Michael.Massing + high   131

Diet-induced insulin resistance precedes other aspects of the metabolic syndrome. - PubMed - NCBI
This study was designed to examine the effects of a high-fat refined-sugar (HFS) or a low-fat complex-carbohydrate (LFCC) diet on insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose transport, plasma insulin, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides, plasma glycerol, body weight, and body fat in female Fischer rats. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport was significantly reduced in the HFS group at 2 wk, 2 mo, and 2 yr, whereas serum insulin was significantly elevated at all time points. Blood pressure was not significantly elevated in the HFS group until 12 mo, and all HFS animals were hypertensive by 18 mo. Glycerol, triglycerides, and abdominal fat cell size were not significantly different at 2 wk but were significantly elevated in the HFS rats at 2 and 6 mo. Body weight was similar in both groups until 20 wk on the diet, when the HFS rats started to gain more weight. These results demonstrate that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia occur before the other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome and that diet, not obesity, is the underlying cause.
insulin  resistance  metabolic  syndrome  factor  risk  etiology  diabetes  in  vivo  animal  peer-reviewed  research  diet  high  fat  sugar  complex  carbohydrate  low  symptoms 
january 2018 by Michael.Massing
Diet-induced insulin resistance precedes other aspects of the metabolic syndrome | Journal of Applied Physiology
This study was designed to examine the effects of a high-fat refined-sugar (HFS) or a low-fat complex-carbohydrate (LFCC) diet on insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose transport, plasma insulin, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides, plasma glycerol, body weight, and body fat in female Fischer rats. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport was significantly reduced in the HFS group at 2 wk, 2 mo, and 2 yr, whereas serum insulin was significantly elevated at all time points. Blood pressure was not significantly elevated in the HFS group until 12 mo, and all HFS animals were hypertensive by 18 mo. Glycerol, triglycerides, and abdominal fat cell size were not significantly different at 2 wk but were significantly elevated in the HFS rats at 2 and 6 mo. Body weight was similar in both groups until 20 wk on the diet, when the HFS rats started to gain more weight. These results demonstrate that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia occur before the other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome and that diet, not obesity, is the underlying cause.
insulin  resistance  metabolic  syndrome  factor  risk  etiology  diabetes  in  vivo  animal  peer-reviewed  research  diet  high  fat  sugar  complex  carbohydrate  low  symptoms 
january 2018 by Michael.Massing
The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism. - PubMed - NCBI
Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion.
carbohydate  protein  breakfast  blood  whole  grain  unsaturated  fatty  acids  lipids  UFA  glucose  peer-reviewed  research  response  insulin  fiber  high  low  glycemic  index  correlation  type  2  T2D  effect  diet  self  care  management  long  term  short  viscous  soluble  fermentable  insoluble  metabolism  risk  reduction  harm  prevention  diabetes  metabolic  syndrome 
september 2017 by Michael.Massing
Effects of whole grain rye, with and without resistant starch type 2 supplementation, on glucose tolerance, gut hormones, inflammation and appetite... - PubMed - NCBI
Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut fermentation of dietary fiber (DF), e.g. non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch (RS), in whole grain. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of whole grain rye-based products on glucose- and appetite regulation.
Twenty-one healthy subjects were provided four rye-based evening test meals in a crossover overnight study design. The test evening meals consisted of either whole grain rye flour bread (RFB) or a 1:1 ratio of whole grain rye flour and rye kernels bread (RFB/RKB), with or without added resistant starch (+RS). White wheat flour bread (WWB) was used as reference evening meal. Blood glucose, insulin, PYY, FFA, IL-6 as well as breath H2 and subjective rating of appetite were measured the following morning at fasting and repeatedly up to 3.5 h after a standardized breakfast consisting of WWB. Ad libitum energy intake was determined at lunch, 14.5 h after evening test and reference meals, respectively.
The evening meal with RFB/RKB + RS decreased postprandial glucose- and insulin responses (iAUC) (P < 0.05) and increased the gut hormone PYY in plasma the following morning 0-120 min after the standardized breakfast, compared to WWB (P = 0.01). Moreover, RFB increased subjective satiety and decreased desire to eat, and both RFB and RFB/RKB decreased feeling of hunger (AUC 0-210 min). All rye-based evening meals decreased or tended to decrease fasting FFA (P < 0.05, RFB/RKB: P = 0.057) and increased breath hydrogen concentration (0-120 min, P < 0.001). No effects were noted on energy intake at lunch or inflammatory marker IL-6 (0 + 180 min) after the rye-based evening meals, compared to WWB.
Whole grain rye bread has the potential to improve cardiometabolic variables in an 11-14.5 h perspective in healthy humans. The combination RFB/RKB + RS positively affected biomarkers of glucose- and appetite regulation in a semi-acute perspective. Meanwhile, RFB and RFB/RKB improved subjective appetite ratings. The effects probably emanate from gut fermentation events.
blood  whole  grain  rye  glucose  metabolism  peer-reviewed  research  response  insulin  fiber  high  low  glycemic  index  correlation  comparison  type  2  T2D  second-meal  phenomenon  effect  diet  self  care  management 
september 2017 by Michael.Massing
Effect of cereal test breakfasts differing in glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates on daylong glucose tolerance in healthy subj... - PubMed - NCBI
Frequent hyperglycemic episodes are increasingly being associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
We studied the extent to which acute glycemia and glycemia after subsequent meals can be modulated by the characteristics of cereal foods, such as glycemic index (GI) and content of indigestible carbohydrates.
Twelve healthy subjects consumed test meals in a random order. In series 1, the test meals were consumed at breakfast, and postprandial blood glucose incremental areas under the curve (IAUCs) were calculated after the test breakfast, standardized lunch, and standardized dinner. In series 2, the subjects consumed test evening meals and IAUCs were calculated after a subsequent standardized breakfast. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation.
Barley or rye kernel breakfasts lowered the blood glucose IAUC (0-120 min) at breakfast, at a subsequent lunch, and the cumulative IAUCs (breakfast+lunch+dinner) when compared with white-wheat bread (P < 0.05). The lunch blood glucose IAUCs were positively correlated with breakfast IAUCs (r = 0.30, P < 0.05). Breath hydrogen excretion was negatively correlated with blood glucose IAUCs after lunch (r = -0.33, P < 0.05) and dinner (r = -0.22, P < 0.05). A barley kernel evening meal resulted in lower IAUCs (P < 0.05) and higher breath hydrogen (P < 0.001) after a subsequent breakfast compared with white-wheat bread.
Glucose tolerance at subsequent meals can be notably improved during the course of a whole day or overnight by choosing specific low-GI, whole-grain cereal products. A low GI may be sufficient to achieve a second-meal effect from breakfast to lunch. A specific indigestible carbohydrate mixture appears to be required to show benefits on glucose tolerance in a longer time frame (9.5 h), most likely mediated through colonic fermentation.
breakfast  blood  barley  rye  glucose  metabolism  peer-reviewed  research  response  insulin  fiber  high  low  glycemic  index  correlation  comparison  type  2  T2D  second-meal  phenomenon  effect  diet  self  care  management 
september 2017 by Michael.Massing
Role of glycemic index and glycemic load in the healthy state, in prediabetes, and in diabetes. - PubMed - NCBI
The choice of carbohydrate-rich foods in the habitual diet should take into account not only their chemical composition but also their ability to influence postprandial glycemia (glycemic index). _Fiber-rich foods generally have a low glycemic index (GI), although not all foods with a low GI necessarily have high fiber content._ Several beneficial effects of low-GI, high-fiber diets have been shown, including lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses, an improved lipid profile, and, possibly, reduced insulin resistance. In nondiabetic persons, suggestive evidence is available from epidemiologic studies that a diet based on carbohydrate-rich foods with a low-GI, high-fiber content may protect against diabetes or cardiovascular disease. However, no intervention studies have so far evaluated the potential of low-GI, high-fiber diets to reduce the risk of diabetes, although in studies aimed at diabetes prevention by lifestyle modifications, an increase in fiber consumption was often part of the intervention. In relation to prevention of cardiovascular disease, intervention studies evaluating the effect of a low-GI diet on clinical events are not available; moreover, the results of the few available intervention studies evaluating the effects of GI on the cardiovascular disease risk factor profile are not always concordant. The best evidence of the clinical usefulness of GI is available in diabetic patients in whom low-GI foods have consistently shown beneficial effects on blood glucose control in both the short-term and the long-term. In these patients, low-GI foods are suitable as carbohydrate-rich choices, provided other attributes of the foods are appropriate.
breakfast  blood  protein  glucose  metabolism  peer-reviewed  research  response  insulin  fiber  high  low  glycemic  index  correlation  comparison  prediabetes  type  2  T2D  load 
september 2017 by Michael.Massing
A high-glycemic index, low-fiber breakfast affects the postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and ghrelin responses of patients with type 2 diabetes... - PubMed - NCBI
The area under the curve (AUC) [mean (95% CI); P for LSD tests] for plasma glucose (mmol/L × min) was higher after patients consumed the HGI-LF breakfast [9.62 (8.39, 10.84)] than after the LGI-HF breakfast [8.95 (7.71, 10.18)] (P ≤ 0.05). Insulin AUC (μIU/mL × min) after patients consumed the HGI-LF meal [65.72 (38.24, 93.19)] was higher than after the HGI-HF meal [57.24 (32.44, 82.04)] (P ≤ 0.05). The other observed difference was higher insulin AUC after the consumption of the LGI-LF breakfast [61.54 (36.61, 86.48)] compared with the AUC after the LGI-HF breakfast [54.16 (31.43, 76.88)] (P ≤ 0.05). Plasma ghrelin decreased in comparison with baseline only after patients consumed the LGI-HF and LGI-LF breakfasts (P ≤ 0.05). Subjective satiety did not differ between breakfasts.
Plasma glucose, insulin, and ghrelin responses were least favorable when patients with type 2 diabetes consumed a breakfast with a high GI and low fiber, which suggests that reducing the GI or increasing the fiber content or both of breakfasts may be a useful strategy to improve the postprandial metabolic profile of these patients.
breakfast  blood  protein  glucose  metabolism  peer-reviewed  research  response  insulin  fiber  high  low  glycemic  index  ghrelin  correlation  comparison 
september 2017 by Michael.Massing
Effects of breakfast meal composition on second meal metabolic responses in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. - PubMed - NCBI
Two different breakfast meals were administered during the intervention: (A) a high glycemic load breakfast meal consisting of farina (kJ 1833; carbohydrate (CHO) 78 g and psylium soluble fiber 0 g), (B) a low-glycemic load breakfast meal consisting of a fiber-loop cereal (kJ 1515; CHO 62 g and psyllium soluble fiber 6.6 g). A standardized lunch was provided approximately 4 h after breakfast. Blood plasma concentrations and area under the curve (AUC) values for glucose, insulin and FFA were measured in response to the breakfast and mid-day lunch. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS software (8.02). Comparisons between diets were based on adjusted Bonferroni t-tests.
In post-breakfast analyses, Breakfast B had significantly lower area under the curve (AUC) values for plasma glucose and insulin compared to Breakfast A (P<0.05) (95% confidence level). The AUC values for FFA were higher for Breakfast B than for Breakfast A (P<0.05) (95% confidence level). Post-lunch analyses indicated similar glucose responses for the two breakfast types. Insulin AUC values for Breakfasts B were significantly lower than Breakfast A (P<0.05) (95% confidence level). The AUC values for FFA were unaffected by breakfast type.
These data indicate that ingesting a low-glycemic load meal containing psyllium soluble fiber at breakfast significantly improves the breakfast postprandial glycemic, insulinemic and FFA responses in adults with Type 2 DM. These data revealed no residual postprandial effect of the psyllium soluble fiber breakfast meal beyond the second meal consumed. Thus, there was no evidence of an improvement postprandially in the glycemic, insulinemic and FFA responses after the consumption of the lunch meal.
breakfast  blood  lunch  protein  glucose  metabolism  second-meal  phenomenon  peer-reviewed  research  response  insulin  fiber  high  low  glycemic  index 
september 2017 by Michael.Massing
Timing of Peak Blood Glucose after Breakfast Meals of Different Glycemic Index in Women with Gestational Diabetes
There was no significant difference in subjective satiety throughout the test period. In conclusion, the low GI breakfast produced lower postprandial glycemia, and the peak PBGL [postprandial blood glucose level] occurred closer to the time recommended for PBGL monitoring (i.e., 1 h postprandial) in GDM than a macronutrient matched high GI breakfast.
breakfast  glucose  metabolism  appetite  diabetes  gestational  peak  postprandial  blood  SMBG  self  care  glycemic  index  high  timing  monitoring  excursion  spike  peer-reviewed  research 
september 2017 by Michael.Massing
Increasing Adiposity | Lifestyle Behaviors | JAMA | The JAMA Network
Ninety years ago, an editorial in JAMA questioned the prevailing approach to obesity treatment: “When we read that ‘the fat woman has the remedy in her own hands—or rather between her own teeth’ . . . there is an implication that obesity is usually merely the result of unsatisfactory dietary bookkeeping. . . [Although logic suggests that body fat] may be decreased by altering the balance sheet through diminished intake, or increased output, or both . . . [t]he problem is not really so simple and uncomplicated as it is pictured.”1 Since then, billions of dollars have been spent on research into the biological factors affecting body weight, but the near-universal remedy remains virtually the same, to eat less and move more. According to an alternative view, chronic overeating represents a manifestation rather than the primary cause of increasing adiposity. Attempts to lower body weight without addressing the biological drivers of weight gain, including the quality of the diet, will inevitably fail for most individuals. This Viewpoint summarizes the evidence for this seemingly counterintuitive hypothesis, versions of which have been debated for more than a century.2
fat  management  control  carbohydrates  insulin  high  glycemic  processed  food  peer-reviewed  research  correlation  causation  diet  foods 
july 2017 by Michael.Massing
Always Hungry? Here’s Why - The New York Times
As it turns out, many biological factors affect the storage of calories in fat cells, including genetics, levels of physical activity, sleep and stress. But one has an indisputably dominant role: the hormone insulin. We know that excess insulin treatment for diabetes causes weight gain, and insulin deficiency causes weight loss. And of everything we eat, highly refined and rapidly digestible carbohydrates produce the most insulin.
fat  management  control  carbohydrates  insulin  high  glycemic  processed  food  peer-reviewed  research  correlation  causation  diet  foods  genetic  risk  genetics 
july 2017 by Michael.Massing
The effects of low dose n-3 fatty acids on serum lipid profiles and insulin resistance of the elderly: a randomized controlled clinical trial. - PubMed - NCBI
This study assessed the effects of low-dose n-3 fatty acids on serum lipid profile, lipoprotein(a), apolipoprotein B, fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in a group of elderly Iranians.
A 6-month randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 124 elderly residents of Kahrizak Charity Foundation aged >or= 65. The intervention group was supplemented with 1 g/day fish oil capsule (with 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA; and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid, DHA; a total of 300 mg n-3 fatty acids as effective constituents). Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and after 6 months of the trial.
There were no significant effects of fish oil on the studied variables in the intervention group. In the placebo group, serum triglyceride significantly increased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased (p = 0.01 and p = 0.009, respectively). By repeated measurement analysis after adjustments, the overall decrease in serum triglycerides compared with placebo was significant (p = 0.04).
Supplementation with low dose n-3 fatty acids for 6 months could significantly protect elderly Iranians from a rise in serum triglycerides.
supplements  fish  oil  EPA  cholesterol  dyslipidemia  high  risk  benefit  blood  lipids  insulin  resistance  aging  peer-reviewed  research  in  vivo  human  clinical  trial 
march 2017 by Michael.Massing
Hypercholesterolaemic effect of fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. - PubMed - NCBI
The effect of the daily administration of Max EPA fish oil (equivalent to 2.7 g per day of eicosapentaenoic acid) on serum lipid levels was examined in insulin-dependent male diabetic patients with cholesterol levels of less than 6.5 mmol/L. After three weeks of fish-oil supplementation there was a significant rise in total cholesterol levels, which was due largely to increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- cholesterol levels. The increase in HDL-cholesterol levels was accounted for by its HDL2 subclass. There was a decrease in serum triglyceride levels, but this was also observed in a control group of diabetic patients who did not receive fish oil and is probably explained by weight loss in this group. Similar changes in lipid levels were found in a subgroup of diabetic patients with retinopathy. The possible detrimental effect of the increase in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels after Max EPA fish oil at this dose may be offset by the selective rise in the protective HDL2 subclass.
supplements  fish  oil  EPA  cholesterol  dyslipidemia  high  risk  benefit  blood  lipids  retinopathy  correlation  peer-reviewed  research 
february 2017 by Michael.Massing
What I actually eat (circa Q4 2011) - The Eating Academy | Peter Attia, M.D. The Eating Academy | Peter Attia, M.D.
The reason I typically minimize egg whites, at least when making my own eggs, is to ensure I keep protein intake under about 125 grams per day.   Ketosis is pretty easy to attain if one is eating, say, 2500 calories per day. 
diet  food  nutrition  LCHF  low  carb  carbohydrate  high  fat  ketosis  nutritional  protein  Peter  Attia 
june 2016 by Michael.Massing
Why Is the Federal Government Afraid of Fat? - The New York Times
Recent research has established the futility of focusing on low-fat foods. Confirming many other observations, large randomized trials in 2006 and 2013 showed that a low-fat diet had no significant benefits for heart disease, stroke, diabetes or cancer risks, while a high-fat, Mediterranean-style diet rich in nuts or extra-virgin olive oil — exceeding 40 percent of calories in total fat — significantly reduced cardiovascular disease, diabetes and long-term weight gain. Other studies have shown that high-fat diets are similar to, or better than, low-fat diets for short-term weight loss, and that types of foods, rather than fat content, relate to long-term weight gain.
food  diet  fat  Mediterranean  lchf  low  high  carbohydrates  carb  fats  body  weight  management  loss  maintenance 
march 2016 by Michael.Massing
Making a Case for Eating Fat - The New York Times
I think we have to get rid of the prevailing dogma that all calories are the same, and that we just need to exercise more and eat less, which is what the food industry and the government promote. The truth is that you can’t exercise your way out of a bad diet. Metabolism is not a math problem. It’s a hormonal problem. Food is not just energy. It’s information. It’s instructions that turn on or off different switches in your body that regulate hunger and metabolism. Obesity is not about how much you eat. It’s about what you eat. If you just focus on quality, not calories, then the quantity takes care of itself....

I have to protect myself from myself because I’ll eat whatever if I’m hungry in an airport. So I always carry packets of almond butter, cashew butter, an Evolution bar, a Bulletproof bar, a Tanka bar and a KIND bar. I basically have fat and protein as my snacks, and I have enough food in my bag to last an entire day so I don’t make bad choices.
lchf  low  carb  high  fat  carbohydrates  diet  nutrition  howto  travel  tips 
march 2016 by Michael.Massing
The Truth About the Low-Carb High-Fat Diet for Weight Loss | Shape Magazine
“Athletes I work with say that once they got used to the diet, they feel better than they ever have before, their performance is potentially better—but certainly no worse—and they don’t have sugar cravings or mood swings like when they were trying to fuel with carbs"....

Whether or not it improves performance, teaching your body to pull from your fat reserves—which you can do by simply switching to the diet—does offer better blood sugar stability, Fear adds. This helps prevent hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar....

A study last year in the Annals of Internal Medicine made one of the most convincing cases yet: Researchers found that men and women who switched to a low-carb diet lost 14 pounds after one year—eight pounds more than those who limited their fat intake instead. The high-fat group also maintained more muscle, trimmed more body fat, and increased their protein intake more than their carb-heavy counterparts. These results are promising not only because researchers looked at the diet long-term, but also because they didn’t limit how many calories the participants could eat, debunking the idea that LCHF only works as well as any other calorie-capped diet.
lchf  low  carb  high  fat  carbohydrates  metabolism  weight  loss  athletic  performance  endurance  hypoglycemia  glucose  management  peer-reviewed  research  diet 
february 2016 by Michael.Massing
A New Proposed Classification of Diabetes: No More Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes
Based on new research performed by Stanley Schwartz and affiliates, there is a new proposition for using a β-cell centered model for diabetes, which supports the notion that all diabetes originates from an abnormal pancreatic β-cell. Type 1 diabetes has been thought of as an ailment of low insulin production, while type 2 has usually been of insulin resistance. This discrepancy is not clear or helpful. Schwartz and colleagues suppose all diabetes is a product of impairment to beta cells (which produce insulin) and according to this theory, insulin resistance just reveals the rudimentary deficiency in insulin production. Only one-third of individuals with insulin resistance will go on to develop diabetes. The basis of the new classification system is treatment of patients as individuals though currently most prescribers will initiate treatment based on a diagnosis instead of the person. Schwartz believes that diabetes is rooted to β-cell and because of this, classification of diabetes types should be based on causes of that damage so physicians will know how to go about treatment. This “β-cell centric” criterion recognizes that β-cell damage can be caused by inflammation, immune actions, gut biome, high fatty acids, high glucose levels, genetics and other causes; categorization founded on these sources can help cultivate an improved treatment strategy, as opposed to simply knocking down an individual’s glucose level. Defining key markers and the processes of care in using them will allot appropriate patient-centric approaches with either currently established medications or an up-and-coming drug.
diabetes  type  1  2  T1D  T2D  etiology  classification  beta  cell  treatment  strategy  autoimmune  immune  system  disorder  gut  biome  high  fatty  acids  glucose  blood  genetics  β-cell  factor  risk  genetic 
february 2016 by Michael.Massing
Google+ Now Allows Full-Rez Photos! | Stuck in Customs
Link format changed. Best to bypass G+, share link from Gdrive?
photo  publishing  online  high  resolution  hi-res  howto 
december 2014 by Michael.Massing
Bikers, walkers make for healthier cities, report finds
[The Alliance for Biking and Walking]'s Benchmarking Report biennially documents bicycling and walking trends in all 50 states, in the nation's 50 most populous cities and in 17 mid-size cities.

They found that Memphis (36.8%) and Detroit (33%) have the highest levels of obesity among large cities and also some of the lowest bicycling and walking rates — 2.1% and 3.4%, respectively. Conversely, San Francisco and Oakland had the lowest combined obesity rate at 18.6% and above-average walking and biking rates, 13.1% for San Francisco and 6.7% for Oakland.

However, the trend didn't hold true for all cities: New Orleans, Baltimore, Philadelphia and Chicago are among the top 15 cities for walking and biking commuters but also have above-average obesity rates.

Mississippi and Alabama have the highest statewide levels of both high blood pressure and diabetes; they also have bicycling and walking levels below the national average....

[C]ities and states that have higher biking and walking rates also have lower fatality rates for bikers and walkers than cities where fewer people bike and walk.

For example, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D.C., have some of the nation's lowest annual bicyclist fatality rates, at 0.9, 1.1 and 1.1 deaths per 10,000 daily bike commuters, respectively. Detroit and Memphis had some of the highest bicyclist fatality rates, at 39.8 and 36 bicyclists killed per 10,000 daily bike commuters, respectively....

Nationally, bikers and walkers, who account for 11.4% of all trips, constitute 14.9% of all highway fatalities....

Just 1% of all trips taken in the USA are by bicycle and 10.4% are on foot. Among commuters, 0.6% bike to work and 2.8% walk; the numbers are a little higher in large cities, where 1% bike to work and 5% walk.

Miller says federal spending on bicycling and walking projects is disproportionately low, with just 2.1% of federal transportation dollars going to such projects.
research  correlation  bicycling  walking  commuting  activity  exercise  diabetes  type  2  T2D  obesity  high  blood  pressure  hypertension  urban  design  traffic  engineering  risk  treatment  peer-reviewed 
april 2014 by Michael.Massing
Can Diuretics, Statins, and Beta Blockers Increase Diabetes Risk?
A reanalysis of the previous NAVIGATOR trial found that beginning diuretic or statin therapy in patients with an impaired glucose tolerance led to a greater risk of developing diabetes than those who were not started on these medications.
Beginning a beta blocker or a calcium channel blocker in patients with an impaired glucose tolerance was found to have no increased risk of developing diabetes compared to patients who did not begin these medications.
When starting patients with an impaired glucose tolerance on a diuretic or a statin, encourage them to make healthy lifestyle changes in order to avoid developing diabetes.
BMJ, December 2013
drug  effects  beta  blocker  risk  benefit  statin  diuretic  diabetes  T2D  type  2  high  blood  pressure  correlation  peer-reviewed  research  treatment  statins  comorbidities  hypertension 
january 2014 by Michael.Massing
Adhering to Diet Recommendations Lowers Metabolic Syndrome Risks
For this study the researchers focused on 175 people who displayed at least two criteria for metabolic syndrome. Either high blood pressure, high fasting plasma glucose concentration or abnormal blood lipid profile or they were [a] little overweight. On four days, their intake of nutrients was monitored using food diaries.

They noticed that nearly 80 percent of the participants' diet was high in saturated fat. And in one-third of the participants, there was [in?]sufficient intake of soft, polyunsaturated fat. The intake of dietary fiber was too low in 75 percent of subjects and 65 percent of them had high levels of salt. Twenty percent of them had insufficient intake of vitamin D and one third of men and one fourth of women had taken an excess of alcohol.

"The low adherence to nutrition recommendations is likely to further increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, and the results indicate that the Nordic countries should increasingly invest in dietary assessments and counselling aimed at persons exhibiting features of metabolic syndrome," the researchers explain.

Food & Nutrition Research, January, 2-14
diet  correlation  peer-reviewed  research  metabolic  syndrome  etiology  high  blood  pressure  cholesterol  fats  lipids  overweight  sodium  salt  alcohol  glucose  dysglycemia  dyslipidemia  self  care  intervention  treatment  fiber  saturated  fat  polyunsaturated  vitamin  D  cardiovascular  risk  hypertension 
january 2014 by Michael.Massing
White Rice Increases Risk of Type 2 Diabetes | Sun Q. BMJ.com 2012-03-15
[Researchers analysed the results of four studies on white rice consumption and diabetes risk: two in China and Japan and two in the USA and Australia]. All participants were diabetes free at study baseline.
White rice is the predominant type of rice eaten worldwide and has [a high glycemic index]. High GI diets are associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. [Chinese eat an average of four portions a day while Westerners eat fewer] than five portions a week.
A significant trend was found in both Asian and Western countries with a stronger association found amongst women than men. [The] authors estimate that the risk of type 2 diabetes is increased by 10% with each increased serving of white rice (assuming 158g per serving).
White rice has a lower content of nutrients than brown rice including fibre, magnesium and vitamins, some of which are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. [Low intake of these nutrients may increase risk in addition to the high glycemic index and glycemic load.]
white  rice  foods  risk  diet  medical  research  peer-reviewed  high  glycemic  index  gender  differential  diabetes  type  2  T2D  fiber  micronutrients  earnest  starches  carbohydrates  correlation  factor  etiology 
march 2012 by Michael.Massing
Regardless of Sedentary Time, Exercise Improves Risk Factors | Ekelund U, Luan J, Sherar LB, et al. JAMA 2012; 307:704-712. U et al.
Children and adolescents participating in moderate to vigorous physical activity have a lower cardiometabolic risk profile. [Physical activity correlated with better waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and insulin in study subjects] regardless of the amount of time they spend sedentary.
[Based on the findings,] children should be encouraged to increase their participation in physical activity] rather than decrease the amount of time they spend sedentary, "as this appears more important in relation to cardiometabolic health."
[In pooled data from 14 studies (1998-2009) connected to the International Children's Accelerometry Database.] the time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity has a weak to moderate association with the amount of time children spend sedentary, and this had suggested that both variables might be independently associated with cardiometabolic risk.
[A]ctivities ingrained early in life set the stage for what individuals do in their later and older years. "We're living in an age right now where it's so easy to do no physical activity at all...kids can basically go through an entirely normal childhood existence where, unless they're forced or choose to play sports, they don't have to do anything. This study shows that the more activity that you do, even if it's outside the context of typical exercise, really does make a difference."
In the ICAD analysis, 20,871 children and adolescents from Australia, Brazil, Europe, and the US had [physical-activity levels] monitored for an average of 5.2 days using the accelerometer, and the mean daily time spent engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity was 30 minutes. The mean daily time spent sedentary was 354 minutes.
Kids in the [most active] tertile spent more than 35 minutes per day engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity, whereas those in the bottom tertile were moderately or vigorously active just 18 minutes per day. The mean difference in waist circumference between the most active and least active kids with the most sedentary time was 5.6 cm [and 3.6 cm] in those with less sedentary time. Similarly, the difference in systolic blood pressure between the most active and least active kids with the most sedentary time was 0.7 mm Hg[, while there was a 2.6-mm-Hg difference] between the most active and least active kids who reported less sedentary time. The variations in HDL cholesterol, insulin, and triglyceride levels were similar when analyzed by physical-activity levels and sedentary time.
Overall, the results showed that higher levels of physical activity were associated with better cardiometabolic risk factors across the tertiles of sedentary time. In contrast, sedentary time was not associated with any of metabolic outcomes independent of the time engaged in moderate and vigorous activities. The researchers note that they did not qualify what specific activities the children were engaged in while being sedentary. For this reason, reducing television viewing time is still considered an important goal of parents and public-health policy because TV watching is also associated with other unhealthy behaviors, such as snacking and drinking soda.
child  development  exercise  prevention  mitigation  risk  cardiovascular  heart  circulation  parenting  waist  circumference  blood  pressure  triglycerides  HDL  cholesterol  insulin  belly  fat  medical  research  peer-reviewed  metabolism  physical  activity  screen  time  public  health  prognostic  markers  data  children  youth  behavior  self  care  correlation  factor  hypertension  high  treatment 
february 2012 by Michael.Massing
African-Americans More Likely to Develop Hypertension But Less Likely to Take Life-Saving Medication | Lewis L. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2012.
Racial disparities in hypertension control account for nearly 8,000 preventable deaths annually among African-Americans, making increased blood pressure control among African-Americans a “compelling goal"...
African-Americans commonly develop hypertension at a younger age, are less likely to have their blood pressure under control, and disproportionately suffer strokes and fatality when compared with their Caucasian counterparts[:] a 30% greater rate of non-fatal stroke, an 80% greater rate of fatal stroke, and a staggering 420% greater rate of end-stage kidney disease for African-Americans...
[Only 51% of all patients with hypertension adhere to their medications;] adherence rates are even lower for African-American patients.
Dr. Lewis identified self-efficacy, depression, and patient-provider communication among the factors in medication nonadherence. She called for further study, but advised that these factors are important for healthcare providers to consider when treating hypertensive African-American patients.
“Increasing blood pressure control requires a comprehensive approach...Given that self-efficacy and patient-provider communication are modifiable factors, they can be the focus of interventions to increase medication adherence. [Clinicians also] may want to screen their hypertensive patients for depression...”
racial  health  disparities  race  African-Americans  risk  treatment  self  care  hypertension  high  blood  pressure  epidemiology  demographics  stroke  morbidity  mortality  kidney  disease  what.I'm.reading  T2D  research  diabetes  correlation  peer-reviewed  genetic  genetics  management  public  literacy 
february 2012 by Michael.Massing
Fitness and Fatness Independently Linked with CVD Risk Factors | Lee D. Journal of the American College of Cardiology online 2012-02-06
Individuals who maintained or improved their fitness levels had a 26% and 28% lower risk of developing hypertension, a 42% and 52% lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome, and a 26% and 30% lower risk of developing elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, respectively....
[Subjects who got fatter in follow-up, as measured by percentage of body fat,] had a 26%, 71%, and 48% higher risk of developing hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and hypercholesterolemia, respectively...compared with individuals who lost weight. Similar results were observed when BMI was used as the criterion for fatness levels.
Every 1-MET improvement in fitness was associated with a 7%, 22%, and 12% lower risk of developing hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and hypercholesterolemia, respectively, while every unit increase in percentage of body fat was associated with a 4%, 10%, and 5% increased risk of developing the cardiovascular risk factors...
"In the real world, people change their fitness levels or fatness over time...Fitness and fatness, not the baseline levels, but the changes over time, are both independently important to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors."
[Patients who had stable or increasing amounts of fatness in combination with loss of fitness had significantly higher rates of cardiovascular risk factors when compared with] individuals who gained fitness over time and lost fat. They did observe that losing fitness regardless of fat changes and getting fatter irrespective of the change in fitness levels were associated with a higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The adverse effects of getting fatter were attenuated slightly if fitness was maintained or improved, while declines in fitness could be offset by reductions in body-fat percentage.
"Maintaining or improving fitness levels and preventing fat gain are both important, independent of the changes of each other...[T]he ideal combination is to improve fitness and prevent fat gain, but as long as individuals maintain fitness and fatness, they are not likely to be at higher risk of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Losing weight and gaining fitness is very challenging to the general population, but maintaining fitness and fatness are less so and more doable."
risk  fitness  fatness  body  fat  cardiovascular  hypertension  high  blood  pressure  metabolic  syndrome  hyperlipidemia  cholesterol  LDL  attenuation  mitigation  self  care  weight  loss  gain  independent  variables  what.I'm.reading  medical  research  peer-reviewed  hatmandu  earnest  T2D  diabetes  correlation  factor  etiology 
february 2012 by Michael.Massing
Elevated Glucose Associated with Undetected Heart Damage | Selvin E Rubin J et al. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2012.
[A new study] suggests that hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) injures the heart, even in patients without a history of heart disease or diabetes...[E]levated levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker for chronic hyperglycemia and diabetes, were associated with minute levels of the protein troponin T (cTnT), a blood marker for heart damage. The high-sensitivity test they used detected levels of cTnT tenfold lower than those found in patients diagnosed with a heart attack....[H]yperglycemia may be related to cardiac damage independent of atherosclerosis....
Higher levels of HbA1c were associated in a graded fashion with elevated levels of high-sensitivity cTnT. This relationship was present at HbA1c levels even below the threshold used to diagnose diabetes. Using conventional tests, troponin T can be detected in 0.7% of the population and is associated with heart attacks and death. With the high-sensitivity cTnT test, low levels of troponin were found in 66% of the study population....
"[G]lucose might not only be related to increased atherosclerosis, but potentially elevated glucose levels may directly damage cardiac muscle"...
risk  morbidity  mortality  atherosclerosis  blood  vessel  damage  glucose  sugar  high  dysglycemia  hyperglycemia  prognostic  medical  research  in  vivo  human  peer-reviewed  hemoglobin  A1c  marker  heart  cardiovascular  correlation  diagnosis  clinical  trial  threshold  diabetes 
february 2012 by Michael.Massing
Risks of Tight BP Control May Outweigh Benefits | Redon J et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;59:74-83.
There was no evidence of any adverse effect of low systolic blood pressure on any cardiovascular outcome, except for cardiovascular mortality, which was significantly increased in patients with a baseline systolic blood pressure below 130 mm Hg who had the greatest systolic blood pressure reduction.

When in-treatment systolic blood pressure was examined by decile, there was a progressive reduction in the incidence of stroke down to 115 mm Hg systolic blood pressure, whereas there was a J-curve relationship for the other outcomes. For cardiovascular death, the nadir of the J-curve was around 135.6 mm Hg for diabetic patients and 133.1 mm Hg for nondiabetic patients.

For diastolic blood pressure, the primary outcome was most common in patients with the lowest or highest in-trial diastolic blood pressure (for both diabetic and nondiabetic patients), regardless of the systolic blood pressure.

What are the therapeutic implications of these findings? "In both diabetic and nondiabetic patients, progressively greater systolic BP reductions were accompanied by reduced risk for the primary outcome only if baseline systolic BP levels ranged from 143 to 155 mm Hg," the authors say.

They continue, "Around or below an initial systolic blood pressure of 130 mm Hg, antihypertensive treatment should be implemented with caution because of the possibility of untoward cardiac effects that could counterbalance the beneficial consequences of aggressive blood pressure reduction for stroke. This might also apply to diastolic blood pressure values of 67 mm Hg or less."

"Clearly," they add, "more evidence from prospective trials is necessary to learn whether high-risk diabetic patients with blood pressure levels between 130 and 140 mm Hg should be treated to lower blood pressure levels."
high  blood  pressure  hypertension  treatment  self  care  targets  threshold  mortality  risk  benefit  tight  control  medical  research  peer-reviewed  diabetes  correlation  overtreatment 
february 2012 by Michael.Massing
Pollution Tied to Diabetes and Hypertension Risk | Coogan P et al. Circulation 2012-01-04
In a study of more than 4,000 black women in Los Angeles, those...living in neighborhoods with high levels of nitrogen oxides, pollutants found in traffic exhaust, were 25% more likely to develop diabetes and 14% more likely to develop hypertension than those living in sections with cleaner air.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, forty-four percent of all black women in the U.S. have high blood pressure and about 11% have diabetes, compared with 28% and roughly 7%, respectively, of white women. Black Americans are also exposed to higher levels of air pollution than white Americans...
The findings on their relative risks for those conditions take into account several other potential influences, including how heavy the women were, whether they smoked and other stressors, including noise levels at participants' homes.
The researchers measured average pollution levels near participants' homes for only one year and the patterns remained relatively constant over the entire study period. While Dr. Coogan and her colleagues estimated nitrogen oxide concentrations near participants' homes, they did not account for commuting habits or exposure to air pollution at work...Americans, on average, spend about 70% of their time at home.
In addition to measuring nitrogen oxides, a proxy for traffic pollution, the researchers evaluated levels of fine particulate matter. Women who lived in areas with higher fine particulate exposures also faced an increased risk of diabetes and high blood pressure, although statistically the link was weak and could have been due to chance.
Previous reports have suggested that air pollution particles small enough to make their way into the bloodstream may contribute to a narrowing of blood vessels, which can lead to high blood pressure and reduce sensitivity to insulin.
medical  research  peer-reviewed  geography  demographics  risk  pollution  air  high  blood  pressure  diabetes  hypertension  stress  particulates  inhaled  environment  exposure  circulation  theory  Black  women  African-American  correlation  poison  etiology  factor  type  2  T2D  environmental  public  health 
february 2012 by Michael.Massing
First [Surgical] Procedure in Canada Performed to Reduce High Blood Pressure in Patients Who Don’t Respond to Anti-Hypertension Drugs
[Health Canada approved the renal denervation] under the Special Access Program that allows practitioners to request access to procedures or drugs that are currently not otherwise approved for use in Canada...“This access is limited to patients with serious or life-threatening conditions on a compassionate or emergency basis when conventional therapies have failed, are unsuitable, or are unavailable"...
[The procedure has been shown to decrease] a patient’s systolic blood pressure from 160 to 130 mm Hg over a period of six months...
“In addition, renal denervation could also save the health care system countless millions of dollars by minimizing the need for anti-hypertension drugs that patients have to take, often for the rest of their lives, to say nothing of the millions more in savings from not having to treat heart attacks and strokes that don’t happen.”
The procedure['s effects were first] reported in a clinical trial published in the December 4, 2010 issue of The Lancet. [Cardiologists from Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and several European countries deactivated] the nerves located on the outside of the artery that feeds blood to the kidney, with a resulting drop in blood pressure. It has been known for over 50 years that the kidney plays a defining role in determining blood pressure.
hypertension  high  blood  pressure  surgery  intervention  surgical  treatment  kidneys  renal  medical  research  peer-reviewed  earnest  kidney  disease  nephropathy 
january 2012 by Michael.Massing
Benefits of Tight Blood Pressure Control in Diabetic Patients With Hypertension
In 2008, when the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) group presented their 30-year findings concerning the possible sustained effects of improved glycemic control after 10 years of extended follow-up in type 2 diabetic patients, a so-called “legacy effect” was reported to address the long-term emergent and/or sustained benefits of early improved glycemic control. Opposite results were obtained by the Hypertension in Diabetes Study (HDS) carried out in the frame of UKPDS, with no evidence of any legacy effect on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes for an initial 4-year period of tight blood pressure (BP) control. Thus, it was concluded that BP control has to be continued over time, since, although it had a short time-to-effect relationship in preventing stroke, BP control was associated with a short persistence of its clinical benefits once the intervention was discontinued. These findings are unique because, whereas most interventional trials in hypertension that included diabetic patients have shown a reduction in CV outcomes shortly after starting treatment, only the UKPDS-HDS specifically explored the possible persistence of clinical benefits after discontinuing intensive BP-lowering intervention. This article aims to provide a critical interpretation of the UKPDS findings of lack of BP legacy, in the context of the currently available evidence on the benefits of antihypertensive treatment. The importance of effective BP control in type 2 diabetic patients to prevent CV outcomes and other diabetes-related complications is underlined, with emphasis on early, tight, and continuous BP control to optimize patients’ protection.
hyperglycemia  hypertension  high  blood  pressure  glucose  intervention  treatment  legacy  effect  early  aggressive  tight  control  what.I'm.reading  self  care  dysglycemia  morbidity  risk  medical  research  diabetes  T2D  correlation  benefit  self-monitored  monitoring  SMBG  behavior  behavioral  peer-reviewed  dcde 
january 2012 by Michael.Massing
Early adverse effect of abnormal glucose metabolism on arterial stiffness in drug naïve hypertensive patients
Among hypertensive subjects with [normal glucose regulation] there was an increase in [estimated arterial stiffness] from low normal to high normal values of glucose (p<0.01). [Arterial stiffness] was independently related to all glucose metabolic parameters (p<0.001 for all). In the present study, we demonstrated an association between arterial stiffness and glucose tolerance in hypertensive subjects. Given the prognostic significance of arterial stiffness, aims should be towards closer monitoring and intensive care of hypertensive patients with abnormal glucose metabolism.
glucose  metabolism  tolerance  impaired  dysglycemia  risk  heart  vascular  arterial  stiffness  normal  morbidity  comorbidities  hypertension  high  blood  pressure  correlation 
january 2012 by Michael.Massing
Selected Abstracts
selected from page 1 of search results for "Effects of perceived racism and anger inhibition on ambulatory blood pressure in African Americans."
racism  research  blood  pressure  anger  social  support  correlation  hypertension  high  risk  from delicious
july 2011 by Michael.Massing
Salt Intake and High Blood Pressure Not Related?
[World Action on Salt Health says] evidence connecting high blood pressure to high salt intake is as strong as the evidence that links lung cancer to cigarette smoking. [Studies include: genetic, epidemiological, mortality, population, migration, intervention, and treatment.]<br />
[Studies and statistics suggest 90%] of Americans will develop high blood pressure in their lives. Population studies conducted in Japan in the 1950s found...salt consumption and deaths from stroke were among the highest in the world, particularly in north Japan. The Japanese government initiated a successful health campaign to reduce salt intake[,] which helped decrease the levels of high blood pressure in children as well as bring about an 80% reduction in stroke mortality. At the same time, there was a huge reduction of cigarette smoking, excessive weight gain, and alcohol consumption. <br />
Similar studies were conducted in North Karelia, Finland which also resulted in a healthier and longer lived population.
salt  diet  risk  hypertension  high  blood  pressure  medical  research  earnest  correlation  cancer  peer-reviewed  from delicious
june 2011 by Michael.Massing
Deaths no higher in coffee lovers with heart disease | Lopez-Garcia E. | via Reuters
[Among nearly 12,000 US nurses with a history of heart disease or stroke, regular coffee drinkers were no more likely to die than non-drinkers during a study spanning over 20 years for some subjects. No link was found between coffee intake and risk of death from heart attack, stroke or any other cause—even among women who drank 4 or more cups a day]. <br />
[The long-running Nurses' Health Study began tracking more than 100,000 female nurses in 1976. The new research focuses on 11,697 women who developed heart disease or had a stroke from 1976 to 2002.] Of those women, 62% continued to drink [unde]caffeinated coffee after their diagnosis. <br />
Overall, 1159 women had died by 2004. That risk was no greater among coffee drinkers than non-drinkers, including women who drank at least four 4 cups a day.... <br />
Some research [links coffee to increased blood pressure in those who metabolize caffeine slowly; the reverse pattern shows] in people who quickly process caffeine—more coffee, lower heart risks.
coffee  risk  drug  effects  heart  cardiovascular  women  mortality  vaiables  genetics  metabolism  caffeine  medical  research  blood  pressure  high  hypertension  correlation  from delicious
june 2011 by Michael.Massing
Kidney Risk Determined Early in Life | Chang A, et al "Lifestyle behaviors and incident chronic kidney disease: The CARDIA study" NKF 2011 Spring Clinical Meetings; Abstract 61 | via DiabetesInControl
"Risk of kidney disease among people who eat what doesn't look at all like a DASH diet is about twice the risk as someone who eats a diet [like the DASH diet. Smoking increases risk 50%; obesity, nearly threefold]"... <br />
"Smoking, little activity, poor diet...obesity, the risk of kidney disease increases with [each unhealthy lifestyle habit." One factor doubles risk, 2 triple the risk, 3-4 factors increase risk] more than fourfold.<br />
"[Lifestyle factors] can affect other disease processes that affect kidney disease...In the DASH diet...there is potassium in fruits and vegetables. There is citrate which is a base that may help fight acid loads... <br />
"Obesity is bad for everything—heart disease, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, cholesterol [could all] exacerbate any predisposition you have for kidney disease—and probably is an additive factor as well. <br />
"This study is the first to show that [these cardiac and other risk factors] also increase the risk of kidney disease,"
diet  DASH  hypertension  high  blood  pressure  risk  kidney  disease  medical  research  obesity  body  fat  DiabetesInControl  earnest  correlation  peer-reviewed  morbidity  comorbidities  from delicious
june 2011 by Michael.Massing
Vinegar Decreases Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes
Fasting BG was similar in the vinegar [and placebo experiments (5.5 ± 0.2 mmol/l)] and remained comparable until 30 min postprandially (7.4 ± 0.4 vs. 7.7 ± 0.6 mmol/l, respectively). In the placebo experiments, BG continued to rise thereafter with a peak (11.6 ± 1 mmol/l) at 94 min, whereas after the consumption of vinegar, BG increased to 8.6 ± 0.9 mmol/l (P = 0.005) and remained unaltered without postprandial spikes until the end of the experiment. As a result, vinegar compared to placebo reduced BG (AUC0−240 min 1,884 ± 169 vs. 2,282 ± 195 mmol/l*min, P = 0.01) by almost 20%. <br />
Basal and postprandial (AUC0−240 min) plasma insulin levels were the same in the vinegar [and placebo] experiments.... <br />
Previous studies have shown that vinegar delays gastric emptying. Moreover, acetic acid has been shown to suppress disaccharidase activity and to enhance glycogen repletion in liver and muscle. <br />
Two tablespoons of vinegar could be easily used as a complementary food...to reduce hyperglycemia.
vinegar  diabetes  treatment  diet  type  1  complementary  therapy  folk  remedies  blood  glucose  sugar  high  self  care  hyperglycemia  dysglycemia  morbidity  risk  medical  research  T1D  correlation  liver  fatty  body  fat  metabolic  syndrome  disorder  etiology  T2D  peer-reviewed  factor  from delicious
june 2011 by Michael.Massing
Whole-Grain Foods As Effective As Medication For High Blood Pressure | Tighe P, Thies F et al. Am J Clin Nutr vol. 92 no. 4 733-740 doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2010.29417
[In 200 healthy, middle-aged volunteers, three portions of whole-grain foods per day lowered systolic blood pressure 5-6 mmHg, comparable to the effect of common hypertension drugs.] <br />
Some of the study-participants were given three servings of whole-grain foods each day, in the form of wheat, or both wheat with oats, while the rest received refined cereals and white bread (made of refined flour). <br />
[Both groups] were encouraged to eat what they normally ate apart from consuming their apportioned servings.... <br />
"We observed a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 5-6 mm Hg in the volunteers who ate the whole-grain foods, and this effect is similar to that you might expect to get from using blood pressure-lowering drugs.<br />
<br />
"This drop in systolic blood pressure could potentially decrease the incidence of heart attack and stroke disease by at least 15 and 25% respectively. <br />
"It's also good news for the food industry and especially for Scottish food producers."
hypertension  high  blood  pressure  risk  benefit  diet  oats  effects  medical  research  drug  food  earnest  correlation  treatment  peer-reviewed  whole  grain  from delicious
june 2011 by Michael.Massing
Sugar Increases Blood Pressure | Hypertension April, 2011 | via DiabetesInControl.com
[High fructose may lead to higher blood pressure.] While fructose is also the main sugar in fruit, fruit contains vitamins and fiber that in most cases, block [its negative effects. Study subjects took a daily 200 grams of fructose, nearly 3 times the amount] the average man consumes. After only 2 weeks of this high-fructose diet, subjects showed significant increases in blood pressure and other symptoms thought to be precursors for heart disease and Type 2 diabetes, such as higher fasting blood sugar levels and higher cholesterol. [Those at risk for heart disease have been advised to reduce their salt intake, as this can raise blood pressure;] these findings suggest that sugar intake may have to be kept in check as well [S]oda and other drinks sweetened with sugar are associated with higher blood pressure. And the more sugar as well as sodium (also found in abundance in most sodas) people consumed, the higher blood pressure spiked upwards.
sugar  blood  pressure  diet  risk  sodium  salt  fructose  glucose  cholesterol  lipids  fats  DiabetesInControl.com  self  care  food  sugars  earnest  factor  correlation  hypertension  high  from delicious
may 2011 by Michael.Massing
Fatal and Nonfatal Outcomes, Incidence of Hypertension, and Blood Pressure Changes in Relation to Urinary Sodium Excretion, May 4, 2011, Stolarz-Skrzypek et al. 305 (17): 1777 — JAMA
Conclusions In this population-based cohort, systolic blood pressure, but not diastolic pressure, changes over time aligned with change in sodium excretion, but this association did not translate into a higher risk of hypertension or CVD complications. Lower sodium excretion was associated with higher CVD mortality.
salt  sodium  risk  benefit  public  health  medical  research  diet  cardiovascular  mortality  hypertension  high  blood  pressure  JAMA  earnest  correlation  from delicious
may 2011 by Michael.Massing
Low Salt Increases Stroke And Heart Attack Risk? New Study Says So, Many Disagree
[A new study finds] low salt intake does not prevent hypertension and raises heart attack and stroke risk. [S]ome of its limitations have exacerbated the salt debate to new heights. Even [the CDC, in a highly unusual step, pointed out flaws in the study's conclusions]...<br />
Researchers from the University of Leuven, Belgium, measured urinary salt (sodium) levels in 3,681 [subjects over 8 years;] 1,499 completed every scheduled urine test. When the study began, none of them had any cardiovascular disease [and] 2,096 had normal blood pressure levels...[T]hose with lower salt intake over [8 years] had a higher risk of heart attack and stroke... <br />
[T]his is not the first study to point to a higher death risk among low salt intakers....Dr. Michael Alderman from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine [also found] low salt intake meant a higher risk of death. Dr. Alderman [edits the American Journal of Hypertension, and] used to be an unpaid consultant for the Salt Institute.
salt  sodium  risk  benefit  public  health  medical  research  diet  cardiovascular  mortality  hypertension  high  blood  pressure  earnest  correlation  treatment  peer-reviewed  from delicious
may 2011 by Michael.Massing
[Prevalence of complications and comorbidities in ... [Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2008] - PubMed result
Complications and comorbidities of type 2 diabetes account for high costs and reduced life expectancy. There are only incomplete data on the prevalence of those secondary disorders in Germany. <br />
A total of 390,459 data sets of single patients in Bavaria, who were enrolled to disease management program "type 2 diabetes" between 2004 and 2006, were studied. Data obtained from the initial visit documentation were screened retrospectively and analyzed with statistical methods. <br />
About three-fourths of the diabetic population have hypertension. Adiposity and lipometabolic disorder each are found in half of the population. Macro- and microangiopathic disease each occur in about twenty percent. Calculated prevalences of nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy are lower than expected. <br />
Complications of type 2 diabetes were frequently observed in the study population. With regard to neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy type-2-diabetics should be examined even more thoroughly.
comorbidities  diabetes  complications  late-stage  symptoms  CVD  cardiovascular  heart  disease  kidneys  eyes  risk  prevalence  retinopathy  neuropathy  blood  pressure  adiposity  obesity  dyslipidemia  lipids  fats  cholesterol  kidney  nephropathy  late  end-stage  hypertension  high  correlation  body  fat  from delicious
april 2011 by Michael.Massing
Weight-Loss Surgery Cuts Risks for Severely Obese, Heart Association Says | Poirier P. Circulation | via American Diabetes Association
The American Heart Association (AHA) has concluded that severely obese people can benefit from weight–loss surgery. <br />
[T]he AHA said that gastric bypass and gastric–banding operations may lead to weight loss and improvements in diabetes‚ cholesterol‚ and blood pressure that could outweigh the hazards of surgery. "At the moment‚ bariatric surgery should be reserved for patients who can undergo surgery safely‚ have severe obesity‚ and have failed attempts at medical therapy‚" says Paul Poirier‚ lead author...More studies should be conducted to look into the weight–loss procedures in adults and children. This is the first time that the AHA has directly addressed the issue‚ and it now considers the surgery a "treatment of choice" for people with a body–mass index of 40 or higher‚ says Robert Eckel‚ past AHA president and a professor of medicine at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. These surgeries have also been found to reverse diabetes in many patients.
bariatric  surgery  obesity  risk  benefit  via:heart.org  via:diabetes.org  diabetes  cholesterol  blood  pressure  threshold  BMI  remission  hypertension  high  correlation  treatment  peer-reviewed  research  from delicious
april 2011 by Michael.Massing
Vegetarians at Lower Diabetes, Heart Risk | Rizzo, N. Diabetes Care online 2011-03-16 | via Diabetes In Control
[23 out of every 100 vegetarians showed] at least 3 metabolic syndrome factors, compared with 39 out of every 100 non-vegetarians and 37 out of every 100 semi-vegetarians....
"Is it primarily the meat intake, the plant food intake or a combination of both?" It's also possible that diet is not the cause; the research showed only an association between food choices and health factors, not cause-and-effect.

High BMI, for instance, one of the traits that make up the metabolic syndrome profile, itself contributes to high blood pressure, and indirectly, blood sugar, thereby potentially raising a person's risk of heart disease and diabetes.

The current study also did not follow the subjects over the long term to see whether those who abstained from meat actually had lower rates of diabetes or heart disease....

One of the differences Rizzo discovered [was age. Vegetarians averaged 3 years older than the meat-eaters yet were "in better shape...That's something I found quite interesting."
metabolic  syndrome  risk  via:DiabetesJournals.org  diet  vegetarian  benefit  diabetes  blood  sugar  cholesterol  HDL  glucose  pressure  triglycerides  waist  size  circumference  lipids  fats  medical  research  factor  earnest  meat  morbidity  mortality  peer-reviewed  correlation  type  2  T2D  BMI  analysis  age  conditioning  via:DiabetesInControl  hypertension  high  treatment  etiology  public  health  from delicious
april 2011 by Michael.Massing
Vegetarian Dietary Patterns Are Associated With a Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome | Rizzo et al. Diabetes Care online 2011/03/16
[We compared dietary patterns in relation to metabolic risk factors (MRFs) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) through cross-sectional analysis of 773 subjects (mean age 60) from the Adventist Health Study 2. Dietary pattern from a food-frequency questionnaire was] classified as vegetarian (35%), semi-vegetarian (16%), and non-vegetarian (49%). ANCOVA was used to determine associations between dietary pattern and MRFs (HDL, triglycerides, glucose, blood pressure, and waist circumference)...Logistic regression was used in calculating odds ratios (ORs) for MetS.

A vegetarian dietary pattern was associated with significantly lower means for all MRFs except [the inversely-correlated risk factor HDL, and a lower risk of having MetS] compared with a non-vegetarian dietary pattern.

CONCLUSIONS A vegetarian dietary pattern is associated with a more favorable profile of MRFs and a lower risk of MetS. The relationship persists after adjusting for lifestyle and demographic factors.
metabolic  syndrome  risk  via:DiabetesJournals.org  diet  vegetarian  benefit  diabetes  blood  sugar  cholesterol  HDL  glucose  pressure  triglycerides  waist  size  circumference  lipids  fats  medical  research  factor  earnest  meat  morbidity  mortality  peer-reviewed  correlation  type  2  T2D  BMI  analysis  age  conditioning  via:DiabetesInControl  hypertension  high  treatment  etiology  public  health  from delicious
april 2011 by Michael.Massing
Load Up on Fiber Now, Avoid Heart Disease Later | Ning H et al.
“High-fiber diets can help [lower weight, lower cholesterol and improve hypertension—the major determinants of] long-term risk for cardiovascular disease.” <br />
[The American Heart Association recommends] 25 grams of dietary fiber or more a day. Lloyd-Jones said you should strive to get this daily fiber intake from whole foods, not processed fiber bars, supplements and drinks.<br />
The study of a nationally representative sample of about 11,000 adults considered diet, blood pressure, total cholesterol, smoking status and history of diabetes in survey participants and then used a formula to predict lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease....“Younger (20 to 39 years) and middle-aged (40 to 59 years) adults with the highest fiber intake, compared to those with the lowest fiber intake, showed a statistically significant lower lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease.” <br />
In adults 60 to 79 years, dietary fiber intake was not significantly associated with a reduction in lifetime risk...
risk  blood  lipids  fats  body  fat  cholesterol  pressure  CVD  cardiovascular  disease  via:dLife.com  via:Heart.org  medical  research  prevention  factor  hypertension  high  correlation  treatment  peer-reviewed  from delicious
april 2011 by Michael.Massing
Govt Advising Americans to Eat Far Less Salt - American Diabetes Association
The U.S. Agriculture and Health and Human Services (HHS) departments [advise Americans over age 51]‚ all African Americans‚ and anyone with hypertension‚ diabetes‚ or chronic kidney disease to reduce [daily sodium intake to] little more than half a teaspoon per day. For everyone else‚ the government still recommends about a teaspoon a day‚ 2‚300 milligrams‚ which is about one–third less than the average consumption. The Institute of Medicine says that it may take years for consumers to become accustomed to a lower–salt diet. The government has issued its recommendations along with new dietary guidelines‚ which are issued about every five years. Dr. Howard Koh‚ assistant secretary at HHS‚ says that food companies must make cuts to accommodate the recommended salt reductions. The government guidelines say people should buy items labeled as low sodium‚ use little or no salt when cooking or eating‚ consume more foods prepared at home‚ and gradually reduce sodium intake.
salt  sodium  risk  group  reduction  heart  cardiovascular  blood  pressure  via:diabetes.org  hypertension  high  correlation  treatment  peer-reviewed  research  from delicious
april 2011 by Michael.Massing
Normal Fasting Plasma Glucose and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis
Subjects developed diabetes at a rate of less than 1% per year during a mean follow-up of 81.0 months. Each mg/dL of fasting plasma glucose increased diabetes risk by 6% (hazard ratio [HR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.07...) after controlling for other risk factors. Compared with those with fasting plasma glucose levels less than 85 mg/dL, subjects with glucose levels of 95 to 99 mg/dL were 2.33 times more likely to develop diabetes (HR 2.33; 95% CI, 1.95-2.79...). Subjects in the 90 to 94 mg/dL group were 49% more likely to progress to diabetes (HR 1.49; 95% CI, 1.23-1.79...). [P <.0001 in all caes] All other risk factors except sex were significantly associated with a diabetes diagnosis.
The strong independent association between the level of normal fasting plasma glucose and the incidence of diabetes after controlling for other risk factors suggests that diabetes risk increases as fasting plasma glucose levels increase, even within the currently accepted normal range.
normal  FPG  blood  glucose  standards  risk  high  threshold  cutoff  diabetes  medical  research  comorbidities  symptoms  late-stage  complications  morbidity  prediabetes  self  care  management  correlation  late  end-stage  diagnosis  prognostic  from delicious
april 2011 by Michael.Massing
Use of BP Medication in Non-Hypertensive Patients Shows Possible Risk Reduction of Stroke and CHF
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and globally, representing 30% of all deaths worldwide. "Cardiovascular disease risk increases beginning at systolic blood pressure levels of 115 mm Hg...In adults 55 years and older, lifetime risk of developing hypertension is greater than 90%.... <br />
[In a meta-analysis of 25 studies], the researchers found that there was a 23% reduction in risk of stroke; 29% reduction in risk of congestive heart failure (CHF) events; 15% reduction in risk of composite (a combination of disease outcomes) CVD events; and a 13% reduction in risk for all-cause mortality.
blood  pressure  risk  prevention  threshold  cutoff  heart  circulattion  target  mortality  cardiovascular  diabetes  links  what.I'm.reading  T2D  research  standards  diagnosis  hypertension  high  correlation  treatment  peer-reviewed  from delicious
april 2011 by Michael.Massing
Checking Your Blood Glucose - American Diabetes Association
Glycemic control
A1C <7.0%
Preprandial plasma glucose (before a meal) 70–130 mg/dl (5.0–7.2 mmol/l)
Postprandial plasma glucose (after a meal) <180 mg/dl (<10.0 mmol/l)
Blood pressure <130/80 mmHg
Lipids LDL <100 mg/dl (<2.6 mmol/l)
Triglycerides <150 mg/dl (<1.7 mmol/l)
HDL >40 mg/dl (>1.1 mmol/l)
blood  glucose  management  control  target  pressure  lipids  cholesterol  diabetes  monitoring  via:diabetes.org  self  care  hypertension  high  risk  correlation  from delicious
march 2011 by Michael.Massing
Insulin Resistance and Pre-diabetes
Metabolic syndrome is defined as the presence of any three of the following conditions:
* waist measurement of 40 inches or more for men and 35 inches or more for women
* triglyceride levels of 150 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or above, or taking medication for elevated triglyceride levels
* HDL, or “good,” cholesterol level below 40 mg/dL for men and below 50 mg/dL for women, or taking medication for low HDL levels
* blood pressure levels of 130/85 or above, or taking medication for elevated blood pressure levels
* fasting blood glucose levels of 100 mg/dL or above, or taking medication for elevated blood glucose levels....
[M]ost people with pre-diabetes develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years, unless they lose 5 to 7 percent of their body weight—about 10 to 15 pounds for someone who weighs 200 pounds—by making changes in their diet and level of physical activity. People with pre-diabetes also are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
insulin  resistance  prediabetes  diabetes  metrics  metabolic  syndrome  risk  factor  prevention  body  fat  via:NIDDK.NIH.gov  self  care  correlation  diet  T2D  type  2  research  peer-reviewed  waist  size  triglyceride  HDL  cholesterol  symptoms  blood  pressure  glucose  sugar  etiology  standards  diagnosis  hypertension  high  from delicious
march 2011 by Michael.Massing
The Real Lessons from ACCORD | Joslin Diabetes Center Blog
Another recently published study looking at the benefits of lower blood pressure and LDL cholesterol targets in people with Type 2 diabetes, used this language in their summary (excuse their ueber-academic style):
“As the effectiveness of therapy improves and new treatment strategies are widely applied, it is becoming more difficult to conduct a trial in which adequate numbers of clinical end points are achievable in a reasonable length of time for individuals without CVD (cardiovascular disease) at baseline.”
The translation: “Pesky patients with diabetes are living too long, and no one is getting heart disease! How can we do our research?!” These studies also serve as a reminder for Type 2 diabetics that glucose control is not the single most important factor in avoiding cardiovascular complications. Blood pressure control is probably the most important, followed by keeping your LDL cholesterol on target, and then by glucose control.
diabetes  heart  circulation  risk  reduction  health  literacy  blood  fats  lipids  cholesterol  pressure  management  research  analysis  tight  control  via:joslin.org  factor  burden  benefit  science  criticism  bad  medical  reporting  correlation  type  2  T2D  prevention  protection  cardiovascular  life  expectancy  longevity  mortality  interpretation  ACCORD  glucose  self-monitored  self  monitoring  SMBG  hypertension  high  treatment  peer-reviewed  etiology  from delicious
march 2011 by Michael.Massing
Test Your Knowledge Answer #563
* Blood pressure control with cutoff values less than 130/80 mm Hg in patients with diabetes reduces the risk of macrovascular complications and the risk of progression to diabetic nephropathy and proteinuria.

The multicenter, double-blind, randomized Bergamo Nephrologic Diabetes Complications Trial (BENEDICT) suggested that, for preventing microalbuminuria, a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker alone is not effective, whereas an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor is effective as a single agent. Beta-blockers similarly have not been shown to prevent microalbuminuria.
blood  pressure  diabetes  ACE  inhibitor  treatment  risk  management  comorbidities  via:DiabetesInControl  factor  type  2  T2D  correlation  end-stage  complications  symptoms  threshold  target  microalbuminaria  kidneys  protection  prevention  prognostic  kidney  disease  nephropathy  late  hypertension  high  peer-reviewed  research  etiology  from delicious
march 2011 by Michael.Massing
What's the Best Test to Diagnose Diabetes in Children? | Lee J. Journal of Pediatrics, Feb. 2011
The HbA1c test is less sensitive in diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes in children than in adults...."The HbA1c test just doesn't perform as well in kids as it does in adults." [The] test can be useful as an adjunct to other diabetes tests.... <br />
"If a child is overweight and obese and has two of four risk factors for diabetes, they should be screened in some other way beside HbA1c."
Risk factors include family history of diabetes, maternal history of gestational diabetes, belonging to certain ethnic groups (Native Americans, African-Americans, or Asians/South Pacific Islanders), or any signs of insulin resistance such as polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, or high cholesterol levels....
Diabetes is diagnosed when an HbA1c level is 6.5% or more; prediabetes is diagnosed when an HbA1c level is between 6% and 6.4% on two separate tests. Prediabetes is marked by higher than normal glucose levels that place a person at risk for developing Type 2 diabetes.
diabetes  prognostic  A1c  OGTT  fasting  blood  plasma  glucose  youth  via:DiabetesInControl  insulin  resistance  T2D  type  2  research  peer-reviewed  children  standards  factor  clinical  in  vivo  human  correlation  obesity  hypertension  high  pressure  waist  size  ethnicity  gestational  cholesterol  fats  lipids  statistical  comorbidities  risk  normal  diagnosis  trial  etiology  public  health  from delicious
march 2011 by Michael.Massing
Can Renin-angiotensin System Blockade Have a Role in Preventing Diabetic Retinopathy?
[Recent research assessed use of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, showing] a clear trend to less severe retinopathy with RAS blockade. A smaller trial, RASS, reported reduced retinopathy progression in Type 1 diabetes from RAS blockade with both the ARB losartan and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril. <br />
Diabetic retinopathy is the most common long-term complication of diabetes and the most common cause of blindness in working-age people in developed countries.... <br />
At the time of [diagnosis, up to 40% of type 2 patients already have some retinopathy. In 30-year-old data, more than 60% of type 2 diabetics and almost all type 1 diabetics have] some retinopathy after 20 years. <br />
[Recent improvements in the treatment of diabetes have produced] lower incidence of retinopathy...<br />
If untreated, a large proportion of people who develop proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) will experience severe loss of vision within 5 years.
risk  benefit  eyes  retinopathy  prevention  ACE  inhibitor  blood  pressure  high  diabetes  late-stage  symptoms  complications  vision  loss  comorbidities  late  end-stage  drug  treatment  intervention  ARB  diagnosis  hypertension  correlation  protection  peer-reviewed  research  mitigation  behavioral  self  care  management  tight  control  human  clinical  trial  in  vivo  situ  from delicious
march 2011 by Michael.Massing
PERSONAL HEALTH - PERSONAL HEALTH - Must I Have Another Glass of Water? Maybe Not, a New Report Says - NYTimes.com
[Especially sensitive to salt harm are the old, African-Americans and those] with chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes and kidney disease....
Our vegetarian ancestors consumed less than a gram of salt a day and even heavy meat eaters took in only about 4 grams on good hunting days....
Enough sodium is naturally present in foods and beverages to meet the body's need...Only those who labor or exercise strenuously for long periods in hot weather [might] need more sodium....
[Evolved in a low-sodium environment, our bodies hang on to however much they can get. Potassium being plentiful in the early human diet, the body releases it] to protect against a hazardous excess, which can cause abnormal heart rhythms and muscular paralysis...
[We consume far too little potassium, which helps] lower blood pressure, blunt the effects of salt and reduce the risk of kidney stones and bone loss. [The recommended 4.7 grams of potassium a day for adults is roughly twice typical intake.]
hydration  water  coffee  diet  caffeine  sodium  salt  potassium  blood  pressure  risk  benefit  exercise  history  evolution  prehistory  human  aging  African-American  diabetes  kidney  disease  self  care  earnest  physical  activity  hypertension  high  correlation  from delicious
march 2011 by Michael.Massing
Coenzyme Q-10: MedlinePlus Supplements
Likely effective for [CoQ10 deficiency, a rare condition manifested by weakness, fatigue, and seizures, and for mitochondrial disorders limiting energy production in the cells]. | Possibly effective for: * Congestive heart failure (CHF)...[some supportive evidence when taken along with other] treatments. * Decreasing [risk of complications after a heart attack, if] started within 72 hours of MI * Lowering high blood pressure [and] isolated systolic hypertension. * Preventing migraine headache....[Can decrease frequency by c. 30% and the number of days with nausea by c. 45% in adults; seems to reduce frequency in children with deficiency. Can take up to 3 mos. to benefit. No effectiveness shown in treatment after onset].... * Improving the immune system of people with HIV/AIDS. | <br />
Likely ineffective for [periodontal disease, directly on teeth and gums. Some early evidence supports taking by mouth.] | [Conflicting evidence in rating effectiveness for blood sugar control in diabetics.]
migraine  headache  blood  pressure  prevention  heart  circculation  cited  immune  system  HIV  AIDS  research  medical  supplements  enzyme  coenzyme  Q-10  glucose  fatigue  symptoms  hypertension  high  risk  correlation  treatment  peer-reviewed  from delicious
march 2011 by Michael.Massing
-UCSF Diabetes Center-
Dr. Schillinger published three papers in conjunction with the U.S. - Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project that focus on the development of a viable diabetes prevention and control program for the specific needs of the border population. [Hypertension] [Undiagnosed Diabetes] [Smoking] Additionally, the team recently published two papers with Kaiser Permanente which demonstrated: 1) people with diabetes who have limited health literacy are at higher risk for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) [Diabetes Health] [Santa Cruz Sentinel] and, 2) patients who cannot communicate in their own language with their physician may have poorer outcomes. [UCSF Public Affairs] Drs. Seligman and Schillinger also published an editorial about the burden of hunger and chronic disease that was published in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine. [NEJM] [UCSF Public Affairs]
diabetes  blood  pressure  risk  health  literacy  language  hunger  chronic  disease  medical  outcomes  disparities  socioeconomics  socioeconomic  status  poverty  patient  education  provider  caregiver  self  care  US  Mexico  border  demographics  multilingual  services  public  research  social  science  peer-reviewed  hypertension  high  correlation  treatment  healthcare 
november 2010 by Michael.Massing
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