Michael.Massing + environmental   50

Air Pollution Linked to Infant Deaths | Global Health | JAMA | JAMA Network
Poor air quality is responsible for 1 in 5 infant deaths in sub-Saharan Africa, according to a study published in Nature.

To quantify the effect of breathable air pollutants on premature deaths among infants in Africa, the investigators examined recent satellite-based estimates of air pollutant particles (ambient respirable particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm [PM2.5]). They combined the air quality data with results from 65 household surveys across 30 sub-Saharan African countries on the timing and location of almost 1 million infant births—and any subsequent deaths in the first year of life—between 2001 and 2015. They then matched the location and timing of each birth to satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 exposure from 9 months before birth to 12 months after.

The investigators found a strong linear association of infant mortality with increases in PM2.5 exposure. Specifically, with every 10 μg per cubic meter increase in the concentration of breathable particulate matter in the first 12 months of life, there was about a 9% increase in infant mortality. This association was consistent over the study’s 15 years and was independent of household wealth.

Concentrations of PM2.5 higher than minimum exposure levels were responsible for 22% of infant deaths in 30 countries and led to 449 000 additional infant deaths in 2015. This estimate is more than 3 times higher than earlier data, suggesting poor air quality is an even bigger problem than previously appreciated.
air  pollution  environmental  factors  environment  infant  mortality  Africa  particulate  matter  risk  peer-reviewed  research  correlation  human  in  vivo  population  situ 
august 2018 by Michael.Massing
Matching Meals to Body Clocks—Impact on Weight and Glucose Metabolism
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to rise worldwide and is reaching pandemic proportions. The notion that this is due to obesity, resulting from excessive energy consumption and reduced physical activity, is overly simplistic. Circadian de-synchrony, which occurs when physiological processes are at odds with timing imposed by internal clocks, also promotes obesity and impairs glucose tolerance in mouse models, and is a feature of modern human lifestyles. The purpose of this review is to highlight what is known about glucose metabolism in animal and human models of circadian de-synchrony and examine the evidence as to whether shifts in meal timing contribute to impairments in glucose metabolism, gut hormone secretion and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Lastly, we examine whether restricting food intake to discrete time periods, will prevent or reverse abnormalities in glucose metabolism with the view to improving metabolic health in shift workers and in those more generally at risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease....

There is a general belief that consumption of more energy throughout the day is preferable to evening consumption. Few studies have examined this prospectively in humans, or for any length of time. Nonetheless, time restricted feeding has shown promise as a tool to mitigate the metabolic sequelae of diet induced obesity in mouse models. Good quality evidence for TRF as a dietary approach to improve glucose control in humans is lacking. Controlled trials are necessary, and must determine if there is adaptation in the approach, whilst keeping in mind the practicality of translating this approach into the community.
opblood  protein  glucose  metabolism  peer-reviewed  research  response  insulin  meal  timing  in  vivo  animal  correlation  comparison  type  2  T2D  circadian  rhythms  social  factor  environmental  etiology  risk  shift  work  obesity  body  fat 
september 2017 by Michael.Massing
Diabetes Mystery: Why Are Type 1 Cases Surging? - Scientific American
For reasons that are completely mysterious, however, the incidence of type 1 diabetes has been increasing throughout the globe at rates that range from 3 to 5 percent a year. Although the second trend is less well publicized, it is still deeply troubling, because this form of the illness has the potential to disable or kill people so much earlier in their lives.
No one knows exactly why type 1 diabetes is rising. Solving that mystery—and, if possible, reducing or reversing the trend—has become an urgent problem for public health researchers everywhere. So far they feel they have only one solid clue.
“Increases such as the ones that have been reported cannot be explained by a change in genes in such a short period,” says Giu­seppina Imperatore, who leads a team of epidemiologists in the Division of Diabetes Translation at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “So environmental factors are probably major players in this increase.”
diabetes  type  1  T1D  etiology  data  surge  incidence  global  risk  factor  environment  environmental 
june 2016 by Michael.Massing
Exaggerated effects of particulate matter air pollution in genetic type II diabetes mellitus (PDF Download Available)
Researchers found that exposure to air pollution, over a period of 24 weeks, exaggerates insulin resistance and fat inflammation. “[O]besity has reached epidemic proportions with 34% of adults in the US, ages 20 and over, meeting the criteria...Obesity and diabetes are very prevalent in urban areas and there have been no studies evaluating the impact of poor air quality on these related conditions until now.”
Type 2 diabetes...has soared worldwide with a projected 221 million people expected to suffer from this disease in 2010, a 46 percent increase compared to 1995...[S]cientists fed male mice a diet high in fat over a 10-week period to induce obesity and then exposed them to either filtered air or air with particulate matter for six hours a day, five days a week, over a 24-week period...The air pollution level inside the chamber containing particulate matter was comparable to levels a commuter may be exposed to in...many metropolitan areas in the U.S.
[description by Diabetes in Control - expired link]
in  vivo  animal  correlation  pollution  environment  risk  body  fat  inflammation  heart  circulation  insulin  epidemic  poison  etiology  resistance  T2D  diabetes  type  2  research  peer-reviewed  environmental  factor  public  health  genetic  genetics 
april 2016 by Michael.Massing
Association Between Fine Particulate Matter and Diabetes Prevalence in the U.S.
OBJECTIVE Recent studies have drawn attention to the adverse effects of ambient air pollutants such as particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) on human health. We evaluated the association between PM2.5 exposure and diabetes prevalence in the U.S. and explored factors that may influence this relationship.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The relationship between PM2.5 levels and diagnosed diabetes prevalence in the U.S. was assessed by multivariate regression models at the county level using data obtained from both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for years 2004 and 2005. Covariates including obesity rates, population density, ethnicity, income, education, and health insurance were collected from the U.S. Census Bureau and the CDC.

RESULTS Diabetes prevalence increases with increasing PM2.5 concentrations, with a 1% increase in diabetes prevalence seen with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure (2004: β = 0.77 [95% CI 0.39–1.25], P < 0.001; 2005: β = 0.81 [0.48–1.07], P < 0.001). This finding was confirmed for each study year in both univariate and multivariate models. The relationship remained consistent and significant when different estimates of PM2.5 exposure were used. Even for counties within guidelines for EPA PM2.5 exposure limits, those with the highest exposure showed a >20% increase in diabetes prevalence compared with that for those with the lowest levels of PM2.5, an association that persisted after controlling for diabetes risk factors.

CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest PM2.5 may contribute to increased diabetes prevalence in the adult U.S. population. These findings add to the growing evidence that air pollution is a risk factor for diabetes.
diabetes  human  population  environmental  risk  factor  environment  etiology  particulate  matter  correlation  in  vivo  siu  peer-reviewed  research  public  health 
april 2016 by Michael.Massing
Bacterial molecules discovered in processed foods could unlock key to healthier diets -- ScienceDaily
February 9, 2016
University of Leicester
Our favorite foods could be made healthier thanks to a new technique which has identified harmful bacterial molecules in certain processed foods such as burgers and ready meals. The study identifies a particular kind of contaminating molecule known as 'pathogen-associated molecular patterns' (PAMPs), which are released by certain types of bacteria as they grow during some food processing and refrigeration processes, and may increase our risk of developing conditions such as coronary artery disease and Type 2 diabetes.

"In a study of 11 healthy human volunteers, adherence to the specially designed low PAMP diet for just one week caused a significant 18% reduction in LDL (bad) cholesterol and an 11% reduction in white blood cell count. Volunteers also lost weight (on average 0.6 kg) and their waist circumference was reduced (average 1.5 cm), during the low PAMP diet. These are key risk factors for coronary artery disease and Type II diabetes," according to Dr Clett Erridge, University of Leicester....

PAMPs are undetectable in non-processed and fresh foods, suggesting that they develop during the manufacturing process....

M. Herieka, T.A. Faraj, C. Erridge. Reduced dietary intake of pro-inflammatory Toll-like receptor stimulants favourably modifies markers of cardiometabolic risk in healthy men. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2015.12.001
environment  diet  culture  etiology  diabetes  contamination  processed  food  foods  PAMP  pathogen  associated  molecular  patterns  earnest  peer-reviewed  research  clinical  trial  in  vivo  human  cardiovascular  risk  crossover  industrialization  correlation  environmental  factor  public  health 
february 2016 by Michael.Massing
Incident diabetes and pesticide exposure among licensed pesticide applicators: Agricultural Health Study, 1993-2003. - PubMed - NCBI
They found seven specific pesticides (aldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, alachlor, and cyanazine) for which the odds of diabetes incidence increased with both ever use and cumulative days of use. Applicators who had used the organochlorine insecticides aldrin, chlordane, and heptachlor more than 100 lifetime days had 51%, 63%, and 94% increased odds of diabetes, respectively. The observed association of organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides with diabetes is consistent with results from previous human and animal studies. Long-term exposure from handling certain pesticides, in particular, organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides, may be associated with increased risk of diabetes.
diabetes  type  2  T2D  pesticide  environment  environmental  pollution  risk  factor  etiology  epidemiology  agriculture  incidence  prevalence  peer-reviewed  research  NIH  correlation  exposure  incidental  worker  safety  agricultural  occupational  farming  food  human  in  vivo  situ  public  health 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Pesticide use and incident diabetes among wives of farmers in the Agricultural Health Study
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large prospective cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina, presents a unique opportunity to conduct longitudinal studies of diabetes incidence among individuals with a known history of pesticide use. A previous prospective analysis[4] among predominantly male licensed pesticide applicators in the AHS found elevated risk of diabetes associated with ever-use of eight pesticides (two organochlorines: chlordane and heptachlor; four organophosphates: coumaphos, phorate, terbufos, and trichlorfon; and two herbicides: alachlor and cyanazine). Diabetes risk also increased with cumulative lifetime days of use of seven pesticides: aldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, alachlor, and cyanazine.

Among women in the AHS cohort with at least one pregnancy in the 25 years prior to enrollment, gestational diabetes was twice as likely in those who reported mixing or applying any pesticides during the first trimester of pregnancy[17]. Gestational diabetes also increased with lifetime ever-use of seven specific pesticides (two organophosphates, diazinon and phorate; the carbamate insecticide carbofuran; and four herbicides, atrazine and butylate, as well as the historically dioxin-contaminated herbicides 2,4,5-T and 2,4,5-TP)[17].
diabetes  type  2  T2D  pesticide  environment  environmental  pollution  risk  factor  etiology  epidemiology  agriculture  incidence  prevalence  peer-reviewed  research  NIH  correlation  exposure  incidental  familial  women's  health  gestational  agricultural  farming  worker  safety  occupational  food  human  in  vivo  situ  public 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Exposure to Organochlorine Pollutants and Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
This meta-analysis provides quantitative evidence supporting the conclusion that exposure to organochlorine pollutants is associated with an increased risk of incidence of T2DM.
diabetes  type  pesticide  environment  environmental  pollution  risk  factor  etiology  epidemiology  agriculture  incidence  prevalence  peer-reviewed  research  NIH  correlation  exposure  2  T2D  agricultural  farming  worker  safety  occupational  food  human  in  vivo  situ  overview  systematic  review  meta-analysis  public  health 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Strong associations between the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane and type 2 diabetes in Saudi adults. - PubMed - NCBI
Among various HCH isomers, serum concentrations of the pesticides β and γ-HCH were most strongly and consistently linked to T2DM in our studied subjects. Associations of HCH varied across five components of the metabolic syndrome. It positively and significantly associated with four out of the five components, especially elevated triglycerides, high fasting glucose, high blood pressure and HOMA-IR but negatively and significantly with HDL-cholesterol.
diabetes  type  2  T2D  pesticide  environment  environmental  pollution  risk  factor  etiology  epidemiology  incidence  prevalence  peer-reviewed  research  NIH  correlation  exposure  human  in  vivo  situ  public  health 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Epidemiology of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Nile Delta, Northern Egypt - A Retrospective Study
In a recent preliminary study conducted for the first time in pediatric patients (age group 1.2-10 years) at our unit for evaluation of the possible association between T1DM in children and exposure to pesticides, the authors demonstrated measurable levels of several pesticide residues in the sera of newly diagnosed T1DM Egyptian children and malathion was reported as the most prevalent pesticide encountered (35).
diabetes  type  1  T1D  pesticide  environment  environmental  pollution  risk  factor  etiology  epidemiology  agriculture  incidence  prevalence  peer-reviewed  research  NIH  correlation  exposure  human  in  vivo  situ  food 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Evidence Suggests Role for Chemicals in Diabetes - DiabetesPro - American Diabetes Association
Some chemicals, particularly those found in cigarette smoke, may be responsible for some cases of diabetes and obesity, reported a research committee appointed by the National Toxicology Program. Investigators looked through studies that examined the links between diabetes and obesity and chemicals such as arsenic, and found in plastic, pesticides, and cigarette smoke. There was a strong link between smoking while pregnant and a child's later risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to have an underweight baby, which can increase the risk of obesity later in life. The researchers pointed out that about 70 percent of cases of obesity and diabetes are caused by poor diet and exercise habits, but other cases are harder to explain. The findings were reported at a workshop this week in North Carolina.
[Caused? Or precipitated? About genetics we say nothing? And define "poor diet." Typical US, say?—DMM]
chemicals  environment  environmental  maternal  smoking  pregnancy  risk  correlation  obesity  National  Toxicology  Program  diabetes  type  2  etiology  arsenic  plastics  poster  presentation  cigarette  smoke  pesticides  factor  pollution  air  public  health  genetic  genetics 
february 2014 by Michael.Massing
Building better urban health in England : The Lancet
For example, areas with the highest prevalence of childhood obesity had twice the housing density and a third less green space compared with the healthiest areas. RIBA note that deprivation could play a part; areas with less green space are likely to be less affluent and home to more deprived families. However, they also draw attention to Michael Marmot's report Fair Society, Healthy Lives, which states that “better health is related to green space regardless of socioeconomic status”. Indeed, a study in The Lancet in 2008 showed that health inequalities corrected for income deprivation were lower in populations living in the greenest areas.
diabetes  obesity  urban  design  correlation  risk  benefit  walking  walkability  green  space  environment  peer-reviewed  research  in  vivo  situ  human  activity  walkable  density  population  public  health  clinical  trial  environmental  factor  etiology 
february 2014 by Michael.Massing
bpa diabetes research - Google Search
Bisphenols (BPA), lead, arsenic, mercury, phthalates all diabetegenic endocrine disruptors. http://ow.ly/tdTYC by @ewg via @JulieDaniluk
type  2  diabetes  T2D  etiology  bisphenols  BPA  diabetegenic  endocrine  disruptor  peer-reviewed  research  environment  pollution  correlation  in  vivo  human  obesity  clinical  trial  environmental  factor  risk  public  health 
february 2014 by Michael.Massing
Autism, Inflammation, Speculation, and Nutrition | Psychology Today
Autoimmune disorders are much more common than normal in families of kids with autism. In addition, mothers with asthma, psoriasis, and type I diabetes were more likely to have autistic kids.  Mothers diagnosed with asthma or allergies during the second trimester seem to have especially high risk, suggesting that a flare-up of autoimmune disease at a particular stage in fetal development might be causative. Epidemiologists at the Harvard School of Public Health did a meta-analysis of studies of prenatal risk factors and autism, and they found higher risk for mothers and fathers of "advanced" age, a two-fold increased risk among mothers with gestational diabetes, and also increased risk among mothers who had bleeding during pregnancy and psychiatric medication use (there are specific studies demonstrating an increased risk with depakote use during pregnancy and autism).
[Psoriasis] is associated with obesity (inflammation), gestational diabetes with insulin resistance and inflammation. All these diseases [floating around autism are] diseases of civilization with multifactorial causes, genetic susceptibilities, and chronic management in lieu of cure.  With associations, one never knows if one thing causes another or if a third issue is the cause for both, but associations should make one stand up and take notice, and look around for biologically plausible causations and ways to figure out, precisely, what is going on.
Is there other evidence that nutritional issues could possibly cause autism?  The modern diet with an excess of processed food is paradoxical - it leads to obesity with too many calories, yet is nutritionally poor with respect to minerals, certain vitamins, and possibly even some amino acids needed for optimal brain health.
Well, a paper did come out in early 2011 with an intriguing link between autism and nutrition: Closely Spaced Pregnancies are Associated with Increased Odds of Autism in California Sibling Births. It is not direct evidence by any means, but it is striking....
It turns out that the odds of a second child born within about 18 months of a first child (that is, an 'interpregnancy interval" or the time between pregnancies of 12 months or less) have more than a 3 fold risk of having autism than a second child born more than 3 years after the first one. Risk for second children born at interpregnancy intervals of between 12 and 36 months were middling, but risk rose abruptly at 0-12 months....
Since, during pregnancy, the fetus will tend to suck whatever nutrients are needed straight from mama, whether she can spare them or not, it is sensible that a nutritional explanation could account for the increased risk of autism in second children when the pregnancies are closely spaced. By nutrition, I mean anything from deficiencies in omega 3 fatty acids, to minerals such as zinc, magnesium or selenium, or depletion of the B vitamins, including folic acid.
autism  ASD  nutrition  medical  research  inflammation  autoimmune  risk  genetics  diseases  of  civilization  psychotropics  pregnancy  prenatal  etiology  earnest  correlation  insulin  resistance  diabetes  peer-reviewed  gestational  induced  environment  factor  diet  type  2  T2D  comorbidities  foods  food  processed  industrialization  environmental  genetic 
july 2012 by Michael.Massing
The top 10 toxic chemicals suspected to cause autism and learning disabilities | KurzweilAI
The current (April 2012) issue of Environmental Health Perspectives calls for increased research to identify possible environmental causes of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders in America’s children and presents a list of the top ten target chemicals in consumer products likely to contribute to these conditions:

1. Lead
2. Methylmercury
3. PCBs
4. Organophosphate pesticides
5. Organochlorine pesticides
6. Endocrine disruptors
7. Automotive exhaust
8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
9. Brominated flame retardants
10. Perfluorinated compounds

The National Academy of Sciences reports that 3 percent of all neurobehavioral disorders in children, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are caused by toxic exposures in the environment and that another 25 percent are caused by interactions between environmental factors and genetics.
autism  ASD  medical  research  peer-reviewed  etiology  environmental  toxins  exposure  chemical  risk  factor  environment  genetics 
july 2012 by Michael.Massing
EPA Relies on Industry-Backed Studies to Assess Health Risks of Widely Used Herbicide: Scientific American
EPA records obtained by The Huffington Post Investigative Fund show that at least half of the 6,611 studies the agency is reviewing to help make its decision were conducted by scientists and organizations with a financial stake in atrazine, including Syngenta or its affiliated companies and research contractors.

More than 80 percent of studies on which the EPA are relying have never been published. This means that they have not undergone rigorous "peer review" by independent scientists, a customary method to ensure studies are credible and scientifically sound before they can be published in major journals.

At the same time several prominent studies by independent academic scientists in well-respected scientific journals—showing negative reproductive effects of atrazine in animals and humans—are absent from the EPA's list.
herbicide  poison  environment  environmental  protection  government  regulation  EPA  agribusiness  Switzerland  risk  benefit 
june 2012 by Michael.Massing
Clinical Trial Teaches Binge Eaters to Toss Away Cravings
During single sittings, [some] over-eaters consume large servings of high-caloric foods. Sufferers contend with weight gain[, depression, and elevated risk for] heart disease and diabetes. A new clinical trial, called Regulation of Food Cues...aims to treat binge eating by helping participants to identify real hunger and to practice resistance if the stomach is full.

“Most weight-loss treatments for obese adults focus very little on the reduction of binge eating...With this study we use a variety of techniques to train the brain to identify and respond to hunger and cravings and to learn resistance to highly craved foods.”
[Thirty subjects will undergo weekly 60–90 minute sessions for] 12 weeks. Participants will learn how food cravings originate, how to detect and monitor true hunger, how [emotion influences eating, and how to manage cravings and impulses].  

“Binge eaters often consume food in response to their environment, even when they are not hungry. This could be a response to watching TV, long commutes, sitting on the couch, time of day, even loneliness...The goal is to reduce cravings to overeat by up to 50 percent.”

Teaching obese people to recognize hunger signals is based upon the principles of behavioral psychology, which has proven effective in treating conditions such as anxiety and bulimia....Exposure-based treatments help eaters improve their sensitivity to hunger and fullness and reduce their sensitivity to the sight and smell of food.

Similar programs aimed at overweight youths have yielded promising results and an ability to maintain reductions in binge eating at six and 12 months after treatment.

[Subjects] will be asked to complete interviews and surveys before and after treatment groups[, and will complete food logs monitoring] levels of hunger and fullness as well as cravings.
medical  research  clinical  overeating  obesity  binge  eating  behavioral  cognitive  modification  diabetes  anxiety  compulsive  human  in  situ  vivo  behavior  cue  environment  food  management  craving  hunger  self  care  awareness  correlation  association  stimulus  response  T2D  treatment  intervention  trial  environmental 
march 2012 by Michael.Massing
BPA's Diabetes Link Strengthened by New Study | Nadal A et al. PLoS ONE 2012-02
Even minuscule amounts of BPA (used in everything from pesticides to water bottles) can scramble hormone signals, and trick fat cells into taking in more fat or mislead the pancreas into secreting excess insulin. Among the most ubiquitous and scrutinized of these...endocrine disruptors is bisphenol, better known as BPA. The chemical is a common ingredient in plastics and food-can linings.
Angel Nadal, a BPA expert at the Miguel Hernandez University in Spain stated that, "When you eat something with BPA, it's like telling your organs that you are eating more than you are really eating"[—]the chemical triggers the release of almost double the insulin actually needed to break down food. High insulin levels can desensitize the body to the hormone over time, which in some people may then lead to weight gain and Type 2 diabetes....
BPA fools a receptor into thinking it is the natural hormone estrogen, an insulin regulator. [Even the tiniest amounts of BPA—a quarter of a billionth of a gram—do] the trick. The effect disappeared when the researchers stripped the specific receptors from the study mice, evidence that they had in fact pinpointed BPA's chemical mechanism, which had previously eluded scientists. In laboratory tests of human cells, the response was even more pronounced....
An estimated 90% of people in developed countries have BPA circulating in their blood at levels often [sic] higher than the threshold for causing hormone disruption used in Nadal's study. This high incidence is due not only to exposures from leaching food packages but also BPA-infused cash register receipts, dental sealants and toilet paper.
Frederick vom Saal, another expert in endocrine disruptors at the University of Missouri-Columbia stated that, "People are seeing effects of BPA down to 1000-fold below [Nadal's threshold]." "It takes so little of this chemical to cause harm."
plastics  BPA  bisphenol  A  insulin  endocrine  medical  research  in  vivo  animal  vitro  human  mechanism  biological  chemical  diabetes  etiology  sensitivity  resistance  risk  fossil-fuel  industrialization  harm  earnest  bisphenols  pesticide  correlation  poison  environment  pollution  T2D  type  2  peer-reviewed  factor  disruptor  food  safety  contamination  environmental  incidence  prevalence  public  health 
february 2012 by Michael.Massing
Understanding Genetics: Human Health and the Genome
[Some Type 1 diabetics show differences in] HLA genes that normally help the immune system to work. In addition, there are probably at least 16 other areas of DNA where differences can increase your risk of getting Type 1 diabetes....
In most cases, you need more than one DNA difference to get Type 2 diabetes. [At least 12 genes are implicated] in Type 2 diabetes, and there are probably more that scientists know nothing about yet.
In most cases, having DNA differences isn't enough to make you diabetic—it can only increase your chance. To actually get diabetes, something else has to happen....
Early diet may be important.
Type 1 diabetes may be less common in people who were breastfed. Additionally, certain infections or even cold weather might be able to trigger Type 1 diabetes in some people.
You can decrease your chances for Type 2 diabetes by exercising and eating right.
Type 2 diabetes is more common in overweight people or people who don't get enough exercise....
A classic example of all of this is the Pima Indians of Arizona. A Pima Indian with diabetes was virtually unheard of for 2000 years or so.
Recently, many of them have adopted a more typical American lifestyle—little exercise and unhealthy food. Almost overnight, around half of the Pima Indians in Arizona ended up with Type 2 diabetes.
Obviously their DNA didn't change so quickly. The DNA differences for increased Type 2 diabetes risk were always there.
But, with their old life style, it didn't matter. In other words, the DNA wasn't enough to cause the diabetes. Their environment had to change before they developed the disease....
Identical twins share the exact same DNA. So if some trait is completely due to DNA, then both identical twins would always share that trait....
If your identical twin has Type 1 diabetes, you have less than a 50% chance of getting it too. And if your identical twin has Type 2 diabetes, you have about a 75% chance of getting it. So DNA alone doesn't make you diabetic—environment is also important....
DNA, weight, physical activity, diet, and age all affect a person's risk of diabetes. No one thing alone can predict whether or not a person will get diabetes.
diabetes  risk  etiology  epidemiology  environment  behavior  breastfeeding  genetics  epigenetics  diet  susceptibility  predisposition  inheritance  medical  research  exercise  type  1  2  T1D  T2D  correlation  insulin  resistance  factor  activity  environmental  genetic 
february 2012 by Michael.Massing
Genetics & Diabetes: What's Your Risk? | Joslin Diabetes Center
In general, the risk of diabetes for a sibling of a patient with type 2 diabetes is about the same as that in the general population. However, there are some exceptions to this general statement. If the patient developed diabetes despite being lean, then the sibling’s risk is about twice the general population risk. Or, if the patient has a parent with type 2 diabetes, the sibling’s risk is almost three times the general population risk. If both parents have type 2 diabetes, the sibling has a fourfold risk, or nearly a 50% chance of developing diabetes.
The genetics of type 2 diabetes is complex. While type 2 diabetes may have a strong genetic basis in some patients (something less than a third of them), the development of diabetes in most patients is dependent upon the effects of environmental and behavioral factors (obesity and sedentary lifestyle) on an underlying susceptibility that is poorly understood....
Joslin researchers and others have identified about six genes that produce MODY[—maturity-onset diabetes of the young, a rarer form of type 2—but they only account for the diabetes in about one-third of affected] families....Similar patterns can be found in studies of families with the more common form of type 2 diabetes, only the age of onset differs.
The susceptibility to certain diabetes complications also seems to be linked in some ways with genetics. For patients with susceptibility genes for complications, good blood glucose control is still an important mitigating factor.
diabetes  risk  etiology  epidemiology  environment  behavior  dairy  breastfeeding  parenting  familial  genetics  epigenetics  diet  child  development  susceptibility  predisposition  complications  late-stage  symptoms  Joslin  inheritance  medical  research  glucose  correlation  comorbidities  late  end-stage  environmental  factor  genetic 
february 2012 by Michael.Massing
Pollution Tied to Diabetes and Hypertension Risk | Coogan P et al. Circulation 2012-01-04
In a study of more than 4,000 black women in Los Angeles, those...living in neighborhoods with high levels of nitrogen oxides, pollutants found in traffic exhaust, were 25% more likely to develop diabetes and 14% more likely to develop hypertension than those living in sections with cleaner air.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, forty-four percent of all black women in the U.S. have high blood pressure and about 11% have diabetes, compared with 28% and roughly 7%, respectively, of white women. Black Americans are also exposed to higher levels of air pollution than white Americans...
The findings on their relative risks for those conditions take into account several other potential influences, including how heavy the women were, whether they smoked and other stressors, including noise levels at participants' homes.
The researchers measured average pollution levels near participants' homes for only one year and the patterns remained relatively constant over the entire study period. While Dr. Coogan and her colleagues estimated nitrogen oxide concentrations near participants' homes, they did not account for commuting habits or exposure to air pollution at work...Americans, on average, spend about 70% of their time at home.
In addition to measuring nitrogen oxides, a proxy for traffic pollution, the researchers evaluated levels of fine particulate matter. Women who lived in areas with higher fine particulate exposures also faced an increased risk of diabetes and high blood pressure, although statistically the link was weak and could have been due to chance.
Previous reports have suggested that air pollution particles small enough to make their way into the bloodstream may contribute to a narrowing of blood vessels, which can lead to high blood pressure and reduce sensitivity to insulin.
medical  research  peer-reviewed  geography  demographics  risk  pollution  air  high  blood  pressure  diabetes  hypertension  stress  particulates  inhaled  environment  exposure  circulation  theory  Black  women  African-American  correlation  poison  etiology  factor  type  2  T2D  environmental  public  health 
february 2012 by Michael.Massing
Evolutionary Conservation of Fat Metabolism Pathways: Salk Institute Scientists Say "If They Ain't broke, Don't Fix 'Em"
"The metabolic system is like a hybrid car. [Daytime we use glucose as high octane fuel; at night we switch to the battery of stored fat...SIK3 promotes lipid storage during feeding hours by blocking fat breakdown that normally only functions during fasting]....The complexity of this molecular machine [and its presence in different organisms likely reflects its importance in switching the fat batteries on or off]."
[The SIK3/HDAC4/FOXO machine found in the fruitfly also switches metabolism in mice.]
"Virtually all important components of the insulin pathway are conserved in flies and mammals"...
[Such similarities exemplify nature's reluctance to improve on a good thing, especially one determining survival. "That these pathways are used wholesale in flies and humans is striking. An adaptation that works well will likely be] conserved"....
"The human counterparts of HDAC4 and SIK3 may be mutated in ways that make them work less effectively and enhance our proclivity to become obese."
evolution  metabolism  diabetes  correlatons  medical  research  in  vivo  famine  scarcity  plenty  adaptation  environment  food  earnest  environmental  from delicious
june 2011 by Michael.Massing
Type 2: Autoimmune? | Nature Medicine online | via Diabetes Self-Management
[A study—the first—tests the potential connection between autoimmunity and Type 2 diabetes head-on, via components in both humans and mice. R]esearchers fed mice a high-fat diet that would be expected to induce insulin resistance...After 5 weeks, they gave some of the mice [immune suppressant anti-CD20, there was no sign of insulin resistance, and blood glucose levels were normal. All other mice developed insulin resistance. Apparently] in overweight mice—and, most likely, humans—an immune system attack on fat cells...leads to insulin resistance. <br />
Conducting a similar experiment in humans would be much more complicated, both pragmatically and ethically...So to test whether the mice findings might also apply to humans, the researchers took blood samples from 32 obese people, half of whom had insulin resistance. [The researchers found distinct sets of antibodies—proteins created by the immune system to attack specific substances—] in participants with and without insulin resistance.
diabetes  modeling  type  2  1  autoimmune  inflammation  environmental  risk  B  cells  insulin  resistance  mechanism  medical  research  T1D  T2D  peer-reviewed  factor  etiology  from delicious
may 2011 by Michael.Massing
Exxon Valdez cleanup holds lessons for Gulf oil spill - CSMonitor.com
[c. 2010:] "It was still goopy and aromatic. It was not asphalt." [R]emnant oil represents a tiny fraction of the 11 million gallons [spilled—20,000-22,000 gallons, says the NOAA]. But it is a symptom as well as a symbol of a persistent oil spill disaster. <br />
Creatures large and small still are struggling. One pod of killer whales lost nearly half its members, has failed to reproduce, and is likely to go extinct. Another pod lost about a third of its members and is still struggling. The big schools of Pacific herring that supported a rich commercial fishery are gone. Sea otter populations in heavily oiled areas are about half as big as would be expected. <br />
While there have been far bigger spills, the Exxon Valdez disaster ranks, by far, as the most devastating in North America to marine life. The immediate toll included hundreds of thousands of seabirds and thousands of marine mammals. Commercial fisheries were closed, and traditional native American harvests of wild foods were halted.
environmental  disaster  oil  spill  Exxon  Valdez  cleanup  effects  animals  environment  from delicious
may 2011 by Michael.Massing
For the Veterans :: Diabetes Self-Management
Service in a war zone is stressful and traumatic, whether you are physically wounded or not. Feeling that you are in danger all the time will weaken your immune system and create insulin resistance...Using violence against others is also traumatic.
Trauma, if not treated and resolved, can leave your body stressed for life. It’s no wonder veterans have high rates of drinking and smoking, both of which are perceived as stress relievers. Some veterans may also medicate with sugars, which can temporarily reduce stress. But even without these problem behaviors, chronic stress tends to raise blood pressure and blood glucose levels.
Agent Orange was one major pollutant, but the Pentagon uses all kinds of chemicals and now uses [depleted uranium]. Many closed military bases become Superfund sites because they are so polluted. The communities near those bases suffer, but soldiers [who worked on those bases had even higher exposure. P]ollution has strong links with diabetes. [links]
veterans  health  war  pollution  stress  PTSD  diabetes  David  Spero  depression  pain  Agent  Orange  environmental  risk  military  VA  benefits  brain  anxiety  self-medication  affective  mood  disorders  correlation  poison  etiology  environment  insulin  resistance  T2D  type  2  research  peer-reviewed  factor  public  from delicious
april 2011 by Michael.Massing
Puberty: Some girls' puberty age still falling, study suggests - latimes.com
A Danish study...found puberty occurring earlier in children regardless of body mass index at age 7. Factors may include a diet...increasingly high in sugar and fat, declining physical activity and exposure to endocrine disrupters [in the environment]. "Kids today are exposed to plastic much more than they were 10 or 20 years ago"...[Ongoing study will] look at biomarkers that reflect potential environmental exposures.
Studies have linked [early development in girls] to various health risks including a poor body image, reduced self-esteem, higher rates of eating problems, depression and earlier onset of sexual activity....Studies have linked a younger age at the first menstrual period to a higher risk of breast cancer after menopause.
Parents may be able to influence the timing of puberty [through] encouraging a healthful diet and physical activity, and avoiding lotions, shampoos and other products for children and babies that contain phthalates, which are known endocrine disrupters.
child  development  puberty  girls  endocrine  disrupters  phthalates  environmental  pollution  plastics  toxins  poison  outbasket  race  ethnicity  editing  samples  demographics  epidemiology  health  disparities  outbox 
august 2010 by Michael.Massing
Open Letter to Hillary Clinton From a Wellesley College Alumna | 'A Snapshot of Our Food' | Use Celsias.com - reduce global °Celsius
'Oils: Sheep died in India after feeding on Bt cotton fields. We feed our children Bt...cottonseed oil in peanut butter and cookies. 'Grains: 49% of US corn acreage was planted in Bt corn in 2007. A French study proved Monsanto's GMO corn causes kidney and liver toxicity. Soft drinks and candy have highly concentrated...high fructose Bt corn syrup. The US food system depends most on two crops, soy (90% GMO, 90% of traits owned by Monsanto) and corn, the largest crop (60% GMO, nearly 100% Monsanto traits). "[E] ssentially our entire food supply is genetically modified, to the benefit of one company"...Grocery Manufacturers of America in 2000 estimated that 70% of US food contains GM traits. 'Meat:...Monsanto steroids bulk up animals--more weight, more profit. We feed our children steroids in meats. Is this why our children are fattening, like Hansel and Gretel? 'Poultry:...USDA weakened chicken waste and contamination standards and attempted to allow sewage sludge as [crop fertilizer].'
food  body  fat  agribusiness  genetics  risk  consumerism  India  Clintons  outbasket  capitalism  imperialism  neocolonialism  corporatism  environment  health  environmental  fructose  sugars  outbox 
february 2010 by Michael.Massing
Common Herbicides and Fibrate Drugs Block Nutrient-sensing &#039;Taste&#039; Receptor Found in Gut and Pancreas | Mosinger, B. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry online c. 2009-10
Certain common herbicides and lipid-lowering fibrate drugs act in humans to block T1R3, a nutrient-sensing taste receptor also present in intestine and pancreas.Commonly used in agriculture and medicine, these chemical compounds were not previously known to act on the T1R3 receptor. The T1R3 receptor is a critical component of both the sweet taste receptor and the umami (amino acid) taste receptor. First identified on the tongue, emerging evidence indicates that T1R3 and related taste receptors also are located on hormone-producing cells in the intestine and pancreas[; they] detect nutrients in the gut and trigger the release of hormones involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism. "Compounds that either activate or block T1R3 receptors could [potentially influence] diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome," noted Monell geneticist and study leader Bedrich Mosinger, M.D., Ph.D.
metabolism  umami  sweetness  taste  regulation  pancreas  gut  digestion  fibrate  neuroendocrine  herbicide  environmental  factor  pollution  obesity  type  2  diabetes  metabolic  syndrome  correlation  mechanism  peer-reviewed  research  etiology  risk 
november 2009 by Michael.Massing
Bisphenol A Linked to Metabolic Syndrome in Humans [dead link from dLife.com, reference only]
New research from the University of Cincinnati (UC) implicates the primary chemical used to produce hard plastics—bisphenol A (BPA)—as a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome and its consequences.

In a laboratory study, using fresh human fat tissues, the UC team found that BPA suppresses a key hormone, adiponectin, which is responsible for regulating insulin sensitivity in the body and puts people at a substantially higher risk for metabolic syndrome.

Metabolic syndrome is a combination of risk factors that include lower responsiveness to insulin and higher blood levels of sugar and lipids. According to the American Heart Association, about 25 percent of Americans have metabolic syndrome. Left untreated, the disorder can lead to life-threatening health problems such as coronary artery disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes.
risk  environment  metabolic  syndrome  bisphenol  A  BPA  plastics  diabetes  obesity  environmental  exposure  medical  research  peer-reviewed  in  vitro  human  insulin  sensitivity  cardiovascular  chemical  correlation  poison  pollution  bisphenols  etiology  resistance  type  2  T2D  factor 
october 2008 by Michael.Massing
Arsenic Exposure May Be Associated With Type 2 Diabetes | JAMA. 2008;300[7]:814-822
'The potential role of arsenic in diabetes development is supported by experimental and mechanistic evidence'...Insulin-sensitive cells that are exposed to insulin and sodium arsenite appear to take in less glucose than cells exposed only to insulin. Arsenic could also influence genetic factors that interfere with insulin sensitivity and other processes, or could contribute to oxygen-related cell damage, inflammation and cell death...'From a public health perspective, confirmation of a role for arsenic in diabetes development would add to the concerns posed by the carcinogenic, cardiovascular, developmental and reproductive effects of inorganic arsenic in drinking water....Given widespread exposure to inorganic arsenic from drinking water worldwide, elucidating the contribution of arsenic to the diabetes epidemic is a public health research priority with potential implications for the prevention and control of diabetes.'
arsenic  risk  etiology  water  contamination  type  2  medical  research  peer-reviewed  pollution  toxins  environment  insulin  sensitivity  in  vivo  genetics  epidemiology  epigenetics  diabetes  T2D  correlation  poison  resistance  factor  environmental  genetic 
august 2008 by Michael.Massing
PCBs May Be Causing Diabetes' Growth
'Risk of developing diabetes is 4 times higher among people ages 35 to 54 who were exposed to above-average levels polychlorinated biphenyls....PCBs are in the air, food, water and soil. Many former industrial sites were polluted with these chemicals.'
environment  risk  diabetes  pollution  PCBs  poison  etiology  correlation  environmental  factor 
june 2008 by Michael.Massing
MedlinePlus: Chlorinated pesticides may raise diabetes risk
1,176 [licensed pesticide applicators developed] diabetes...7 [chlorinated pesticides] were tied to an increased risk of...diabetes....Risk was higher among...participants who had ever been exposed to any of these chemicals, and increased [with exposure.]
risk  environment  diabetes  pollution  pesticide  correlation  poison  etiology  factor  environmental  type  2  T2D  peer-reviewed  research  endocrine  disruptor 
june 2008 by Michael.Massing

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