administrative levels as the promises of China’s minzu (民族) system—the national (or ethnic) rights enshrined in the constitution—fall by the wayside.

even in times of conflict, it was rare for officials to attribute anti-state or anti-Han violence to any inherent flaw in the Islamic faith. While often disparaging of non-Chinese religions, China’s intellectual tradition had no ‘Orientalist’ discourse comparable to that of the West, which furnished explanations of Muslim anti-colonial violence in terms of a congenital ‘fanaticism’.

Just as Sufism did not necessarily cultivate a pluralistic pacifism, nor was the call to return to Islam’s founding texts—the Qurʾan and the Hadith—invariably accompanied by a rigid anti-Chinese militancy.
islam  xinjiang  china  2019  policy  world  terrorism  religion  critic  comparison  han  from instapaper
july 2019 by aries1988
“七五”事件十周年:为何“发展”与“开明”没能解决新疆问题?|深度|端传媒 Initium Media









xinjiang  2009  2014  policy  ethnic  muslim  analysis  numbers  from instapaper
july 2019 by aries1988
新疆的“再教育”:从“多元帝国”到“民族同化”|广场|端传媒 Initium Media




尽管所有维吾尔人的群体抵抗事件都会被中国官方声明和央视媒体贴上 “恐怖主义” 和 “分裂主义” 标签,但西方观察者对过去十年中发生的大多数暴力事件的解读更多是 “骚乱” 或 “抵抗” 而非“恐怖主义”——比如说街头示威或袭击当地政府办公室或农民持刀具、农具来袭击警察等行为。

新疆当局如今定义为“极端主义”表现的事物或行为有:面纱,头巾,“不正常胡须”,罩袍或类似罩袍的服饰,斋月禁食,问候时说assalam alaykum(阿拉伯语中的‘愿平和安宁与你同在’ ),避开酒精,不吸烟,给新生儿取有“伊斯兰”意味的名字,如穆罕默德或法蒂玛,星星和新月的符号,宗教教育,出入清真寺,举办过于简单的婚礼,举办有宗教意味的婚礼,举办没有音乐的婚礼,埋葬前清洗尸体,埋葬尸体(而非火化),参观苏菲圣陵 ,苏菲宗教舞蹈,双脚分开祷告,有国外游学或旅行经历,对国外游学或旅历感兴趣,与身居国外的朋友或亲戚有联系,家中有禁书或手机中有不该有的内容,不收听国家电台或不收看央视等。


xinjiang  opinion  ethnic  policy  history  origin  terrorism  from instapaper
july 2019 by aries1988
郑力轩:战争的昭和、暧昧的平成,曙光初露的令和|深度|端传媒 Initium Media



在雇用上采取长期雇用、不轻易裁员的制度。员工(通常限定在男性)在学校毕业后集体进入企业,到55岁前享受安定雇用的保障。其次,在企业治理上,日本企业主要由终身在同一公司工作的经理人所控制,许多董事会(取缔役会) 成为经理人升迁的一部份,而非欧美式股东利益的代表。也因此,日本企业的决策往往出现以“从业员福祉”而非“股东利润”为核心的运作型态。



analysis  history  japan  epoch  politics  economy  society  policy  comparison 
may 2019 by aries1988
White Privilege Is Real, but Well-Meaning White Liberals Are Helping to Perpetuate It - Quillette

with progressive ideology. A system that disadvantages blacks, immigrants, Hispanics or Muslims comes to be imagined as a machine operated by an omnipotent white god.

Liberals tend to believe in a kind of reverse white exceptionalism: that whites, in contrast to every other ethnic and racial group, should suppress their communal identity because it’s linked to a system of racial inequality. They seek to deconstruct white identity as an ideological construct designed to maintain power. Cultural conservatives, by contrast, consider whites a group like any other—attached to particular myths, symbols and memories—which should be able to express its identity and interests without fear of censure.

Rather than imagining a world of conflicting groups in which whites oppress non-whites, we should think of white privilege as a complex structure which all people of all races and ethnicities bear some responsibility for. Instead of adopting a simple minded narrative which demonises white identity and casts white people as the villains, we should encourage the whole of society to work collaboratively to reduce system bias.
contrarian  conservatism  usa  race  racism  stereotype  policy  opinion  caucasian  society 
april 2019 by aries1988
再访 Ian Johnson:宗教复兴遭遇收紧治理,中国要打一场“灵魂之战”吗?|深度|探索学院|端传媒 Initium Media
中国宗教政策的转机其实始于1982年,邓小平宣布落实“宗教信仰自由”政策,中共下发19号文件要求重新认识宗教和民族问题。即便是在文件公布的数字里,人们也惊奇地发现,在中国宗教遭受过控制、打压、改造甚至消灭的环境下,基督教人数仍然取得惊人增长。香港中文大学神学院院长邢福增认为,这绝不可能是1979年之后才发生的,他引用自己有关中国基督徒的口述史研究,佐证这场复苏是从文革期间的地下状态或第二社会(The Second Society)开始的。

英文学界的一些主张曾经认为,只有制度性的、正统的宗教才能酝酿出真正的信仰,并以此认为中国没有宗教。张彦没有囿于这种认识,他对中国宗教信仰的评价更接近学者杨庆堃的“弥散性宗教”(diffused religion,又译分散性宗教)的概念,即不成系统却无处不在。张彦形容所有宗教像在一个持续的光谱(Spectrum)里:“一方面,宗教是非常哲学化的,是关于精神领域的,另外一方面,宗教有纯仪式的一面。”因此,他不轻视“拜拜求平安”这样的普通民众看似“无主”的宗教生活,同时分配了一大部分注意力给不经中国政府认证的“地下教会”。




















religion  interview  chinese  government  today  buddhism  christianity  opinion  explained  policy 
march 2019 by aries1988







美國大學招生同樣以「擇優錄取」為主要原則,反映了美國的「優績制」(meritocracy)的價值取向,但其公平原則也包含對弱勢群體的「補償正義」觀念,突出體現於「平權法案」(Affirmative Action,又譯作「肯定性措施」)。此外,還會兼顧「文化多樣性」的目標,可能會考慮校園的「族裔平衡」(racial balancing)。擇優錄取、補償正義和文化多樣性,這三重維度之間存在張力,每個大學有自己側重與應對策略。
summary  read  2018  west  intelligentsia  journalism  liberalism  opinion  race  usa  debate  polemic  university  elite  policy  scientist  from instapaper
february 2019 by aries1988
邢福增:下一代靈魂之爭──中國未成年人還可否信教?|端傳媒 Initium Media
religion  china  policy  law  children  catholicism 
february 2018 by aries1988
'Charlottesville': A Government Story About Nuclear War - The Atlantic

Charlottesville, the small but elegant center of learning, culture, and trade in central Virginia, was not hit either. This monument to the mind and manner of Jefferson retained its status as a kind of genteel sanctuary, momentarily immune to the disaster that had leveled the cities of the nation.
scifi  history  nuclear  war  usa  government  life  explained  policy  survive  from instapaper
february 2018 by aries1988
Japan: the next big quake
The government’s figures put the odds of a magnitude 8.0-plus Nankai Trough earthquake at 50 per cent in the next 20 years, 70 per cent in the next 30 years and 90 per cent in the next half century.

In the worst case of a magnitude 9.0 quake, close to land, Tokyo puts losses at ¥220tn ($2tn) for the first year alone. The amount is hard to imagine: 40 per cent of Japan’s GDP, equal to the market capitalisation of Apple, Microsoft, Berkshire Hathaway, ExxonMobil and Facebook combined. Around three-quarters of that is property damage, most of it privately owned, and the rest is lost economic activity.

The worst fatality rates in Tohoku towns were about 10 per cent, whereas historic records suggest fatality rates of half or two-thirds for unprepared fishing villages after a similar tsunami in 1896. In total, 97 per cent of people in the Tohoku inundation area survived.

That reflects the benefits of engineering, early warning and evacuation.
japan  gis  government  planning  disaster  state  policy  manufacturing  infographics  earthquake 
october 2017 by aries1988
Why Land on the Moon? - The Atlantic
THOUGHTFUL critics, concerned over the allocation of limited national resources, ask whether this is a good way in which to spend funds that might otherwise be used for the betterment of man's lot on the surface of the earth. Could some of the money going into space research be diverted into other programs of public interest -- medical research, education, housing, technical aid to emerging nations -- a variety of projects contributing to the welfare of our society?

But if space money cannot readily be rerouted into other channels, that negative consideration in itself is not a reason for these large expenditures. What are the positive values which we derive from this investment?

The current discussion of these values of the space program has served the United States well in directing its attention to questions of national purpose. But, however we may try to break the program down into its elements and to attempt a detailed balancing of debits and credits, the fact remains that the space effort is greater than the sum of its parts. It is a great adventure and a great enterprise, not only for the United States but for all humanity. We have the power and resources to play a leading role in this effort, and it is inconceivable that we should stand aside.
science  politics  policy  discovery  state  moon  astronomy  nasa  space 
october 2017 by aries1988
Opinion | Still No Dignity for Chinese Women

The birth control regime reaches beyond family life. The government forbids single women from using “assisted reproductive technology,” which includes the freezing of eggs and in vitro fertilization. This year the prominent Chinese actress Xu Jinglei said that she had gone to the United States to freeze her eggs. The particular discrimination faced by single women will not change under the two-child policy.

The web is now awash with promotional materials encouraging couples to have a second child, which in light of the recent exhortations to have only one child seems like a cruel joke.
china  policy  children  population  female 
august 2017 by aries1988
La clause Molière - Jacques Attali

le nationalisme se révèle dans la culture avant de s’exprimer dans la géopolitique.

parler français ne peut être un critère d’exclusion a priori ; cela doit être un résultat d’intégration a posteriori.

quand se protège des autres, il ne faut pas s’étonner que les autres en fassent autant et se protège de nous.

Si on veut que plus de gens parlent notre langue, ce qui est la clé de notre puissance future, et qu’ils viennent nous apporter leurs forces de travail et de création, il faut bien les recevoir en France ; en particulier imposer aux employeurs français que leurs employés étrangers reçoivent les mêmes salaires et les mêmes prestations sociales que leurs collègues français.

la réelle souveraineté n’est pas dans l’isolement et la fermeture. Elle est dans la confrontation pacifique et décomplexée aux autres, à leurs forces et à leurs talents.
france  gaijin  policy  immigration  job  from instapaper
march 2017 by aries1988
北京为何要严控城市规模? - 万金油的回答 - 知乎


beijing  today  future  city  china  policy 
march 2017 by aries1988
愚民政策 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书
policy  definition 
january 2017 by aries1988
La compétition mondiale des universités
La rivalité entre grandes universités existe depuis le Moyen Age en Europe. Devenue planétaire, elle est dominée par les grandes institutions américaines et britanniques à la pointe de l'innovation, assurant le capital humain qui contribue à la croissance. Quels enjeux et quel rôle des [...]
comparison  français  uk  usa  education  university  numbers  policy  opinion  research  student  chinese  ranking 
january 2017 by aries1988
Scared? Make women disrobe | The Economist
terrorism related murder = 25%

Even in the past year, a French citizen was three times more likely to be the victim of an ordinary murderer than of a terrorist.
france  2016  terrorism  policy  society  conflict  female 
november 2016 by aries1988
Out of sync with the sun... | The Economist
the evenings are far longer than they should be: by local clocks, the sun sets an hour and 20 minutes later in Madrid than in New York City, though both are on the same latitude. That is because Spain (except the Canary Islands) is in the wrong time zone. Madrid is on a similar line of longitude to Swansea in Wales. Its clocks are set to Central European Time, the same as Warsaw or Tirana, some 24 degrees or 2,000kms (1,200 miles) to the east.
europe  time  debate  espagna  usa  comparison  lifestyle  sun  policy 
august 2016 by aries1988
An interview with Ian Bremmer
Japan, not Britain, is best placed to sell services to the Chinese

The argument for the great Osborne charm offensive towards the Chinese is that their economy is evolving: where once it had a seemingly unquenchable thirst for the machine goods, the hard engineering exports, in which Germany specialises, now as its middle class grows, as it starts building up a welfare state, Britain’s strengths come into play. Financial, educational, business services are suddenly a larger part of China’s imports. And Osborne’s thinking is that now is therefore the time to try and beat the Germans at their own game.

Is Cameron able to promise that everyone who comes after him is going to have an equally benign view of a communist China? The Chinese absolutely know that what the Germans do is industrial policy. That’s what they focus on. So the Chinese feel much more certain, long term, that the Germans are not just a good bet; they’re a safe bet. Not only are the Brits not as good a bet, but they’re a very unsafe bet!

because Germany is clearly the leader of Europe, which by the way is the same reason the Chinese want to be with Germany; if you can make only one stop in Europe where do you go? You’re going to go to where things matter. To whoever’s taking a leadership role.

The average CEO lasts for less than five years, so they’re all looking at: what do we do to ensure we maximise shareholder value for now? How to we pump those stocks? Gotta make sure we make that money and right now. Doesn’t matter what it means in five or ten years. The problem is the British people are around longer than shareholders. And you can’t do that to your constituents, to your voters. That’s why this is not something they should be embracing.
future  uk  europe  usa  china  japan  india  state  decision  policy  opinion  from instapaper
february 2016 by aries1988
Après les attentats, la solidarité de la Chine n'est pas sans arrière-pensées
Pékin proclame sa solidarité avec la France. Mais demande le même soutien international à sa propre "lutte contre le terrorisme", l’&eacu...
policy  region  xinjiang  journalist  china  français  terrorism 
december 2015 by aries1988
Chinese Security Laws Elevate the Party and Stifle Dissent. Mao Would Approve.
“National security education will be included in the national education system and the public-servant training system to strengthen awareness among the entire populace,” the law says. “April 15 of each year will be set aside as national security education day.”

“I think the frame of the national security law fits the current needs of the nation, since national security as a concept has expanded to more areas,” said Tong Zhiwei, a professor at the East China University of Political Science and Law. “But I don’t agree with some of the wordings in the draft — for example the phrases ‘ideological security’ and ‘cultural security.’ ”

Ideology and culture are not threats to national security, Mr. Tong added.
2015  china  policy  education  law 
may 2015 by aries1988

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