Michael.Massing + health   462

Psychological morbidity and general health among family caregivers during end-of-life cancer care: A retrospective census survey - Gunn Grande, Christine Rowland, Bernard van den Berg, Barbara Hanratty, 2018
National 4-month post-bereavement postal census survey of family carers of people who died from cancer, retrospectively measuring carers’ psychological health (General Health Questionnaire-12) and general health (EuroQoL EQ-Visual Analogue Scale) during the patient’s last 3 months of life.

N = 1504 (28.5%) of all 5271 people who registered the death of a relative from cancer in England during 2 weeks in 2015 compared with data from the Health Survey for England 2014 (N = 6477–6790).

Psychological morbidity at clinically significant levels (General Health Questionnaire-12 ⩾4) was substantially higher among carers than the general population (83% vs 15%), with prevalence five to seven times higher across all age groups. Overall, carers’ general health scores were lower than population scores, median 75 (interquartile range, 50–80) versus 80 (interquartile range, 70–90), but differences were more marked at younger ages. Female carers had worse psychological morbidity and general health than male carers.

Levels of psychological morbidity among family carers during end-of-life caregiving are far higher than indicated by previous research, indicating a substantial public health problem. Consistent assessment and support for carers to prevent breakdown in caregiving may produce cost savings in long term.
caring  caregiving  end-of-life  terminal  cancer  patients  family  members  depression  correlation  anxiety  stress  toll  peer-reviewed  research  human  in  vivo  situ  general  health 
september 2018 by Michael.Massing
How Much Protein Should I Eat Each Day?
That said, many experts believe that to maintain muscle mass and proper functioning, older adults need to eat double the amount of protein they needed in their younger years, says Abby Sauer, M.P.H., R.D., a dietitian specializing in adult and geriatric nutrition. That’s right, double!

In one American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism study, adults ages 52 to 75 improved their muscle health by following a diet containing 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight per day. That’s roughly twice the current RDA.

If that seems like a lofty goal, take it one meal at a time: Aim to eat 25 to 30 grams of protein at breakfast, lunch, and dinner.
protein  diet  foods  aging  muscle  maintenance  health  peer-reviewed  research  in  vivo  human  satiety 
august 2018 by Michael.Massing
Association of Cardiovascular Health Level in Older Age With Cognitive Decline and Incident Dementia | Cardiology | JAMA | JAMA Network
These findings may support the promotion of cardiovascular health to prevent development of risk factors associated with dementia.
cardiovascular  heart  brain  risk  health  dementia  benefit  correlation  peer-reviewed  research  human  in  situ  cohort  vivo 
august 2018 by Michael.Massing
costs are pushing millions into extreme poverty. This outrage must end
health  Healthcare  from twitter_favs
march 2018 by Michael.Massing
Think you know why obesity rates are rising? You’re probably wrong. | Public Health
Work isn’t taking time away from cooking: We’re actually working fewer hours; what’s increased is leisure time and transportation time.

We may be exercising more. Four minutes more per day in 2012 than in 2003, although that’s self reported. The authors also believe a decline in physically demanding work doesn’t account for obesity rates, since obesity has risen equally among all groups, including children.

Food isn’t too expensive. Or at least, we’re only spending less than 10% of our income on it, compared to 20% in the 1950s and 25% in the 1930s (which is comparable to medium-income countries today). The implication: we could afford to spend more on food, we just don’t want to.

We’re eating lots of fruit and veggies. Now, it’s not enough to meet guidelines (in fact, even if we ate all the veggies produced in the US, we still wouldn’t meet the guidelines). But fruit and vegetable availability has increased over time, and consumption has been relatively steady.

It’s not food deserts. Low-income neighborhoods have fewer supermarkets, but distance to a supermarket doesn’t correlate with obesity or the quality of a person’s diet. When a new supermarket opens, residents’ fruit and vegetable consumption doesn’t change.

It could be TV and video games. That fits the time trend; they specifically track the introduction of VCRs.

It could be sodapop. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is going up and up, and the timing is right.

Or carbs in general. The authors don’t dig into this one, but see this JAMA article (or the accompanying NYT op-ed) for an explanation. Carbs promote insulin which promotes hunger and weight gain. And back to the economists, they point out that carb intake increased most sharply during the 1980s focus on lowering dietary fat.
obesity  correlation  causation  trend  peer-reviewed  research  public  health  epidemiology  earnest 
july 2017 by Michael.Massing
As U.S. Life Expectancies Climb, People In A Few Places Are Dying Younger | FiveThirtyEight
Babies born in eastern Ky., the Miss. Delta and on reservations in the Dakotas have the lowest life expectancies.
life  expectancy  US  statistics  data  health  disparities  from twitter_favs
june 2017 by Michael.Massing
State by state, diabetes prevalence—overwhelmingly type 2—and household income
State by state, diabetes prevalence—overwhelmingly type 2—and household income: disease of affluence & indulgence,…
diabetes  etiology  risk  factor  correlation  mapping  poverty  data  type  2  T2D  public  health  from twitter
may 2017 by Michael.Massing
One-Sided Social Media Comments Influenced Opinions And Intentions About Home Birth: An Experimental Study
As people increasingly turn to social media to access and create health evidence, the greater availability of data and information ought to help more people make evidence-informed health decisions that align with what matters to them. However, questions remain as to whether people can be swayed in favor of or against options by polarized social media, particularly in the case of controversial topics. We created a composite mock news article about home birth from six real news articles and randomly assigned participants in an online study to view comments posted about the original six articles. We found that exposure to one-sided social media comments with one-sided opinions influenced participants’ opinions of the health topic regardless of their reported level of previous knowledge, especially when comments contained personal stories. Comments representing a breadth of views did not influence opinions, which suggests that while exposure to one-sided comments may bias opinions, exposure to balanced comments may avoid such bias.
health  literacy  social  media  bias  #HCSM  peer-reviewed  research  in  vivo  human  hcsm 
june 2016 by Michael.Massing
D-is-for-Diabetes: Medicare's Competitive Bidding Program Puts Beneficiaries' Lives at Risk
The Forum built upon the GAO's analysis by examining access to diabetes testing supplies for Medicare beneficiaries living with diabetes and requiring insulin therapy.  Working with some of the nation's leading endocrinologists,* the Forum's study found that the Competitive Bidding Program disrupted beneficiaries' ability to access diabetes testing supplies, and this disruption was associated with an increase in mortality, higher hospitalization rates and inpatient costs.

"Self-monitoring blood glucose supplies are a critical component of diabetes care among insulin-treated individuals and the value of safe, effective testing supplies cannot be underestimated," said Jaime Davidson, M.D., clinical professor of Medicine at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and an author of the study. "We are particularly concerned about the disruption we detected in our analysis given the predominant use of rapid- and short-acting insulin by Medicare beneficiaries, who are at significantly greater risk for hypoglycemia than younger individuals with insulin-treated diabetes."

"We are troubled that CMS failed to detect these 'unintended' consequences and, instead, reported that the program was a success," said Gary A. Puckrein, Ph.D., president and CEO of the National Minority Quality Forum and a study author. "Based on our findings and employing the safety monitoring protocols commonly used to protect human subjects, we believe policymakers should immediately suspend the program until CMS can demonstrate its ability to effectively monitor the effects of the program, correct the structural flaws causing this problem and ensure that the lives of America's greatest generation are no longer at risk." 

The ahead of print article "Impact of CMS Competitive Bidding Program on Medicare Beneficiary Safety and Access to Diabetes Testing Supplies: A Retrospective, Longitudinal Analysis" can be found online: Impact of CMS Competitive Bidding Program on Medicare Beneficiary Safety and Access to Diabetes Testing Supplies: A Retrospective, Longitudinal Analysis . The full article will also be published here: http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc15-1264.
watchdog  diabetes  insulin-dependent  SMBG  supplies  cost  benefit  mortality  hospitalization  competitive  bidding  Medicare  in  vivo  situ  human  peer-reviewed  research  health  disparities  healthcare 
may 2016 by Michael.Massing
JAMA Network | JAMA | The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001-2014
Life expectancy for low-income individuals was positively correlated with the local area fraction of immigrants (r = 0.72, P < .001), fraction of college graduates (r = 0.42, P < .001), and government expenditures (r = 0.57, P < .001).

Conclusions and Relevance  In the United States between 2001 and 2014, higher income was associated with greater longevity, and differences in life expectancy across income groups increased over time. However, the association between life expectancy and income varied substantially across areas; differences in longevity across income groups decreased in some areas and increased in others. The differences in life expectancy were correlated with health behaviors and local area characteristics.
longevity  human  geography  survival  class  income  poverty  location  residence  peer-reviewed  public  health  research  analysis  immigration  education  correlation  local  spending  budgets  migration 
april 2016 by Michael.Massing
Alcohol Health Benefits Are Exaggerated, As Positive Effects Apply Only To Narrow Range Of People
For the current study, the researchers gathered Health Survey data from 18,368 and 34,523 adults divided into separate age groups (50-64 years and 65 years and over) and distilled down further by sex. Participants answered questions about their weekly consumption and how much they drank on their heaviest day.

Compared with never-drinkers, only one group reaped any protective rewards from light drinking: women over the age of 65 who reported consuming 10 units or less on average per week. Still, the authors of the study warn their conclusions may not be perfectly accurate. The evidence, they note in the conclusion, suggests "that people may alter their response according to perceived social desirability."

Source: Knott CS, Coombs N, Stamatakis E, Biddulph JP. All cause mortality and the case for age specific alcohol consumption guidelines: pooled analyses of up to 10 population based cohorts. BMJ. 2015.
alcohol  risk  benefit  women  women's  health  peer-reviewed  research  in  vivo  situ  human  meta-analysis 
april 2016 by Michael.Massing
The Rich Live Longer Everywhere. For the Poor, Geography Matters. - The New York Times
Places where poor citizens had long life spans also tended to have a high concentration of college graduates and high local government spending.
longevity  human  geography  survival  class  income  poverty  location  residence  peer-reviewed  public  health  research  analysis 
april 2016 by Michael.Massing
Exaggerated effects of particulate matter air pollution in genetic type II diabetes mellitus (PDF Download Available)
Researchers found that exposure to air pollution, over a period of 24 weeks, exaggerates insulin resistance and fat inflammation. “[O]besity has reached epidemic proportions with 34% of adults in the US, ages 20 and over, meeting the criteria...Obesity and diabetes are very prevalent in urban areas and there have been no studies evaluating the impact of poor air quality on these related conditions until now.”
Type 2 diabetes...has soared worldwide with a projected 221 million people expected to suffer from this disease in 2010, a 46 percent increase compared to 1995...[S]cientists fed male mice a diet high in fat over a 10-week period to induce obesity and then exposed them to either filtered air or air with particulate matter for six hours a day, five days a week, over a 24-week period...The air pollution level inside the chamber containing particulate matter was comparable to levels a commuter may be exposed to in...many metropolitan areas in the U.S.
[description by Diabetes in Control - expired link]
in  vivo  animal  correlation  pollution  environment  risk  body  fat  inflammation  heart  circulation  insulin  epidemic  poison  etiology  resistance  T2D  diabetes  type  2  research  peer-reviewed  environmental  factor  public  health  genetic  genetics 
april 2016 by Michael.Massing
Association Between Fine Particulate Matter and Diabetes Prevalence in the U.S.
OBJECTIVE Recent studies have drawn attention to the adverse effects of ambient air pollutants such as particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) on human health. We evaluated the association between PM2.5 exposure and diabetes prevalence in the U.S. and explored factors that may influence this relationship.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The relationship between PM2.5 levels and diagnosed diabetes prevalence in the U.S. was assessed by multivariate regression models at the county level using data obtained from both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for years 2004 and 2005. Covariates including obesity rates, population density, ethnicity, income, education, and health insurance were collected from the U.S. Census Bureau and the CDC.

RESULTS Diabetes prevalence increases with increasing PM2.5 concentrations, with a 1% increase in diabetes prevalence seen with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure (2004: β = 0.77 [95% CI 0.39–1.25], P < 0.001; 2005: β = 0.81 [0.48–1.07], P < 0.001). This finding was confirmed for each study year in both univariate and multivariate models. The relationship remained consistent and significant when different estimates of PM2.5 exposure were used. Even for counties within guidelines for EPA PM2.5 exposure limits, those with the highest exposure showed a >20% increase in diabetes prevalence compared with that for those with the lowest levels of PM2.5, an association that persisted after controlling for diabetes risk factors.

CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest PM2.5 may contribute to increased diabetes prevalence in the adult U.S. population. These findings add to the growing evidence that air pollution is a risk factor for diabetes.
diabetes  human  population  environmental  risk  factor  environment  etiology  particulate  matter  correlation  in  vivo  situ  peer-reviewed  research  public  health  insurance 
april 2016 by Michael.Massing
UNC study helps clarify link between high-fat diet and type 2 diabetes — UNC School of Medicine
New research from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine adds clarity to the connection. The study published online April 10 in the journal Nature Immunology finds that saturated fatty acids but not the unsaturated type can activate immune cells to produce an inflammatory protein, called interleukin-1beta.

“The cellular path that mediates fatty acid metabolism is also the one that causes interleukin-1beta production,” says senior study co-author Jenny Y. Ting, PhD, William Kenan Rand Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology.

“Interleukin-1beta then acts on tissues and organs such as the liver, muscle and fat (adipose) to turn off their response to insulin, making them insulin resistant.  As a result, activation of this pathway by fatty acid can lead to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes symptoms.”  Ting is also a member of the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, and the UNC Inflammatory Diseases Institute.
insulin  resistance  mechanism  risk  factor  diabetes  type  2  T2D  inflammation  correlation  etiology  saturated  fat  peer-reviewed  research  diet  food  earnest  liver  fatty  body  metabolic  syndrome  disorder  public  health 
april 2016 by Michael.Massing
Antidepressant Medication as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Regulation
Antidepressant Medication as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Regulation
Systematic review
Katharine Barnard, PHD1⇑, Robert C. Peveler, FRCPSYCH2 and Richard I.G. Holt, FRCP1
diabetes  depression  risk  comorbidities  affective  mood  disorders  correlation  stress  distress  factor  peer-reviewed  research  clinical  in  vivo  situ  human  antidepressant  SSRI  systematic  review  etiology  public  health 
march 2016 by Michael.Massing
Depressive disorder and incident diabetes mellitus: the effect of characteristics of depression. - PubMed - NCBI
At baseline, 379 case subjects with depression were identified. The risk of incident diabetes mellitus was higher among subjects with depression when compared with nondepressed subjects, and the association remained significant after controlling for potential confounders, including diabetes risk factors. The estimated rate of diabetes mellitus attributable to depression was 6.87%. An increased risk of diabetes mellitus was also associated with the following characteristics of depression: nonsevere depression, persistent depression, and untreated depression. Treatment with antidepressants was not associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus.
Clinically significant depression is associated with a 65% increased risk of diabetes mellitus. Characteristics of depression frequently found in the community, namely nonsevere depression, persistent depression, and untreated depression, may play a role in the development of diabetes in a predominantly elderly adult population.
diabetes  depression  risk  comorbidities  affective  mood  disorders  correlation  stress  distress  factor  peer-reviewed  research  clinical  in  vivo  situ  human  etiology  public  health 
march 2016 by Michael.Massing
More Info on Depression Linked to Increased Risk of Diabetes
A random sample of 4,803 adults from the Zaragoza Dementia and Depression Project were identified and interviewed at baseline. After excluding patients with dementia and those with diabetes at baseline, a total of 3,521 participants older than 55 years were included in this study. Of these, 379 were diagnosed as having depression (80.5% female; mean age, 73.6 years), and 3,142 were found to be nondepressed (51.9% female; mean age, 71.8 years).

Diabetes was assessed using a risk factors questionnaire, and follow-up evaluations 2.5 and 5 years later were completed to determine the incidence of diabetes.

Results showed that “the risk of incident diabetes mellitus was higher among those with depression when compared with nondepressed subjects, and the association remained significant after controlling for potential confounders, including diabetes risk factors (P = 0.04).”

The incidence rate was 19.70 per 1000 person-years for the depressed patients compared with 12.36 per 1000 person-years for the nondepressed patients.

Although the community characteristics of nonsevere, persistent, and untreated depression were associated with a significantly increased risk of diabetes compared with nondepression, treatment with antidepressants was not.

Am J Psychiatry. Published online February 1, 2010. [print edition May 2010]
diabetes  depression  risk  comorbidities  affective  mood  disorders  correlation  stress  distress  factor  peer-reviewed  research  clinical  in  vivo  situ  human  etiology  public  health 
march 2016 by Michael.Massing
The Effects of Depression on Metabolic Control and Quality of Life in Indigent Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
In the study sample (n = 201), approximately 20% (n = 40) were depressed. In unadjusted analyses, subjects with depression had significantly lower SF-12 physical component summary (PCS) scores (30.4 ± 7.3 vs. 39.6 ± 11.8, P < 0.001) and mental component summary (MCS) scores (32.8 ± 10.5 vs. 48.9 ± 9.2, P ≤ 0.001) and significantly higher total cholesterol (209.3 ± 72.1 vs. 186.6 ± 50.9, P = 0.024) compared to those without depression. No significant differences were observed by depression status in hemoglobin A1C, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. After adjustment for relevant covariates, depressed individuals continued to have lower SF-12 PCS (36.1 vs. 39.0, P ≤ 0.001) and MCS (41.6 vs. 46.8, P ≤ 0.001) scores, but the difference in total cholesterol levels was no longer significant.


In an indigent sample with type 2 diabetes, depression is significantly associated with decreased physical and mental components of QOL. This finding further reinforces the importance of addressing depression in all populations with type 2 diabetes.
diabetes  depression  risk  comorbidities  affective  mood  disorders  correlation  stress  distress  factor  peer-reviewed  research  etiology  public  health 
march 2016 by Michael.Massing
Treatment for diabetes and depression improves both, researchers say -- ScienceDaily
Of patients receiving integrated care combined with a brief period of intervention to assist with adherence to prescribed medication regimens, more than 60 percent had improved blood sugar test results and 58 percent had reduced depression symptoms, compared to only 36 percent and 31 percent, respectively, of patients receiving usual care.

The full results of the study are published in the January/February issue of The Annals of Family Medicine.

There is a link between depression and diabetes - as depression is a risk factor for diabetes, diabetes also increases the risk for the onset of depression....

After 12 weeks of monitoring for medication adherence, 60.9 percent of patients who received the integrated approach were found to achieve improved blood sugar test results, compared to only 35.7 percent patients who received only the usual primary care. Additionally, patients in the integrated care group were also more likely to show signs of remission of depression in comparison with patients in the usual care group (58.7 percent vs. 30.7 percent, respectively)....

H. R. Bogner, K. H. Morales, H. F. de Vries, A. R. Cappola. Integrated Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Depression Treatment to Improve Medication Adherence: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The Annals of Family Medicine, 2012; 10 (1): 15 DOI: 10.1370/afm.1344
diabetes  depression  comorbidities  treatment  self  care  adherence  integrated  etiology  demographics  epidemiology  risk  glucose  efficacy  youth  peer-reviewed  research  T2D  medical  correlation  support  factor  stress  distress  drug  public  health 
march 2016 by Michael.Massing
Bacterial molecules discovered in processed foods could unlock key to healthier diets -- ScienceDaily
February 9, 2016
University of Leicester
Our favorite foods could be made healthier thanks to a new technique which has identified harmful bacterial molecules in certain processed foods such as burgers and ready meals. The study identifies a particular kind of contaminating molecule known as 'pathogen-associated molecular patterns' (PAMPs), which are released by certain types of bacteria as they grow during some food processing and refrigeration processes, and may increase our risk of developing conditions such as coronary artery disease and Type 2 diabetes.

"In a study of 11 healthy human volunteers, adherence to the specially designed low PAMP diet for just one week caused a significant 18% reduction in LDL (bad) cholesterol and an 11% reduction in white blood cell count. Volunteers also lost weight (on average 0.6 kg) and their waist circumference was reduced (average 1.5 cm), during the low PAMP diet. These are key risk factors for coronary artery disease and Type II diabetes," according to Dr Clett Erridge, University of Leicester....

PAMPs are undetectable in non-processed and fresh foods, suggesting that they develop during the manufacturing process....

M. Herieka, T.A. Faraj, C. Erridge. Reduced dietary intake of pro-inflammatory Toll-like receptor stimulants favourably modifies markers of cardiometabolic risk in healthy men. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2015.12.001
environment  diet  culture  etiology  diabetes  contamination  processed  food  foods  PAMP  pathogen  associated  molecular  patterns  earnest  peer-reviewed  research  clinical  trial  in  vivo  human  cardiovascular  risk  crossover  industrialization  correlation  environmental  factor  public  health 
february 2016 by Michael.Massing
Screening for type 2 diabetes: literature review and economic modelling. - PubMed - NCBI
The case for screening for undiagnosed diabetes is probably somewhat stronger than it was at the last review, because of the greater options for reduction of CVD, principally through the use of statins, and because of the rising prevalence of obesity and hence type 2 diabetes. However, there is also a good case for screening for IGT, with the aim of preventing some future diabetes and reducing CVD. Further research is needed into the duration of undiagnosed diabetes, and whether the rise in blood glucose levels is linear throughout or whether there may be a slower initial phase followed by an acceleration around the time of clinical diagnosis. This has implications for the interval after which screening would be repeated. Further research is also needed into the natural history of IGT, and in particular what determines progression to diabetes. An RCT of the type required by NSC criterion 13 is under way but will not report for about 7 years.
diabetes  diagnosis  type  2  T2D  standards  glucose  risk  underdiagnosis  screening  reduction  harm  factor  etiology  public  health 
january 2016 by Michael.Massing
Study Questions Findings That Prolonged Sitting Is Unhealthy - US News
"Our study overturns current thinking on the health risks of sitting and indicates that the problem lies in the absence of movement rather than the time spent sitting itself. Any stationary posture where energy expenditure is low may be detrimental to health, be it sitting or standing," he explained.

"The results cast doubt on the benefits of sit-stand work stations, which employers are increasingly providing to promote healthy working environments," Hillsdon added.
clinical  research  human  observational  correlation  health  risk  sitting  posture  activity  motion  benefit 
october 2015 by Michael.Massing
Fiber intake, constipation, and overweight among adolescents living in Sao Paulo City. - PubMed - NCBI
This study evaluated the dietary fiber intake of adolescents in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city and any association between low dietary fiber intake with constipation and overweight.

Intake of beans more than four times per week is associated with the appropriate level of fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake below the recommendation was not associated with constipation but was associated with being overweight among those students attending public schooling.
fiber  food  diet  beans  legumes  self  care  benefit  risk  health  weight  control  metabolism  mineral  absorption  source  supply  overweight  body  fat  children  adolescent  teen  child  peer-reviewed  research  clinical  human  in  vivo  maintenance 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Fiber: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
The average American now eats 10 to 15 grams of fiber per day. The recommendation for older children, adolescents, and adults is to eat  20 to 35 grams of fiber each day. Younger children will not be able to eat enough calories to achieve this amount, but it is a good idea to introduce whole grains, fresh fruits, and other high-fiber foods.

To ensure that you get enough fiber, eat a variety of foods, including:

Dried beans and peas
Whole grains
Add fiber gradually over a period of a few weeks to avoid stomach distress. Water helps fiber pass through the digestive system. Drink plenty of fluids (about 8 glasses of water or noncaloric fluid a day).

Taking the peels off fruits and vegetables reduces the amount of fiber you get from the food. Fiber-rich foods offer health benefits when eaten raw or cooked.
fiber  food  diet  beans  legumes  self  care  treatment  fruits  vegetables  benefit  risk  cardiovascular  health  weight  control  metabolism  mineral  absorption  source  supply  peer-reviewed  research  clinical  human  in  vivo  body  fat  maintenance 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits
The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.
prebiotic  gut  health  microflora  flora  effects  food  overview  mechanism  dietary  fiber  resistant  starch  diet  peer-reviewed  research  clinical  human  in  vivo 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Incident diabetes and pesticide exposure among licensed pesticide applicators: Agricultural Health Study, 1993-2003. - PubMed - NCBI
They found seven specific pesticides (aldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, alachlor, and cyanazine) for which the odds of diabetes incidence increased with both ever use and cumulative days of use. Applicators who had used the organochlorine insecticides aldrin, chlordane, and heptachlor more than 100 lifetime days had 51%, 63%, and 94% increased odds of diabetes, respectively. The observed association of organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides with diabetes is consistent with results from previous human and animal studies. Long-term exposure from handling certain pesticides, in particular, organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides, may be associated with increased risk of diabetes.
diabetes  type  2  T2D  pesticide  environment  environmental  pollution  risk  factor  etiology  epidemiology  agriculture  incidence  prevalence  peer-reviewed  research  NIH  correlation  exposure  incidental  worker  safety  agricultural  occupational  farming  food  human  in  vivo  situ  public  health 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Pesticide use and incident diabetes among wives of farmers in the Agricultural Health Study
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large prospective cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina, presents a unique opportunity to conduct longitudinal studies of diabetes incidence among individuals with a known history of pesticide use. A previous prospective analysis[4] among predominantly male licensed pesticide applicators in the AHS found elevated risk of diabetes associated with ever-use of eight pesticides (two organochlorines: chlordane and heptachlor; four organophosphates: coumaphos, phorate, terbufos, and trichlorfon; and two herbicides: alachlor and cyanazine). Diabetes risk also increased with cumulative lifetime days of use of seven pesticides: aldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, alachlor, and cyanazine.

Among women in the AHS cohort with at least one pregnancy in the 25 years prior to enrollment, gestational diabetes was twice as likely in those who reported mixing or applying any pesticides during the first trimester of pregnancy[17]. Gestational diabetes also increased with lifetime ever-use of seven specific pesticides (two organophosphates, diazinon and phorate; the carbamate insecticide carbofuran; and four herbicides, atrazine and butylate, as well as the historically dioxin-contaminated herbicides 2,4,5-T and 2,4,5-TP)[17].
diabetes  type  2  T2D  pesticide  environment  environmental  pollution  risk  factor  etiology  epidemiology  agriculture  incidence  prevalence  peer-reviewed  research  NIH  correlation  exposure  incidental  familial  women's  health  gestational  agricultural  farming  worker  safety  occupational  food  human  in  vivo  situ  public 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Exposure to Organochlorine Pollutants and Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
This meta-analysis provides quantitative evidence supporting the conclusion that exposure to organochlorine pollutants is associated with an increased risk of incidence of T2DM.
diabetes  type  pesticide  environment  environmental  pollution  risk  factor  etiology  epidemiology  agriculture  incidence  prevalence  peer-reviewed  research  NIH  correlation  exposure  2  T2D  agricultural  farming  worker  safety  occupational  food  human  in  vivo  situ  overview  systematic  review  meta-analysis  public  health 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Strong associations between the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane and type 2 diabetes in Saudi adults. - PubMed - NCBI
Among various HCH isomers, serum concentrations of the pesticides β and γ-HCH were most strongly and consistently linked to T2DM in our studied subjects. Associations of HCH varied across five components of the metabolic syndrome. It positively and significantly associated with four out of the five components, especially elevated triglycerides, high fasting glucose, high blood pressure and HOMA-IR but negatively and significantly with HDL-cholesterol.
diabetes  type  2  T2D  pesticide  environment  environmental  pollution  risk  factor  etiology  epidemiology  incidence  prevalence  peer-reviewed  research  NIH  correlation  exposure  human  in  vivo  situ  public  health 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Why the diseases that cause the most harm don’t always get the most research money - The Washington Post
Take chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, also known as emphysema. It received $118 million in funding, but is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. The people who get that disease are overwhelmingly smokers. Perhaps since the solution seems clear and traditional -- stop smoking -- there isn't research done on new interventions, despite the toll the disease takes. Likewise afflictions like depression and liver disease from drinking, are part of a “societal cluster" that have been underfunded compared to the threat they represent, Johnston said.
health  research  policy  funding  medical  PM101  hcsm 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Medication may reduce injury risk for kids with ADHD | Reuters
Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are less likely to have accidents that land them in the emergency room than those who are not on medication, according to a new study.

“In addition to reducing accidental injuries, the medication often is helpful in helping the child do better in school,” said Dr. James Leckman, a professor and child psychiatrist at Yale School of Medicine in New Haven, Connecticut.

“But many children with ADHD can also do well in school not on medication if the parents and teachers are aware of the issues and address them with appropriate accommodations,” said Leckman, who coauthored the new study.

ADHD medications can have unwanted side effects like trouble sleeping, anorexia, weight loss, reduced growth rates and headaches, and the decision to treat with medication needs to be a joint decision by the family and clinician, Leckman said.
ADHD  treatment  risk  benefit  trauma  peer-reviewed  research  drug  effects  child  health  children  parenting 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
[no title]
Women with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have two times faster decline in cognition than men with MCI.
women  mild  cognitive  impairment  faster  decline  rate  cognition  MCI  women's  health  peer-reviewed  research 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Quality of information sources about mental disorders: a comparison of Wikipedia with centrally controlled web and printed sources. - PubMed - NCBI
The quality of information on depression and schizophrenia on Wikipedia is generally as good as, or better than, that provided by centrally controlled websites, Encyclopaedia Britannica and a psychiatry textbook.
medical  information  health  reference  peer-reviewed  research  earnest  hatmandu  mental 
july 2015 by Michael.Massing
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