Michael.Massing + review   75

Low-glycemic index diets as an intervention for diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. - PubMed - NCBI
We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and clinical trials registries for published and unpublished studies up until 1 March, 2019. We included 54 randomized controlled trials in adults or children with impaired glucose tolerance, type 1 diabetes, or type 2 diabetes. Continuous data were synthesized using a random effects, inverse variance model, and presented as standardized mean differences with 95% CIs.

RESULTS:
Low-GI diets were effective at reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting glucose, BMI, total cholesterol, and LDL, but had no effect on fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HDL, triglycerides, or insulin requirements. The reduction in fasting glucose and HbA1c was inversely correlated with body weight. The greatest reduction in fasting blood glucose was seen in the studies of the longest duration.

CONCLUSIONS:
Low-GI diets may be useful for glycemic control and may reduce body weight in people with prediabetes or diabetes.
foods  low  GI  glycemic  index  diet  food  weight  loss  maintenance  body  fat  clinical  trial  meta-analysis  RCT  peer-reviewed  research  human  in  vivo  systematic  review  HbA1c  biomarkers  treatment  improvement  intervention  fasting  glucose  BMI  total  cholesterol  LDL 
12 days ago by Michael.Massing
Effects of low-carbohydrate- compared with low-fat-diet interventions on metabolic control in people with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review including GRADE assessments | The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Oxford Academic
Glycated hemoglobin declined more in people who consumed low-carbohydrate food than in those who consumed low-fat food in the short term (MD: –1.38%; 95% CI: –2.64%, –0.11%; very-low-certainty evidence). At 1 y, the MD was reduced to –0.36% (95% CI: –0.58%, –0.14%; low-certainty evidence); at 2 y, the difference had disappeared. There is low to high (majority moderate) certainty for small improvements of unclear clinical importance in plasma glucose, triglycerides, and HDL concentrations favoring low-carbohydrate food at half of the prespecified time points. There was little to no difference in LDL concentration or any of the secondary outcomes (body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, quality of life) in response to either of the diets (very-low- to high-certainty evidence).
Conclusions
Currently available data provide low- to moderate-certainty evidence that dietary carbohydrate restriction to a maximum of 40% yields slightly better metabolic control of uncertain clinical importance than reduction in fat to a maximum of 30% in people with T2D.
triglycerides  fat  low  diet  diabetes  T2D  type  2  blood  pressure  carbohydrates  carb  fasting  quality  of  life  glucose  carbohydrate  waist  circumference  biomarkers  peer-reviewed  research  human  in  vivo  correlation  effects  benefit  nutrition  clinical  trial  review  systematic 
may 2019 by Michael.Massing
Glycemic control and vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus - UpToDate
[tl;dr: Glycemic control improves microvascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes, including progression of nephropathy, manifestation and progression of retinopathy, and retinal photocoagulation; and showed a beneficial effect of intensive therapy on the development of more advanced clinical outcomes in renal disease and its precursors in the one study with long-enough follow up to assess effect. Cardiovascular risk benefit "has not been established as clearly" for type 2 as for type 1.]

Although the role of glycemic control on microvascular disease in type 2 diabetes was documented in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), its role in reducing cardiovascular risk has not been established as clearly for type 2 diabetes....

improving glycemic control improves microvascular outcomes, as illustrated by the findings of a meta-analysis of randomized trials (34,912 participants) [5]. There was a reduction in the risk of microvascular complications (a composite outcome including progression of nephropathy, manifestation and progression of retinopathy, and retinal photocoagulation) in the intensive compared with standard glycemic control group (relative risk [RR] 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.95). There were significant reductions in risk for each of the individual components.

In other meta-analyses of trials (over 28,000 adults) evaluating the benefits of intensive versus conventional glycemic control specifically on renal outcomes, there was a statistically significant reduction in the risk of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria in patients randomly assigned to intensive glycemic control (risk ratios of 0.86 and 0.74, respectively) [6,7]. The reduction in risk of end-stage renal disease did not reach statistical significance (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.46-1.05). There was no reduction in the risk of doubling of the serum creatinine level or death from renal disease (RRs 1.06 and 0.99, respectively) [6]. Of note, the majority of the trials in the meta-analyses were not of long enough duration to show a beneficial effect of glycemic control on end-stage renal disease, which typically manifests after 10 to 20 years of diabetes duration [8]. In the trials included in the meta-analyses, the absolute rates of severe renal outcomes were low in both the intensive- and conventional-therapy groups, reducing the ability of the analysis to demonstrate a benefit, if one exists. In the one trial with longer-term follow-up (United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study [UKPDS] cohort followed for 22 years), there was a beneficial effect of intensive therapy on the development of more advanced clinical outcomes, including renal disease
type  2  T2D  diabetes  risk  tight  management  glucose  control  blood  benefit  morbidity  mortality  microvascular  complications  kidneys  eyes  retinopathy  nephropathy  renal  disease  cardiovascular  peer-reviewed  research  review  meta-analysis  overview  in  vivo  situ  human  clinical  trial  symptoms  comorbidities  self  treatment  care 
september 2018 by Michael.Massing
Effect of fructose consumption on insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diet-intervention trials. - PubMed - NCBI
Twenty-nine articles that described 46 comparisons in 1005 normal-weight and overweight or obese participants met the eligibility criteria. An energy-matched (isocaloric) exchange of dietary carbohydrates by fructose promoted hepatic insulin resistance (SMD: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.91; P = 0.04) but had no effect on fasting plasma insulin concentrations (MD: -0.79 pmol/L; 95% CI: -6.41, 4.84 pmol/L; P = 0.78), the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (MD: 0.13; 95% CI: -0.07, 0.34; P = 0.21), or glucose disposal rates under euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp conditions (SMD: 0.00; 95% CI: 20.41, 0.41; P = 1.00). Hypercaloric fructose (∼25% excess of energy compared with that of the weight-maintenance control diet) raised fasting plasma insulin concentrations (MD: 3.38 pmol/L; 95% CI: 0.03, 6.73 pmol/L; P < 0.05) and induced hepatic insulin resistance (SMD: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.28, 1.26; P < 0.01) without affecting the HOMA-IR (MD: 0.18; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.39; P = 0.08) or glucose disposal rates (SMD: 0.10; 95% CI: -0.21, 0.40; P = 0.54). Results may have been limited by the low quality, small sample size, and short duration (mostly <60 d) of included trials.
CONCLUSIONS:
Short-term fructose consumption, in isocaloric exchange or in hypercaloric supplementation, promotes the development of hepatic insulin resistance in nondiabetic adults without affecting peripheral or muscle insulin sensitivity. Larger and longer-term studies are needed to assess whether real-world fructose consumption has adverse effects on insulin sensitivity and long-term outcomes.
fructose  normoglycemia  hyperglycemia  insulin  resistance  hepatic  liver  peer-reviewed  research  overview  review  in  vivo  human  clinical  trial 
november 2017 by Michael.Massing
Cereal grains and legumes in the prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke: a review of the literature. - PubMed - NCBI
The intake of wholegrain foods clearly protects against heart disease and stroke but the exact mechanism is not clear. Fibre, magnesium, folate and vitamins B6 and vitamin E may be important. The intake of high GI carbohydrates (from both grain and non-grain sources) in large amounts is associated with an increased risk of heart disease in overweight and obese women even when fibre intake is high but this requires further confirmation in normal-weight women.
RECOMMENDATION:
Carbohydrate-rich foods should be wholegrain and if they are not, then the lowest GI product available should be consumed. Glycemic index is largely irrelevant for foods that contain small amounts of carbohydrate per serve (such as most vegetables).
antioxidant  GI  glycemic  index  load  GL  carbohydrates  vegetables  fiber  blood  glucose  lipids  management  risk  diet  self  care  peer-reviewed  research  zinc  magnesium  vitamin  E  supplements  cholesterol  harm  reduction  bran  CHD  cardiovascular  protection  in  vivo  human  review  overview  stroke  saelf  B6  folate 
november 2017 by Michael.Massing
Carbohydrate issues: type and amount. - PubMed - NCBI
Both the type and amount of carbohydrate found in foods influence postprandial glucose levels and can also affect overall glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. This review, based on the American Diabetes Association's Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes, and the American Dietetic Association's Evidence Analysis Library (Diabetes 1 and 2), provides a description and interpretation of the clinical studies involving diabetes and type and amount of carbohydrate. Although the relationship between blood glucose and insulin is linear, not all types of carbohydrate are fully metabolized to blood glucose. Added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup are digested, absorbed, and fully metabolized in a similar fashion to naturally occurring mono- and disaccharides. Only about half of the carbohydrate grams from sugar alcohols and half or less from dietary fiber are metabolized to glucose whereas almost all "other carbohydrate" (mainly starch such as amylose and amylopectin) becomes blood glucose.
diet  starch  glucose  metabolism  management  peer-reviewed  research  review  overview  database  library 
november 2017 by Michael.Massing
Cereal grains, legumes and diabetes. - PubMed - NCBI
Epidemiological studies strongly support the suggestion that high intakes of whole grain foods protect against the development of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). People who consume approximately 3 servings per day of whole grain foods are less likely to develop T2DM than low consumers (<3 servings per week) with a risk reduction in the order of 20-30%. The role of legumes in the prevention of diabetes is less clear, possibly because of the relatively low intake of leguminous foods in the populations studied. However, legumes share several qualities with whole grains of potential benefit to glycaemic control including slow release carbohydrate and a high fibre content. A substantial increase in dietary intake of legumes as replacement food for more rapidly digested carbohydrate might therefore be expected to improve glycaemic control and thus reduce incident diabetes. This is consistent with the results of dietary intervention studies that have found improvements in glycaemic control after increasing the dietary intake of whole grain foods, legumes, vegetables and fruit. The benefit has been attributed to an increase in soluble fibre intake. However, prospective studies have found that soluble fibre intake is not associated with a lower incidence of T2DM. On the contrary, it is cereal fibre that is largely insoluble that is associated with a reduced risk of developing T2DM. Despite this, the addition of wheat bran to the diets of diabetic people has not improved indicators of glycaemic control. These apparently contradictory findings might be explained by metabolic studies that have indicated improvement in glucose handling is associated with the intact structure of food. For both grains and legumes, fine grinding disrupts cell structures and renders starch more readily accessible for digestion. The extent to which the intact structure of grains and legumes or the composition of foods in terms of dietary fibre and other constituents contribute to the beneficial effect remains to be quantified. Other mechanisms to help explain improvements in glycaemic control when consuming whole grains and legumes relate to cooking, type of starch, satiety and nutrient retention. Thus, there is strong evidence to suggest that eating a variety of whole grain foods and legumes is beneficial in the prevention and management of diabetes. This is compatible with advice from around the world that recommends consumption of a wide range of carbohydrate foods from cereals, vegetables, legumes and fruits both for the general population and for people with diabetes.
breakfast  blood  whole  grain  lsgumes  glucose  peer-reviewed  research  response  insulin  fiber  comparison  review  overview  correlation  type  2  T2D  effect  diet  epidemiology  etiology  self  care  management  long  term  short  soluble  insoluble  metabolism  prevention 
september 2017 by Michael.Massing
Whole Grain Intake and Glycaemic Control in Healthy Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. - PubMed - NCBI
There is growing evidence from both observational and intervention studies that Whole Grain (WG) cereals exert beneficial effects on human health, especially on the metabolic profile. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) to assess the acute and medium/long-term effect of WG foods on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals.
METHODS:
A search for all the published RCT on the effect of WG food intake on glycaemic and insulin response was performed up to December 2016. Effect size consisted of mean difference (MD) and 95% CI between the outcomes of intervention and the control groups using the generic inverse-variance random effects model.
RESULTS:
The meta-analysis of the 14 studies testing the acute effects of WG foods showed significant reductions of the post-prandial values of the glucose iAUC (0-120 min) by -29.71 mmol min/L (95% CI: -43.57, -15.85 mmol min/L), the insulin iAUC (0-120 min) by -2.01 nmol min/L (95% CI: -2.88, -1.14 nmol min/L), and the maximal glucose and insulin response. In 16 medium- and long-term RCTs, effects of WG foods on fasting glucose and insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values were not significant.
CONCLUSIONS:
The consumption of WG foods is able to improve acutely the postprandial glucose and insulin homeostasis compared to similar refined foods in healthy subjects. Further research is needed to better understand the long-term effects and the biological mechanisms.
blood  whole  rye  glucose  metabolism  peer-reviewed  research  response  insulin  fiber  correlation  review  meta-analysis  diet  self  care  management  metabolic  profile 
september 2017 by Michael.Massing
Salacia reticulata (Kothala himbutu) revisited; a missed opportunity to treat diabetes and obesity?
The evidence available from animal and human studies point towards effective reduction of plasma glucose and weight in SR treated subjects. Alpha glucosidase inhibition is the most likely mechanism for the reduction of postprandial glucose. Reduction of fasting glucose, improvement in glucose handling following glucose loading and weight is most likely explained by decreased insulin resistance mediated through increasing adiponectin, suppression of lipogenesis and increased lipolysis.

Meticulously planned studies both animal and human, addressing the unresolved issues as well as studies that involve larger number of human subjects specifically addressing long-term outcomes and safety of SR treatment needs to be performed in the future.
Salacia  reticulata  diabetes  glucose  blood  insulin  postprandial  plasma  HbA1c  serum  lipids  peer-reviewed  research  in  vivo  vitro  clinical  human  body  fat  management  review  overview 
april 2017 by Michael.Massing
Review Roundup: 3 wireless microphones for speech recognition | Macworld
The $170 VXi VoxStar UC () uses Bluetooth HFP 1.6 wideband audio, and offers excellent noise cancellation. Wearable in three modes—with a headband, neckband or ear hook—this microphone is light and comfortable, and claims to offer more than seven hours of talk time. It charges with a standard micro USB cable, which you probably already have for other devices. The boom of this microphone is longer than standard Bluetooth mics, such as the Voyager Legend. For me, it reaches near the corner of my mouth, ensuring better sound pickup. It is light and comfortable, and you can wear it in many ways, to get the best fit for your usage.


VXi VoxStar UC
In my testing, the VoxStar UC was extremely accurate, matching the accuracy of the best wired microphones that I’ve tried.
Bluetooth  USB  Nuance  Dragon  dongle  microphone  tested  review  headsets 
january 2017 by Michael.Massing
Probiotic Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Probiotics will likely have an emerging adjunctive therapeutic role in treating IBS. The studies to date simultaneously provide interesting observations and raise fundamental questions. Overall, many of the studies involved were small in size, of short duration, and had significant design flaws, but there is growing evidence that B. infantis is becoming the frontrunner for treatment of IBS. If larger, well-controlled studies involving other strains of probiotics are performed, we may begin to have other options regarding different probiotic species and for the treatment of more specific subsets of IBS symptoms.47

Additional issues that still need to be determined include the most effective probiotic strain, dose, and duration of therapy; whether patients should be treated for specific IBS symptoms only; and whether there is a role for maintenance IBS therapy or only IBS therapy on an as-needed basis. In addition, cost-effectiveness analysis and safety profiles still need to be addressed in large, well-designed trials. As probiotics are not considered pharmaceutical drugs, they are not currently regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration, which would promote standardization for consistent clinical trials in the future.

Probiotics may have a role as a delivery vehicle for therapeutic payloads that are released at targeted areas of inflammation throughout the intestinal tract. The majority of this research has involved probiotics in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, but these studies may translate into future studies for IBS. One such example is the study conducted by Steidler and Neirynck in which recombinant Lactococcus lactis, engineered to secrete interleukin-10, was administered to mice with experimental inflammatory bowel disease, which showed that the probiotic was similar to steroids.48

A recent systematic review performed by the American College of Gastroenterology Task Force on the management of IBS concluded that Lactobacillus does not appear to be effective in single organism studies and studies involving combinations of probiotics, though Bifidobacterium demonstrates some efficacy (Grade 2C evidence).47 Future avenues of research should focus on treating subtypes of IBS; evaluation of patients according to the Rome III criteria; safety, dosing, and concentrations of certain probiotics; and duration of treatment.
probiotics  supplements  peer-reviewed  research  inflammatory  bowel  syndrome  disease  review  Lactobacillus  Bifidobacterium  IBS  infantis 
august 2016 by Michael.Massing
Niacin Alternatives for Dyslipidemia: Fool's Gold or Gold Mine? Part I: Alternative Niacin Regimens. - PubMed - NCBI
Niacin was the first drug demonstrating lowered cholesterol prevents coronary heart disease (CHD) events, with two clinical CHD outcome studies establishing a cardioprotective niacin regimen: 1 g thrice daily with meals. Though cardioprotective, skin toxicity limits niacin's use, fostering several variations to improve tolerability. One of these, an extended-release (ER) alternative, proved immensely successful commercially, dominating clinical practice despite departing from the established regimen in several critical ways. Hence, improved tolerability may have come at the cost of diminished efficacy, posing a conundrum: Does it still help the population at risk for CHD to broaden a drug's acceptance by "watering it down"? This question is crucial at this stage now that the ER alternative failed to recapitulate the benefits of the established cardioprotective niacin regimen in two trials of the alternative approach: AIM-HIGH and HPS2-THRIVE. Part I of this review discusses how vastly the ER alternative departs from the established cardioprotective regimen, why that is important physiologically, and how it may explain the findings of AIM-HIGH and HPS2-THRIVE. Given important gaps left by statin therapy, the established cardioprotective niacin regimen remains an important evidence-based therapy for the statin intolerant or statin averse.
niacin  vitamin  B  3  overview  peer-reviewed  research  blood  glucose  supplement  interaction  risk  benefit  cholesterol  lipids  HDL  treatment  dyslipidemia  systematic  review  statin  intolerance  ER  dosage  administration  guidelines  standards 
june 2016 by Michael.Massing
Effects of niacin on glucose control in patients with dyslipidemia. - PubMed - NCBI
Niacin (nicotinic acid), the most effective available pharmacotherapy for increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, also lowers triglycerides and hence may be useful, alone or in combination with hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), to offset residual cardiovascular risk in patients with mixed or diabetic dyslipidemia. We conducted a review of published consensus guidelines since 2000 and an English-language PubMed search of prospective, randomized controlled trials and open-label studies from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2007, concerning the effects of niacin, alone or in combination with statins, on glycemic regulation in dyslipidemic patients (with or without diabetes mellitus). For search terms, we used the title words niacin or nicotinic acid and key words including diabetes, diabetic, dyslipidemia, glucose, glycemic, HbA1c, hemoglobin, hyperglycemia, human, insulin, postprandial, and safety. Retrospective and observational studies, case reports, and case studies were excluded. On the basis of our analysis, the effects of niacin (< or =2.5 g/d), alone or in combination with statins, on fasting glucose (an increase of 4%-5%) and hemoglobin A1c levels (an increase of < or =0.3%) are modest, transient or reversible, and typically amenable to adjustments in oral hypoglycemic regimens without discontinuing niacin. Niacin therapy was infrequently associated with incident diabetes or the need for new insulin prescriptions. Studies showed important clinical benefits of niacin or niacin-statin regimens despite modest effects on glucose control. On a population basis, significant reductions in incidences of cardiovascular events and the degree of atherosclerotic progression associated with long-term niacin (or niacin-statin) therapy in patients with diabetic dyslipidemia outweigh the typically mild effects of this therapy on glycemic regulation. Consensus guidelines recommend monitoring glycemic control after initiating niacin treatment or increasing its dosage.
niacin  vitamin  B  3  overview  peer-reviewed  research  blood  glucose  supplement  interaction  risk  benefit  cholesterol  lipids  HDL  treatment  dyslipidemia  systematic  review 
june 2016 by Michael.Massing
Antidepressant Medication as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Regulation
Antidepressant Medication as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Regulation
Systematic review
Katharine Barnard, PHD1⇑, Robert C. Peveler, FRCPSYCH2 and Richard I.G. Holt, FRCP1
diabetes  depression  risk  comorbidities  affective  mood  disorders  correlation  stress  distress  factor  peer-reviewed  research  clinical  in  vivo  situ  human  antidepressant  SSRI  systematic  review  etiology  public  health 
march 2016 by Michael.Massing
download PPT: Writing a Literature Review
tips for researching, reading, evaluating, reviewing academic literature
research  reading  writing  evaluation  literature  review  academic  professional  howto  tips 
december 2015 by Michael.Massing
Economic and Business Review
It is expected that submitted articles contribute to increased understanding of the phenomenon studied and are efficiently written, methodologically clear, conceptually and empirically rigorous, readable and bias free. Authors need to highlight how the paper adds to domain knowledge or improves existing knowledge in the area of applied business and economic research.

Submitted papers could be conceptual, interpretative or empirical studies. Literature reviews, conceptual frameworks and models that cover substantive insights are welcomed. Papers that employ either qualitative or quantitative research approaches, surveys, case studies, experiments or historical models can be considered for reviews.
business  economics  papers  research  peer  review  literature  source 
december 2015 by Michael.Massing
Apple Music Diary: Decision time – is it worth the money? [Poll] | 9to5Mac
So I decided I’d look on recently-played examples as bugs, and ignore the wording of ‘Introduction to’ recommendations and simply treat those as a way to play a different mix from an artist whose work I already owned. That mental shift made a surprisingly big difference, no longer finding myself irritated by those suggestions, viewing them instead as a ‘Hey, are you in the mood for some …’ prompt instead.

And you know what? Sometimes I was. In the first week, I was very focused on its ability to introduce me to new artists – on which more in a moment – so just viewed already-owned music as a distraction. But once I settled more into a mix of old and new music, sometimes its suggestions were good ones. I haven’t figured out if there’s any particular methodology behind them – like gentler music in the morning and louder music later – so maybe it’s just randomly pulling stuff from my library, but I can live with that.

discover

But music discovery remains key for me. I don’t need a streaming music service to listen to my own music, even if it does give me prompts I wouldn’t otherwise get. And it’s here that Apple Music really has excelled. Even a week in, I found it was broadening my musical horizons significantly, and it’s continued to do so, recommending artists I’d likely never have discovered any other way. Some of those artists have become favourites.

In three months, it has introduced me to more new artists I like than Spotify has in literally years. More than I’ve discovered through recommendations from friends. More than I’ve found by Shazamming tracks in bars and coffee shops.

That’s huge. And while the UK does get a raw deal on pricing, it’s still less than than the cost of one album per month. So yes, for me Apple Music is worth it, and I’ll be continuing my subscription once Apple starts billing me in a week’s time. My Spotify subscription got cancelled a week in, and I won’t be renewing it.
streaming  music  Apple  review 
september 2015 by Michael.Massing
Exposure to Organochlorine Pollutants and Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
This meta-analysis provides quantitative evidence supporting the conclusion that exposure to organochlorine pollutants is associated with an increased risk of incidence of T2DM.
diabetes  type  pesticide  environment  environmental  pollution  risk  factor  etiology  epidemiology  agriculture  incidence  prevalence  peer-reviewed  research  NIH  correlation  exposure  2  T2D  agricultural  farming  worker  safety  occupational  food  human  in  vivo  situ  overview  systematic  review  meta-analysis  public  health 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Obesity Paradoxes | T & F Online
In this review, we examine the original obesity paradox phenomenon (i.e. in cardiovascular disease populations, obese patients survive better), as well as three other related paradoxes (pre-obesity, “fat but fit” theory, and “healthy” obesity). An obesity paradox has been reported in a range of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular conditions. Pre-obesity (defined as a body mass index of 25.0–29.9 kg · m−2) presents another paradox. Whereas “overweight” implies increased risk, it is in fact associated with decreased mortality risk compared with normal weight. Another paradox concerns the observation than when fitness is taken into account, the mortality risk associated with obesity is offset. The final paradox under consideration is the presence of a sizeable subset of obese individuals who are otherwise healthy. Consequently, a large segment of the overweight and obese population is not at increased risk for premature death. It appears therefore that low cardiorespiratory fitness and inactivity are a greater health threat than obesity, suggesting that more emphasis should be placed on increasing leisure time physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as the main strategy for reducing mortality risk in the broad population of overweight and obese adults.
obesity  paradox  research  review  fatness  fitness  mortality  morbidity  risk  benefit  activity  inactivity  exercise  cardiorespiratory  peer-reviewed 
february 2014 by Michael.Massing
Blue Microphones Snowball Professional USB Microphone Review - Microphones - CNET Reviews
The good: The Snowball is an extremely sturdy and stylish multipattern microphone that plugs directly into your computer's USB port with a minimum of fuss.
The bad: Beyond USB, the Snowball offers no other audio outputs or inputs, the recording mode switch isn't intuitively labeled, and no recording software is included.
The bottom line: At this price, you'll have a hard time finding a better-sounding, better-looking, or more easy-to-use microphone for your computer. Just don't expect the Blue Microphones Snowball to replace a studio's worth of recording gear.
audio  production  vlogging  tech  specs  recording  review  microphone 
february 2014 by Michael.Massing
Hands-on review: Snowball USB microphone | ZDNet
Given that the Snowball connects to computers via USB, Blue Microphones boasts that the Snowball is also ready to connect to the iPad 2 with Apple's recently released Camera Connection Kit, which should come in handy for that tablet's support for GarageBand and similar apps. The Snowball would be a better option than some of Blue's other USB-connected mics as not only is it a bit more compact but it also drains less power from the iPad than the Yeti or Yeti Pro.
audio  production  vlogging  tech  specs  recording  review  microphone 
february 2014 by Michael.Massing
Blue Snowball
If you are going to use this mic for Podcasting, it will produce the best results if you speak into it from around six inches away, and you can choose omni or cardioid mode depending on which tonality suits your voice best.
audio  production  vlogging  tech  specs  recording  review  microphone 
february 2014 by Michael.Massing
Gut Microbiota and Inflammation
The review focuses on human trials with probiotics and does not include in vitro studies and animal experimental models. The applications of probiotics considered are systemic immune-modulation, the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and radiation-induced enteritis. When the major genomic differences between different types of probiotics are taken into account, it is to be expected that the human body can respond differently to the different species and strains of probiotics. This fact is often neglected in discussions of the outcome of clinical trials with probiotics.
research  peer-reviewed  in  vivo  human  clinical  trial  gut  flora  earnest  bacteria  treatment  stress  distress  literature  review  meta-analysis  infection  inflammation  microbiota  probiotic  immune  system  metabolic  syndrome  liver  inflammatory  bowel  disease  colorectal  cancer  radiation-induced  enteritis  correlation  variability  benefit  beneficial 
february 2013 by Michael.Massing
Hands on: TouchType case for iPad, bluetooth keyboard | iPodNN
The leather used in the case construction is top-notch with a smooth hand-feel and the "espresso grains" give the case some character and texture. One flap, and the user is waking up the iPad 2 or third generation iPad. Fold it back, tuck it in, and the iPad is standing horizontally. Want it portrait? No problem -- there's two additional elastic straps for that orientation as well.

The double stitching was all tight, and regular. Stitches stopped where they needed to stop -- there were no loose threads or carelessly sewn needle marks. The interior of the keyboard compartment was lined with the leather on one side, and a thin fabric on the other so the $60 Apple keyboard won't get scratched up.

The keyboard is held in the pocket with two elastic loops that slide out of the way to extract the keyboard. Sajid says the keyboard loops may only exist in the first iteration of the case. Whether the keyboard straps stay or go is going to depend on user's feedback on how well the pocket retains it's tight fit over time.
iPad  tablet  case  keyboard  review  gadgets 
december 2012 by Michael.Massing
Cannabinoid-related agents in the... [Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI
Rich evidence has shown that cannabis products exert a broad gamut of effects on emotional regulation. The main psychoactive ingredient of hemp, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and its synthetic cannabinoid analogs have been reported to either attenuate or exacerbate anxiety and fear-related behaviors in humans and experimental animals.
The heterogeneity of cannabis-induced psychological outcomes reflects a complex network of molecular interactions...The high degree of interindividual variability in the responses to cannabis is contributed by a wide spectrum of factors, including genetic and environmental determinants, as well as differences in the relative concentrations of THC and other alkaloids (such as cannabidiol) within the plant itself.
The present article reviews the currently available knowledge on the herbal, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids with respect to the modulation of anxiety responses, and highlights the challenges that should be overcome to harness the therapeutic potential of some of these compounds, all the while limiting the [adverse] effects associated with cannabis consumption. In addition the article presents some promising patents on cannabinoid-related agents.
medical  research  peer-reviewed  cannabis  marijuana  drug  effects  environment  set  brain  cognition  emotion  response  anxiety  cannabinoids  dosage  genetics  cannabidiol  literature  review  adverse  correlation 
april 2012 by Michael.Massing
Studies of studies show that we get things wrong | Ben Goldacre | Comment is free | The Guardian
Vinay Prasad and colleagues... took all 212 academic papers published in the New England Journal of Medicine during 2009. Of those, 124 made some kind of claim about whether a treatment worked or not, so then they set about measuring how those findings fitted into what was already known. Two reviewers assessed whether the results were positive or negative in each study, and then, separately, whether these new findings overturned previous research.
Seventy-three of the studies looked at new treatments, so there was nothing to overturn. [The remaining 51] were, essentially, evenly split: 16 upheld a current practice as beneficial, 19 were inconclusive, and crucially, 16 found that a practice believed to be effective was, in fact, ineffective, or vice versa....
[Y]ou can look at the same problem from the opposite end of the telescope. In 2005, John Ioannidis gathered together all the major clinical research papers published in three prominent medical journals between 1990 and 2003: specifically, he took the "citation classics", the 49 studies that were cited more than 1,000 times by subsequent academic papers.
Then he checked to see whether their findings had stood the test of time, by conducting a systematic search in the literature, to make sure he was consistent in finding subsequent data. From his 49 citation classics, 45 found that an intervention was effective, but in the time that had passed, only half of these findings had been positively replicated. Seven studies, 16%, were flatly contradicted by subsequent research, and for a further seven studies, follow-up research had found that the benefits originally identified were present, but more modest than first thought.
This looks like a reasonably healthy state of affairs: there probably are true tales of dodgy peer reviewers delaying publication of findings they don't like, but overall, things are routinely proven to be wrong in academic journals.
medical  research  limitations  science  scientific  method  peer-reviewed  conspiracy  theories  news  reporting  literature  review  overview  history  Ben  Goldacre 
january 2012 by Michael.Massing
For T2DM, the Quality of Guidelines on Oral Meds Varies Dramatically | Ann Intern Med. 2012;156:27-36.
The reviewers determined whether the selected guidelines concurred with 7 evidence-based conclusions from the 2007 systematic review. Using 2 domains (rigor of development and editorial independence) from the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) tool, 2 reviewers independently evaluated guideline quality based on 7 key elements of systematic review and reporting.

Although the search retrieved 1000 citations, screening identified only 11 guidelines meeting the inclusion criteria. Of these, 7 guidelines agreed that metformin is the preferred first-line agent, and 10 guidelines agreed that thiazolidinediones compared with other oral medications are linked to increased rates of edema and congestive heart failure.

One of the 11 guidelines addressed no evidence-based conclusions, and at the other extreme, 5 guidelines agreed with all 7 evidence-based conclusions. According to AGREE criteria, the overall quality of all of the guidelines was poor, particularly in use of systematic methods to identify evidence. Furthermore, most guidelines were susceptible to bias.

The guidelines varied greatly in domain summary scores for the rigor of development (median, 28.6%; range, 16.7% - 100.0%) and editorial independence (median, 75.0%; range, 8.3% - 100.0%). Higher-quality scores were associated with a greater number of recommendations consistent with the evidence-based conclusions.
review  medical  research  guidelines  treatment  prescription  evidence-based  diabetes  metformin  peer-reviewed  T2D  protocol  drug  effects  risk  benefit  comparison 
january 2012 by Michael.Massing
Status of herbal medicines in the treatmen... [Curr Diabetes Rev. 2009] - PubMed - NCBI
[Diabetes mellitus] has reached epidemic proportions in the US and more recently worldwide. The morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes is anticipated to account for a substantial proportion of health care expenditures. Although there are several drug treatments currently available, the need for new herbal agents for treatment of diabetes are required. The treatment goals for patients with diabetes have evolved significantly over the last 80 years, from preventing imminent mortality, to alleviating symptoms, to the now recognized objective of normalization or near normalization of glucose levels with the intent of forestalling diabetic complications. The present review stated several findings from an extensive literature search of natural plants that have been assessed for the anti diabetic activity over past 80 years. An attempt has been made to summarize the information in order to highlight those chemical entities and plant species which are of worthy for further investigation as leads to the drug developments. Over 100 plant species from wide range of families containing various chemical classes of compounds have been cited here which are worthy for the researchers and the industrialist concerned to diabetes.
medical  research  herbal  natural  treatment  drug  diabetes  alternative  medicine  literature  review  overview  peer-reviewed  links  what.I'm.reading  efficacy  T2D 
january 2012 by Michael.Massing
Vitamin D Guidelines Edge Upwards, But Most Americans Getting Enough: Report | Philly | 11/02/2011
[Revised] recommendations are based on a review of almost 1,000 studies and testimony from scientists and others....

[Some experts believe vitamin D can fight a range of diseases and have called for daily levels] of up to 2,000 IU....

[The committee reviewed hundreds of reports on potential benefits: "We have intriguing other areas to research...current data are insufficient for] defining an appropriate intake. Bone health is the primary outcome."

[For calcium, the committee recommends 0.7g daily for children 1-3, and 1g from 4-8. Children and teens 9-18 need no more than 1.3g. For most adults 19-50 and for men up to 71, 1g daily suffices. For women over 50 and men and women over 70, 1.2g a day is enough]....

For vitamin D, the uppermost levels are 2,500 IUs per day for children aged [1-3; 3,000 IUs daily for children 4-8; and 4,000 IUs] for everyone else.

For calcium, [outer ranges are 2.5g per day ages 1-8; 3g daily age 9-18; 2.5g 19-50; and 2g per day for all others....
vitamin  D  recommendations  optimal  minimum  maximum  supplements  diet  calcium  review  literature  risk  benefit  from delicious
november 2011 by Michael.Massing
Are You Getting Enough Vitamin D?
"I am delighted the upper limit for vitamin D has been doubled to 4,000 IUs per day, although this is a conservative level, considering the body of scientific evidence indicating it should be 10,000 IU," [Dr. Robert Heaney of Creighton] tells WebMD. "However, few people need more than 4,000 IUs, which will meet the needs of most healthy people, give physicians confidence to recommend supplementation, and allow research at higher vitamin D levels."

In July 2011, the Endocrine Society Practice Guidelines published recommendations for the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D recommending an upper limit of 10,000 IU/day.

"There is a potential to cause harm if you overdose on supplements above 4,000 IU/day but there is no fear of overdosing from the sun because your skin acts like a regulatory system, only allowing production of the amount of vitamin D you need," Brannon says.
vitamin  D  dosage  supplement  research  medical  review  literature  recommendations  maximum  toxicity  risk  benefit  from delicious
november 2011 by Michael.Massing
Memory Training Might Not Be Best For Reducing "Senior Moments"
[A new evidence review suggests that] specific training regimes are not any better than simple conversations at improving memory in older adults.
Some studies show that healthy older adults, and those with mild cognitive impairment, do remember words better after some memory training. However, seniors with memory training do not improve their memory any more than do seniors who participate in a discussion about art, for instance, instead of drilling with a list of words....
Other researchers are exploring another type of training to keep the brain fit: physical activity, from aerobics to balance exercises. For instance, in small studies led by Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Ph.D., of the University of British Columbia, resistance training for older women was associated with improved mental focus. "This has important clinical implications because cognitive impairment is a major health problem that currently lacks a clearly effective pharmaceutical therapy," Liu-Ambrose said.
brain  cognition  training  research  conversation  social  interaction  exercise  self  care  Alzheimer's  dementia  literature  review  in  vivo  human  benefit  comparison  protection  prevention  games  mitigation  amelioration  treatment  physical  resistance  neuroprotection  hatmandu  earnest  activity  clinical  trial  from delicious
january 2011 by Michael.Massing
Health & Nutrition by Michael R. Eades, M.D. » Big Breakfast Bunkum
[A number of studies show] that caloric intake skewed to the first part of the day, i.e., a big breakfast, small dinner, seems to result in more weight loss than the same number of calories skewed later in the day, i.e., small breakfast, big dinner, so I don’t have an argument with this idea. The argument I have is that this is a poorly reported study that doesn’t contain enough information to allow an appropriate understanding of what really went on, yet it’s being used by both the press and its author to imply something that isn’t necessarily true: that a big, high-carb breakfast is better for you in terms of weight loss than a low-carb breakfast.
Daniela Jabukowiz herself is not a proponent of the low-carb diet. As she said to one of the reporters covering this travesty: "Most weight loss studies have determined that a very low carbohydrate diet is not a good method to reduce weight."
Oh, really. I would think it is just the opposite. Whenever low-carb diets are compared to low-fat diets, the low-carb diets kicks tail. At the very worst, both diets are about even. But the vast majority of studies show the low-carb diet to be superior.
I can pretty much guarantee you that this study will never see the light of day in a peer-reviewed journal. This is confirmed by one of the press members reporting about this presentation who wrote: "Plans to publish the paper in a journal were not announced."
I’ll bet they weren’t.
diet  carbohydrates  science  criticism  breakfast  bad  health  literacy  research  medical  reporting  journalism  news  media  weight  loss  body  fat  peer  review  biological  clock  circadian  rhythms  earnest  high  low  carb  comparison  effectiveness  management 
june 2008 by Michael.Massing

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