amy + neuroscience   465

An algorithm that learns through rewards may show how our brain does too - MIT Technology Review
By optimizing reinforcement-learning algorithms, DeepMind uncovered new details about how dopamine helps the brain learn.
machine_learning  neuroscience 
4 weeks ago by amy
Why Pfizer didn’t report that its rheumatoid arthritis medication might prevent Alzheimer’s - The Washington Post

A team of researchers inside Pfizer made a startling find in 2015: The company’s blockbuster rheumatoid arthritis therapy Enbrel, a powerful anti-inflammatory drug, appeared to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease by 64 percent.
neuroscience  alzheimers  health  medicine  moralhorror 
june 2019 by amy
Twitter
RT : My new post for the Human Centered AI Initiative: a personal vision of how
psychology  neuroscience  ai  from twitter
december 2018 by amy
Ferris Jabr on Twitter: "Mesmerizingly beautiful video of a zebrafish embryo growing its sensory nervous system. Branching axons sprout from the spinal cord, snaking this way and that, forming an intricate mesh that eventually covers the entire embryo htt
Mesmerizingly beautiful video of a zebrafish embryo growing its sensory nervous system. Branching axons sprout from the spinal cord, snaking this way and that, forming an intricate mesh that eventually covers the entire embryo
neuroscience 
november 2018 by amy
Google AI Blog: Improving Connectomics by an Order of Magnitude
The field of connectomics aims to comprehensively map the structure of the neuronal networks that are found in the nervous system, in order to better understand how the brain works. This process requires imaging brain tissue in 3D at nanometer resolution (typically using electron microscopy), and then analyzing the resulting image data to trace the brain’s neurites and identify individual synaptic connections. Due to the high resolution of the imaging, even a cubic millimeter of brain tissue can generate over 1,000 terabytes of data! When combined with the fact that the structures in these images can be extraordinarily subtle and complex, the primary bottleneck in brain mapping has been automating the interpretation of these data, rather than acquisition of the data itself.

Today, in collaboration with colleagues at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, we published “High-Precision Automated Reconstruction of Neurons with Flood-Filling Networks” in Nature Methods, which shows how a new type of recurrent neural network can improve the accuracy of automated interpretation of connectomics data by an order of magnitude over previous deep learning techniques. An open-access version of this work is also available from biorXiv (2017).
machine_learning  google  drosophila  neuroscience 
july 2018 by amy
google/ffn: Flood-Filling Networks for instance segmentation in 3d volumes.
Flood-Filling Networks for instance segmentation in 3d volumes.


Flood-Filling Networks (FFNs) are a class of neural networks designed for instance segmentation of complex and large shapes, particularly in volume EM datasets of brain tissue.

For more details, see the related publications:

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.00421
https://doi.org/10.1101/200675
This is not an official Google product.
machine_learning  neuroscience  drosophila  google 
july 2018 by amy
Scientists put a worm brain in a Lego robot body - and it worked
C. elegans is a little nematodes that have been extensively studied by scientists - we know all their genes and their nervous system has been analysed many times.

So, in 2014, a collective called the OpenWorm project mapped all the connections between the worm's 302 neurons and managed to simulate them in software, as Marissa Fessenden reports for the Smithsonian.

The ultimate goal of the project was to completely replicate C. elegans as a virtual organism. But as an amazing starting point, they managed to simulate its brain, and then they uploaded that into a simple Lego robot.
amusements  machine_learning  neuroscience 
january 2018 by amy
To locate objects, brain relies on memory | MIT News
“Neuroscientists identify brain region that holds objects in memory until they are spotted”
neuroscience  memory 
october 2015 by amy
Book Review: Beyond Human Nature | How to Create a Mind - WSJ.com
Ronald Bailey reviews Jesse J. Prinz's "Beyond Human Nature" and Ray Kurzweil's "How to Create a Mind."
neuroscience  books 
november 2012 by amy
Amping Up Brain Function: Transcranial Stimulation Shows Promise in Speeding Up Learning: Scientific American
"Electrical stimulation of subjects' brains is found to accelerate learning in military and civilian subjects, although researchers are yet wary of drawing larger conclusions about the mechanism"
neuroscience  cognition  research  brain  science  biology  psychology 
november 2011 by amy
Scientists find gene that controls chronic pain | Reuters
"British scientists have identified a gene responsible for regulating chronic pain, called HCN2, and say their discovery should help drug researchers in their search for more effective, targeted pain-killing medicines.

Scientists from Cambridge University said that if drugs could be designed to block the protein produced by the gene, they could treat a type of pain known as neuropathic pain, which is linked to nerve damage and often very difficult to control with currently available drugs..."
neuroscience  health  medicine 
september 2011 by amy
3-D movie shows what happens in the brain as it loses consciousness (The University of Manchester)
Using sophisticated imaging equipment they have constructed a 3-D movie of the brain as it changes while an anaesthetic drug takes effect.

Brian Pollard, Professor of Anaesthesia at Manchester Medical School, will tell the European Anaesthesiology Congress in Amsterdam today (Saturday) that the real-time 3-D images seemed to show that losing consciousness involves a change in electrical activity deep within the brain, changing the activity of certain groups of nerve cells (neurons) and hindering communication between different parts of the brain.

He said the findings appear to support a hypothesis put forward by Professor Susan Greenfield, of the University of Oxford, about the nature of consciousness itself. Prof Greenfield suggests consciousness is formed by different groups of brain cells (neural assemblies), which work efficiently together, or not, depending on the available sensory stimulations, and that consciousness is not an all-or-none state but more like a dimmer switch, changing according to growth, mood or drugs. When someone is anaesthetised it appears that small neural assemblies either work less well together or inhibit communication with other neural assemblies.

Professor Pollard, whose team is based at Manchester Royal Infirmary, said: “Our findings suggest that unconsciousness may be the increase of inhibitory assemblies across the brain’s cortex. These findings lend support to Greenfield’s hypothesis of neural assemblies forming consciousness.”
brain  neuroscience 
june 2011 by amy
Scientists Isolate Chemical In Curry That May Help Immune System Clear Plaques Found In Alzheimer's
, the active ingredient of curcuminoids -- a natural substance found in turmeric root -- that may help boost the immune system in clearing amyloid beta, a peptide that forms the plaques found in Alzheimer's disease. Using blood samples from Alzheimer's disease patients, researchers found that bisdemethoxycurcumin boosted immune cells called macrophages to clear amyloid beta.
neuroscience  alzheimers  noms  curcumin 
february 2011 by amy
Addicted to Fat: Overeating May Alter the Brain as Much as Hard Drugs: Scientific American
Rats given access to high-fat foods showed some of the same characteristics as animals hooked on cocaine or heroin--and found it hard to quit even when given electric shocks
health  neuroscience  drugs  addiction  ohGreat 
january 2011 by amy
Amygdala at the centre of your social network : Nature News
Researchers find a larger amygdala is linked to a larger social circle (via )
#brain  brain  neuroscience  from twitter_favs
december 2010 by amy
The New York Times > Log In
Useful perspective: "Bring back boredom." Early part of the article not as good as the later.
#neuroscience  #education  neuroscience  education  from twitter
november 2010 by amy
When the brain rests, it isn't idle
"A structure in the brain in which we unconsciously define who we are 'would warm Freud's heart,' says Dr. Raichle"...
the 'default mode network'
neuroscience  cognition  psychology  from twitter_favs
october 2010 by amy
BBC - BBC Radio 4 Programmes - Inside the Brain of a Five-Year-Old
Claudia Hammond investigates the latest research into the working of the five year old brain, and asks whether the latest developments in neuroscience might have an application in the classroom.
neuroscience  education  cognition 
september 2010 by amy
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