Michael.Massing + dosage   28

Why too much vitamin D can be a bad thing
Recently, scientists at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, NJ, conducted a study looking at risk factors for falls. They published their results in The Journals of Gerontology: Series A.

They analyzed the effects of vitamin D on three groups of women aged 50–70 in a randomized controlled trial:

The first group took the recommended daily dose of 600 IU.
The second group took 2,000 IU.
The third took 4,000 IU.
The results showed an improvement in memory and learning in the groups that took more than the recommended daily dose. However, the same groups also experienced a slowdown in reaction times.
vitamin  D  supplements  aging  dosage  dose-dependent  effect  risk  benefit  sunlight  synthesis 
march 2019 by Michael.Massing
Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. - PubMed - NCBI
9 of 11 trials testing high-dosage vitamin E (> or =400 IU/d) showed increased risk (risk difference > 0) for all-cause mortality in comparisons of vitamin E versus control. The pooled all-cause mortality risk difference in high-dosage vitamin E trials was 39 per 10,000 persons (95% CI, 3 to 74 per 10,000 persons; P = 0.035). For low-dosage vitamin E trials, the risk difference was -16 per 10,000 persons (CI, -41 to 10 per 10,000 persons; P > 0.2). A dose-response analysis showed a statistically significant relationship between vitamin E dosage and all-cause mortality, with increased risk of dosages greater than 150 IU/d.
High-dosage (> or =400 IU/d) trials were often small and were performed in patients with chronic diseases. The generalizability of the findings to healthy adults is uncertain. Precise estimation of the threshold at which risk increases is difficult.
High-dosage (> or =400 IU/d) vitamin E supplements may increase all-cause mortality and should be avoided.
vitamin  E  mortality  risk  dosage  dose-dependent  peer-reviewed  research 
july 2017 by Michael.Massing
Niacin Alternatives for Dyslipidemia: Fool's Gold or Gold Mine? Part I: Alternative Niacin Regimens. - PubMed - NCBI
Niacin was the first drug demonstrating lowered cholesterol prevents coronary heart disease (CHD) events, with two clinical CHD outcome studies establishing a cardioprotective niacin regimen: 1 g thrice daily with meals. Though cardioprotective, skin toxicity limits niacin's use, fostering several variations to improve tolerability. One of these, an extended-release (ER) alternative, proved immensely successful commercially, dominating clinical practice despite departing from the established regimen in several critical ways. Hence, improved tolerability may have come at the cost of diminished efficacy, posing a conundrum: Does it still help the population at risk for CHD to broaden a drug's acceptance by "watering it down"? This question is crucial at this stage now that the ER alternative failed to recapitulate the benefits of the established cardioprotective niacin regimen in two trials of the alternative approach: AIM-HIGH and HPS2-THRIVE. Part I of this review discusses how vastly the ER alternative departs from the established cardioprotective regimen, why that is important physiologically, and how it may explain the findings of AIM-HIGH and HPS2-THRIVE. Given important gaps left by statin therapy, the established cardioprotective niacin regimen remains an important evidence-based therapy for the statin intolerant or statin averse.
niacin  vitamin  B  3  overview  peer-reviewed  research  blood  glucose  supplement  interaction  risk  benefit  cholesterol  lipids  HDL  treatment  dyslipidemia  systematic  review  statin  intolerance  ER  dosage  administration  guidelines  standards 
june 2016 by Michael.Massing
Cannabinoid-related agents in the... [Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI
Rich evidence has shown that cannabis products exert a broad gamut of effects on emotional regulation. The main psychoactive ingredient of hemp, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and its synthetic cannabinoid analogs have been reported to either attenuate or exacerbate anxiety and fear-related behaviors in humans and experimental animals.
The heterogeneity of cannabis-induced psychological outcomes reflects a complex network of molecular interactions...The high degree of interindividual variability in the responses to cannabis is contributed by a wide spectrum of factors, including genetic and environmental determinants, as well as differences in the relative concentrations of THC and other alkaloids (such as cannabidiol) within the plant itself.
The present article reviews the currently available knowledge on the herbal, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids with respect to the modulation of anxiety responses, and highlights the challenges that should be overcome to harness the therapeutic potential of some of these compounds, all the while limiting the [adverse] effects associated with cannabis consumption. In addition the article presents some promising patents on cannabinoid-related agents.
medical  research  peer-reviewed  cannabis  marijuana  drug  effects  environment  set  brain  cognition  emotion  response  anxiety  cannabinoids  dosage  genetics  cannabidiol  literature  review  adverse  correlation 
april 2012 by Michael.Massing
Vitamin D: Too Much May Erase Heart Benefit
Low levels of vitamin D may confer a cardiovascular benefit, but too much vitamin D may have the opposite effect. The critical threshold appears to be a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 21 ng/mL—more than that level increases C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker for cardiovascular disease, but lower serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D lower CRP levels.
A multivariate analysis that tracked 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations as well as CRP in more than 15,000 healthy adults revealed that above the threshold for benefit, CRP increased with each 10-ng/mL increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
In a univariate analysis, CRP levels decreased as levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased up to the median of 2 ng/mL.... [?]
The mean age of participants was 46, and the median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and CRP levels were 21 ng/mL and 0.21 mg/dL, respectively. [No significant difference in levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was found between near-equal numbers of men and women.] Whites had significantly higher baseline levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D than nonwhites.
Significantly more people with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2 had lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at baseline (41% versus 25%, P<0.0001); the same was true for smokers (22% versus 18%, P=0.004)....
"From our results, it appears that vitamin D supplementation among asymptomatic subjects with baseline vitamin D values of greater than 21 ng/mL might have no additional effects on systemic inflammation, as measured by changes in the serum CRP levels"...
[The] study found a significant inverse relationship between CRP and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels less than 21 ng/mL.
[P]rior studies assessing the relationship between vitamin D status and markers of inflammation have yielded inconsistent results.

Amer M, Qayyum, R "Relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and C-reactive protein in asymptomatic adults (from the Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2006" Am J Cardiol 2012; 109: 226–230
C-reactive  protein  biomarker  cardiovascular  disease  marker  indicator  medical  research  peer-reviewed  risk  benefit  vitamin  D  supplements  dosage  serum  concentration  correlation 
january 2012 by Michael.Massing
Vitamin B12: Dosing - MayoClinic.com
Recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) are 2.4 micrograms daily for adults and adolescents aged 14 years and older, 2.6 micrograms daily for adult and adolescent pregnant females, and 2.8 micrograms daily for adult and adolescent lactating females. Because 10-30% of older people do not absorb food-bound vitamin B12 efficiently, those over 50 years of age should meet the RDA by eating foods fortified with B12 or by taking a vitamin B12 supplement. Supplementation of 25-100 micrograms daily has been used to maintain vitamin B12 levels in older people....
For vitamin B12 deficiency, 125-2,000 micrograms of cyanocobalamin has been taken by mouth daily for up to 2.5 years or longer. Five hundred micrograms of sublingual (under the tongue) vitamin B12 has been used daily for up to four weeks....
To lower homocysteine levels, 60-400 micrograms of vitamin B12 has been taken by mouth daily, as part of a B vitamin combination used for up to four years....
For cognitive function, the following doses have been taken by mouth: 10 micrograms or 50 micrograms of cyanocobalamin daily for one month; and one milligram of cyanocobalamin weekly for four weeks. One 1,000 microgram vitamin B12 injection has been used daily for five days, followed by one 1,000 microgram injection monthly for five months.
vitamin  B12  dosage  Mayo  Clinic  homocysteine  cognition 
january 2012 by Michael.Massing
Are You Getting Enough Vitamin D?
"I am delighted the upper limit for vitamin D has been doubled to 4,000 IUs per day, although this is a conservative level, considering the body of scientific evidence indicating it should be 10,000 IU," [Dr. Robert Heaney of Creighton] tells WebMD. "However, few people need more than 4,000 IUs, which will meet the needs of most healthy people, give physicians confidence to recommend supplementation, and allow research at higher vitamin D levels."

In July 2011, the Endocrine Society Practice Guidelines published recommendations for the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D recommending an upper limit of 10,000 IU/day.

"There is a potential to cause harm if you overdose on supplements above 4,000 IU/day but there is no fear of overdosing from the sun because your skin acts like a regulatory system, only allowing production of the amount of vitamin D you need," Brannon says.
vitamin  D  dosage  supplement  research  medical  review  literature  recommendations  maximum  toxicity  risk  benefit  from delicious
november 2011 by Michael.Massing
Can Zinc Lozenges and Nasal Sprays Remedy Your Cold?
[Zinc] formulation (gluconate, sulfate, acetate) and some flavoring additives may make a difference...zinc works best when taken regularly (every 2 hours) at the first sign of a cold, and using 9-24 milligrams of elemental zinc per dose....
Short-term use of zinc—less than 5 days—has not led to serious [adverse] effects but can cause mouth irritation, a metallic taste, and stomach upset. [Z]inc should not be taken for more than five days. Long-term use of zinc[—]more than 6 weeks—can lead to copper deficiency.
Zinc supplements are not recommended for children[, who are even more sensitive to zinc and manifest adverse effects at much lower] levels.
[Zinc is necessary for optimal health and is safe to ingest via foods such as seafood and eggs. S]upplementing with higher doses of zinc, particularly long term, can be toxic.... Zinc’s [adverse] effects, especially when nasal sprays or gels are used, may outweigh any potential benefit, and the benefit may be minimal at best.
zinc  cold  dosage  efficacy  effective  onset  treatment  symptoms  symptomatic  relief  supplements  self  care  from delicious
september 2011 by Michael.Massing
Ginseng Does Not Improve Blood Sugars
Swallowing ginseng root extract has no effect on blood sugar regulation among people with diabetes or prediabetic symptoms, a new study concludes. Despite prior evidence that the herb might help treat problems processing blood sugar, the researchers were unable to even detect ginseng compounds in the participants' bloodstream after they took it. They also saw no differences in the subjects' blood sugar. Participants were overweight or obese and had either recently received a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes or had developed impaired glucose tolerance. Before and after the 4-week treatment with 3 grams daily for 2 weeks then 8 grams daily for another 2 weeks, in 15 patients, the researchers gathered information on how well the participants regulated their blood sugar and how sensitive they were to insulin. None of the measurements were different after taking ginseng. Diabetes Care, online March 16, 2011
ginseng  blood  sugar  glucose  folk  remedies  medical  research  peer-reviewed  dosage  supplement  effects  from delicious
may 2011 by Michael.Massing
Admetior Digital Spoon Scale | Wired.com Product Reviews
Standard kitchen scales operate in the pound/kilo realm — good for bulk ingredients like flour but hardly helpful for quantifying a dash of saffron. Use the Spoon Scale to spoon out a portion of fleur de sel, and an instant reading gives its mass to the nearest tenth of a gram (300 grams max). The device comes with a 3-tablespoon scoop and a smaller 1½-tablespoon scoop.
gadgets  kitchen  dosage 
december 2008 by Michael.Massing
Differential effects of medical marijuana based on strain and route of administration: A three-year observational study
'Cannabis indica strains increased energy and appetite....[T]he liver metabolizes orally ingested marijuana[, producing] a potent and long-acting cannabinoid...which induces varied reactions in medical marijuana patients and is not often well tolerated.'
dosage  treatment  drug  effects  peer-reviewed  research  medical  biological  marijuana  cannabis 
may 2008 by Michael.Massing
Cannabinoids Elicit Antidepressant-Like Behavior: J. Neurosci. -- Search Result
A cannabinoid surrogate models serotonin-system effects and quantifies an optimal dose for antidepressant action: .2mg/kg, if you happen to be a lab rat. And boy, do they have a stressful life! Details of the experiment mechanics not for the squeamish.
dosage  depression  drug 
may 2008 by Michael.Massing
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol levels in street samp...[Clin Toxicol. 1979] - PubMed Result
'The validity of cannabis products distributed illicitly and analyzed was over 94%. Exotic varieties were more potent than less expensive cannabis. The absolute amount of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol ranged from 1.5 to 144.9 mg.'
cannabis  marijuana  dosage  self  care  treatment  drug 
may 2008 by Michael.Massing
Pain-Reducing Effects of Cannabis Depend on Dose
'Our study suggests that there is a therapeutic window for analgesia, with low doses being ineffective, medium doses resulting in pain relief, and high doses increasing pain.'
pain  treatment  dose  dosage  drug  effects  benefit 
may 2008 by Michael.Massing

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