Michael.Massing + adverse   76

Fenofibrate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Adverse effects[edit]
The most common adverse events (>3% of patients with coadministered statins) are[9]

Back pain
Joint pain or arthralgia
Upper respiratory tract infection

Myopathy and rhabdomyolysis; increased risk when coadminstered with a statin, particularly in the elderly and patients with diabetes, renal failure, hypothyroidism[9]

Can increase serum transaminases; liver tests should be monitored periodically[9]

Can increase serum creatinine levels; renal function should be monitored periodically in patients with renal insufficiency[9]

Can increase cholesterol excretion into the bile, leading to risk of cholelithiasis; if suspected gallbladder studies are indicated. See "Interaction" section under Bile Acid Sequestrant[9]

Exercise caution in concomitant treatment with oral coumarin anticoagulants (e.g. Warfarin). Adjust the dosage of coumarin to maintain the prothrombin time/INR at desired level to prevent bleeding complications[9]
fibrates  fenofibrate  adverse  drug  effects  events 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Fibrates Symptoms, Causes, Treatment - What are the side effects of fibrates? - MedicineNet - What are the side effects of fibrates?
The side effects of fibrates include nausea, stomach upset, and sometimes diarrhea. Fibrates can irritate (inflame) the liver. The liver irritation usually is mild and reversible, but it occasionally can be severe enough to require stopping the drug.

Fibrates can cause gallstones when used for several years.

Fibrates can increase the effectiveness of blood thinners, such as warfarin (Coumadin), when both medications are used together. Thus, the dose of warfarin should be adjusted to avoid over-thinning of the blood which can lead to excessive bleeding.

Fibrates can cause muscle damage particularly when taken together with statin medications. Gemfibrozil interferes with the breakdown of certain statins (for example, simvastatin [Zocor] or lovastatin [Mevacor, Altoprev]), resulting in higher statin blood levels, and hence a higher likelihood of muscle toxicity from the statin. Doctors generally avoid combining a statin with fibrates because of concern over the higher risk of muscle damage with the combination. Gemfibrozil should not be combined with simvastatin and if combined with lovastatin the dose of lovastatin should not exceed 20 mg daily. However, fenofibrate does not interfere with the breakdown of statins and should be the safer fibrate to use if it is necessary to use a fibrate with a statin. Furthermore, pravastatin (Pravachol) seems to have fewer muscle toxic effects than the other statins when combined with fibrates, but the risk still exists.
fibrates  fenofibrate  adverse  drug  effects  events 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Fenofibrate Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com
You should check with your doctor immediately if any of these side effects occur when taking fenofibrate:

Less common
Chills or fever
hives, itching, or skin rash
muscle aches and pains
nausea or vomiting
Chronic indigestion
dark urine
muscle cramps, pain, stiffness, swelling, or weakness
troubled breathing
unusual bleeding or bruising
unusual tiredness
yellow eyes or skin
Incidence not known
bloody urine
decreased frequency or amount of urine
lower back or side pain
pains in the stomach, side, or abdomen, possibly radiating to the back
swelling of the face, fingers, or lower legs
swollen joints
upper right abdominal or stomach pain
fibrates  fenofibrate  adverse  drug  effects  events 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Fenofibrate: MedlinePlus Drug Information
Fenofibrate may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:

pain in the back, arm, or legs
Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately:

muscle pain or tenderness
joint pain
blistering or peeling skin
pain in the upper back between the shoulder blades or under the right shoulder
stomach pain, especially in the upper right part of the stomach
redness, swelling, pain, tenderness, or warmth in one leg
shortness of breath
pain when breathing
coughing up blood
fibrates  fenofibrate  adverse  drug  effects  events 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Side Effects of Fenofibrate 40 mg/ 120 mg (Fenofibrate) Drug Center - RxList
Common side effects of fenofibrate include stomach pain, back pain, headache, or runny or stuffy nose. Infrequent side effects of fenofibrate include gallstones and liver problems. Call your doctor if you experience unlikely but serious side effects of fenofibrate including severe stomach/abdominal pain, persistent nausea/vomiting, yellowing eyes or skin (jaundice), dark urine, unusual muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness especially if accompanied by fever or flu-like symptoms.
fibrates  fenofibrate  adverse  drug  effects  events 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Largest Risk for Diabetes With Statins Yet Seen, in New Study
Statin therapy appears to increase the risk for type 2 diabetes by 46%, even after adjustment for confounding factors, a large new population-based study concludes.

This suggests a higher risk for diabetes with statins in the general population than has previously been reported, which has been in the region of a 10% to 22% increased risk, report the researchers, led by Henna Cederberg, MD, PhD, from the University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, and colleagues, who published their study online March 4 in Diabetologia.
statins  risk  drug  benefit  effects  adverse  in  vivo  human  peer-reviewed  research  clinical  trial 
march 2015 by Michael.Massing
Strontium FAQ
Their surveillance of the drug during and following the trial revealed ~50% increase in annual risk of embolism and thrombosis in patients taking strontium ranelate. They also concluded that nervous system disorders are more frequent amongst strontium ranelate users:
“Especially, reports of CNS effects such as mental impairment, disturbed consciousness, memory loss/amnesia and seizures create some concern”,
and that there is
“clear impact of treatment with strontium ranelate on skeletal muscle cell integrity”,
although the clinical importance of this is unknown. The EMEA goes on to recommend that surveillance and a pharmacovigilance plan is needed for the drug (i.e.. the frequency and type of adverse events needs to be closely monitored...)
strontium  supplement  adverse  effects  risk  benefit 
february 2015 by Michael.Massing
Is Niacin Done?
Despite the better lipid profiles, those on niacin did not have better outcomes and no significant reduction in major vascular events. That is not all the bad news for those taking niacin. They also had more adverse events way beyond flushing: more myopathy, which was 10 times more likely in Chinese participants compared with those of European descent; more bleeding, including gastrointestinal bleeding and bleeding in intracranial and other sites; more diabetes—new diabetes diagnoses were increased by a third. And very surprising and unexpected: There was also an excess of serious infections in the niacin group.

So, not only did niacin not significantly reduce the risk for major vascular events, but the risk for serious adverse events was greatly increased.

As Donald Lloyd-Jones says in his accompanying editorial, it is time to face facts. For niacin and vascular effects, there is a consistent lack of benefit.
[adding emphasis—DMM:]
Perhaps HDL-C level is a risk marker rather than a risk factor.
HDL  niacin  PLAY  video  risk  marker  factor  drug  supplement  effects  diabetogenic  diabetes  etiology  adverse  events  bleeding  cardiovascular  infection  myopathy  lipids  blood  muscular 
december 2014 by Michael.Massing
Statins: The Good, the Bad, and the Unknown
In July, Medscape posted "Growing Doubt on Statin Drugs: The Problem of Drug-Lifestyle Interaction," a perspective by cardiac electrophysiologist Dr John Mandrola about the value of statin medications in primary prevention for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The driver for his article was a recent experience in which he treated a patient's myalgia and arthralgia by discontinuing her statin. Dr Mandrola had no qualms about stopping the statin, citing a lack of data supporting a significant benefit for these drugs in primary prevention.

The commentary generated more than 600 responses from Medscape readers, a substantial majority of whom agreed with his viewpoint....
statins  risk  drug  effects  adverse  benefit 
october 2014 by Michael.Massing
Pharmacokinetic and Toxicological Considerations of the SGLT2 Inhibitors
The most common adverse effect for all three of the new SGLT2 inhibitors is the increased incidence of genitourinary infections.
diabetes  drug  treatment  adverse  effects  infection  risk  type  2  T2D 
january 2014 by Michael.Massing
High Potency Statins [Induce] Diabetes?
The researchers concluded, "Our findings suggest that older patients treated with certain statins are at increased risk for incident diabetes, regardless of dose or whether treatment is used for primary or secondary prevention… Clinicians should consider this risk when they are contemplating statin treatment for individual patients."

A. A. Carter, T. Gomes, X. Camacho, D. N. Juurlink, B. R. Shah, M. M. Mamdani. Risk of incident diabetes among patients treated with statins: population based study.BMJ, 2013; 346 (may23 4): f2610 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.f2610
treatment  hyperlipidemia  standard  of  care  cholesterol  cardiovascular  risk  adverse  effect  drug  statin  peer-reviewed  research  correlation  earnest  human  in  vivo  large  cohort  T2D  diabetes  type  2  statins  effects  clinical  trial 
june 2013 by Michael.Massing
Evidence shows that anti-depressants likely do more harm than good, researchers find
Anti-depressants are designed to relieve the symptoms of depression by increasing the levels of serotonin in the brain, where it regulates mood. The vast majority of serotonin that the body produces, though, is used for other purposes, including digestion, forming blood clots at wound sites, reproduction and development.
What the researchers found is that anti-depressants have negative health effects on all processes normally regulated by serotonin.
The findings include these elevated risks:
* developmental problems in infants
* problems with sexual stimulation and function and sperm development in adults
* digestive problems such as diarrhea, constipation, indigestion and bloating
* abnormal bleeding and stroke in the elderly
The authors reviewed three recent studies showing that elderly anti-depressant users are more likely to die than non-users, even after taking other important variables into account. The higher death rates indicate that the overall effect of these drugs on the body is more harmful than beneficial.
"Serotonin is an ancient chemical. It's intimately regulating many different processes, and when you interfere with these things you can expect, from an evolutionary perspective, that it's going to cause some harm," Andrews says.
Millions of people are prescribed anti-depressants every year, and while the conclusions may seem surprising, Andrews says much of the evidence has long been apparent and available.
"The thing that's been missing in the debates about anti-depressants is an overall assessment of all these negative effects relative to their potential beneficial effects," he says. "Most of this evidence has been out there for years and nobody has been looking at this basic issue."
In previous research, Andrews and his colleagues had questioned the effectiveness of anti-depressants even for their prescribed function, finding that patients were more likely to suffer relapse after going off their medications as their brains worked to re-establish equilibrium.
risk  benefit  antidepressant  earnest  hatmandu  SSRI  medical  research  drug  effects  adverse  serotonin  peer-reviewed 
june 2012 by Michael.Massing
Cannabinoid-related agents in the... [Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI
Rich evidence has shown that cannabis products exert a broad gamut of effects on emotional regulation. The main psychoactive ingredient of hemp, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and its synthetic cannabinoid analogs have been reported to either attenuate or exacerbate anxiety and fear-related behaviors in humans and experimental animals.
The heterogeneity of cannabis-induced psychological outcomes reflects a complex network of molecular interactions...The high degree of interindividual variability in the responses to cannabis is contributed by a wide spectrum of factors, including genetic and environmental determinants, as well as differences in the relative concentrations of THC and other alkaloids (such as cannabidiol) within the plant itself.
The present article reviews the currently available knowledge on the herbal, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids with respect to the modulation of anxiety responses, and highlights the challenges that should be overcome to harness the therapeutic potential of some of these compounds, all the while limiting the [adverse] effects associated with cannabis consumption. In addition the article presents some promising patents on cannabinoid-related agents.
medical  research  peer-reviewed  cannabis  marijuana  drug  effects  environment  set  brain  cognition  emotion  response  anxiety  cannabinoids  dosage  genetics  cannabidiol  literature  review  adverse  correlation 
april 2012 by Michael.Massing
Statins and Your Muscles :: Diabetes Self-Management
A recent post on the New York Times blog Well looked at what both human and animal studies have found out about the connection between statins and muscle damage. The most recent study, published last year in the Journal of Applied Physiology, found that rats who were given a very high dose of atorvastatin for two weeks had 60% more oxidative stress (an indicator of possible cell damage) than those not given any of the drug. Some of the rats from each group were also made to run on treadmills for as long as possible. Not only did the rats on atorvastatin run a shorter distance than their non-drugged counterparts, but their post-workout oxidative stress was also 226% higher.

Human studies have yielded similar, if less dramatic, results. One study cited in the Well post — published in 2005 in the journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology — found that among healthy people who took atorvastatin for four weeks, 56 genes were expressed differently in leg muscle cells eight hours after vigorous exercise, compared with participants who took a placebo (inactive pill). In particular, genes known to affect muscle building and repair had a lower level of expression in the atorvastatin group. There is also plenty of evidence from patient and doctor reports that statins can lead to muscle fatigue and damage. According to Well, at least 10% of people who take statins will experience some fatigue or weakness, and this number rises to 25% among those who exercise regularly.
medical  research  peer-reviewed  statins  drug  effects  risk  damage  muscle  irreversible  iatrogenic  harm  benefit  adverse 
march 2012 by Michael.Massing
More “Miracle” Supplements…? :: Diabetes Self-Management
Raspberry ketones are on the FDA’s GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list. But in terms of their fat-burning ability, the only research to support this claim dates back years…and that study was done with mice. Not humans. So we really don’t know if this supplement works. And it’s not without some possible serious side effects: increased heart rate and blood pressure, difficulty sleeping, agitation, and maybe hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). Avoid taking this supplement if you have high blood pressure or thyroid issues. We don’t know enough about it how it affects diabetes control, either....
[Glucocil] is targeted to people with Type 2 diabetes, and its claim to fame is that it can reputedly stabilize postmeal blood glucose levels, decrease carbohydrate absorption, decrease appetite, and promote weight management. Pretty hefty claims for a supplement whose key active ingredient is mulberry leaf extract....
[This supplement also] contains alpha lipoic acid, banaba leaf extract, chromium picolinate, cinnamon bark powder, gymnema sylvestre extract, fish oil, and a few other things thrown in for good measure. Glucocil’s Web site clearly lists the research — but only for each separate ingredient. Nowhere on the site could I find research citing the effectiveness of the actual supplement....As far as mulberry leaf extract goes, a few small studies (mostly done with rats) show some reduction in glucose after ingesting it, but not enough to boast about....
We don’t know if the blend of these ingredients actually live up to Glucocil’s claims of glucose and weight control, nor do we know if the amount of ingredients in this supplement are in the right proportions to be effective. The Web site states that people under the age of 18, pregnant women, and people with liver and kidney problems should not take Glucocil. Also, they state that if you take insulin and don’t have cardiovascular, liver, or kidney problems, you can “consider” taking Glucocil. Side effects include “minor GI discomfort,” such as gas and loose stools.
supplements  hype  risk  benefit  diabetes  blood  glucose  sugar  caution  drug  effects  adverse  what.I'm.reading  interaction  T2D  research  sleep  type  2  human  in  vivo  liver  fatty  body  fat  metabolic  syndrome  disorder  etiology  peer-reviewed  correlation  clinical  trial  factor 
february 2012 by Michael.Massing
ACCORD Travesty :: David Spero :: Diabetes Self-Management
I may say some nasty and completely true things about the medical establishment.
I only started paying attention [to the ACCORD study] when the intensive blood sugar control arm was canceled. The more I found out about it, the angrier I got...ACCORD is a great example of most of what is wrong with American medicine, and with the way our media covers it....
From the beginning, ACCORD was a drug trial. The study called for participants to receive diet and exercise counseling if they wanted it, but set no guidelines for the counseling. There was no self-management group. It was all, repeat all, about the drugs.[Encouraging participating doctors to unsystematically and aggressively prescribe multiple drugs all but guaranteed drug interactions and adverse effects.]
In February, NHLBI stopped the intensive blood sugar control arm because more of the participants in that group were dying than in the normal care group.
Then came the outrageous part: NHLBI and media dummies came out saying that the intensive group’s blood sugars had been too low....
What kind of madness is this? You throw scads of drugs at sick people, treating only their numbers, not their bodies and lives as a whole. Then, when they die, you say it couldn’t have been the drugs. It must be the numbers. And you tell people with diabetes to get their blood sugars up.
You better believe that if ACCORD had shown a 10% decrease in cardiac deaths from intensive blood glucose management with drugs, those drugs would have become standard therapy for every person with Type 2 in the country. Nobody in the media would have said, “It wasn’t the drugs.” The drug companies would have made billions. That was the goal of the trial.
A1c  risk  tight  control  David  Spero  research  criticism  health  literacy  peer-reviewed  science  diabetes  management  mortality  benefit  bad  corruption  medical  pharmaceutical  industry  news  media  journalism  reporting  drug  effects  adverse  healthcare  self  care  polypharmacy  outbasket  corporatism  capitalism  glucose  outbox  exercise  physical  activity  correlation  self-monitored  blood  monitoring  SMBG 
february 2012 by Michael.Massing
Statins Can Increase Risk of Diabetes | Culver A. Ma Y. et al. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2012-01-09
Statin use in postmenopausal women is associated with a significantly increased risk of diabetes mellitus.
New data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) [indicates risk of diabetes is higher than previous studies have suggested: 48% increased risk]....
Recently published data reported the potential risk of diabetes with statin therapy. Dr. Kausik Ray (St. George's University of London, UK) and colleagues published a meta-analysis of [five trials testing high-dose statin therapy,] and found a significant increase in risk of diabetes with higher doses of the lipid-lowering drugs. A meta-analysis published in The Lancet in 2010 by Dr. Naveed Sattar (University of Glasgow, UK) also showed that statin therapy was associated with a 9% increased risk of diabetes.
[The present study produced an unadjusted risk model associating statin use at baseline] with a 71% (95% CI 1.61–1.83) increased risk of diabetes. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, the risk...declined to 48% (95% CI 1.38–1.59). The association was observed for all types of statins.
Dr. Kirsten Johansen,[ Editor of the Archives of Internal Medicine, noted that previous meta-analyses show no benefit of statins on all-cause mortality in the setting of primary prevention]...
[S[tatins are used with increasing frequency, including in primary prevention, and—based on the JUPITER trial—in patients with normal LDL cholesterol, but elevated C-reactive protein (more than 2.0 mg/L). In the present study, baseline statin therapy was associated with a significant 46% and 48% increased risk of diabetes in women with CVD and without CVD, respectively.
Just 7% of women in the WHI study were taking statins in the analysis, but today that number would be significantly higher, making the potential risk of diabetes at the population level much more widespread.
medical  research  drug  effects  risk  benefit  statins  women  peer-reviewed  meta-analysis  overview  mortality  diabetes  iatrogenic  what.I'm.reading  T2D  correlation  adverse 
january 2012 by Michael.Massing
Metformin and B12 Supplementation :: Diabetes Self-Management
The researchers found that B12 deficiency was present in 5.4% of people with diabetes who were taking metformin, compared to 2.4% of people with diabetes not taking metformin and 3.3% of people without diabetes. They further noted that use of supplements containing B12 was not linked with a reduction of B12 deficiency in people with diabetes, compared to a two-thirds reduction in deficiency among people who did not have diabetes. It is currently recommended that people 50 and older consume 2.4 micrograms of vitamin B12 daily from either fortified foods or supplements.
vitamin  B12  deficiency  supplements  diabetes  medical  research  peer-reviewed  correlation  metformin  T2D  drug  interaction  adverse  effects  type  2  treatment 
january 2012 by Michael.Massing
Statin Use Associated With Increased Diabetes Risk in Women
Millions of women over age 50 on statin drugs are at a significantly increased risk of developing diabetes, according to a new study from UMass Medical School published online Monday, Jan. 9, in the Archives of Internal Medicine. Senior author Yunsheng Ma, MD, PhD, associate professor of medicine and an epidemiologist at UMMS, said the study found that postmenopausal women on statin drugs showed a 48 percent increased rate of diabetes compared to those not on the cholesterol-lowering medications....
According to surveys by the National Center for Health Statistics, the rate of Americans over age 45 taking statins has increased tenfold over the last 20 years: from 2 percent in the period from 1988 to 1994, compared to 25 percent from 2005 to 2008, the most recent years for which figures are available. The federal data also shows that figure jumps to 50 percent of men ages 65 to 74 taking statins, while 39 percent of women age 75 and older are doing so.
statins  drug  effects  medical  research  peer-reviewed  risk  benefit  diabetes  iatrogenic  correlation  adverse 
january 2012 by Michael.Massing
Research Finds That Patients with Diabetes Should Take More Vitamin B12 Daily
biochemical B12 deficiency was greatest for people with type 2 diabetes taking metformin compared with those with type 2 diabetes but not taking metformin and those without diabetes.

Biochemical B12 deficiency was revealed in 5.8 per cent of patients with diabetes that took metformin as compared to 2.4 per cent of those who did not take metformin and 3.3 per cent of people that did not have diabetes.

In the US, it is currently believed that adults with type 2 diabetes that are over 50 should take 2.4 µg of synthetic vitamin B12 daily either in supplement form or in fortified food.

Researcher Godfrey Oakley commented "It is important to conduct further research to learn how much B12 is needed to correct the deficiency and to determine whether or not raising serum B12 levels improves the clinical picture for persons taking metformin who have low serum B12 concentrations."
Archives of Internal Medicine, Oct 2011
B12  vitamin  deficiency  diabetes  type  2  drug  interaction  medical  research  peer-reviewed  T2D  metformin  supplements  correlation  adverse  effects  treatment  protocol 
january 2012 by Michael.Massing
Statin Alternatives - Natural Health
Not mentioned in this piece is another reason to be cautious about red yeast rice extract—it IS a statin, specifically the one known pharmaceutically as lovastatin, and is therefore not really a statin alternative. It should probably be a avoided by anyone who has shown a sensititivity to statins, or wishes to avoid them on whatever principle. [This is a rare case of a drug having been developed in the laboratory before being "discovered" in nature.—DMM]
blood  lipids  fats  statins  cholesterol  natural  alternative  treatment  lovastatin  drug  effects  adverse  muscle  damage  self  care  risk  benefit  from delicious
april 2011 by Michael.Massing
One of the Most Effective Diabetes Drugs :: Diabetes Self-Management
Metformin has a long track record for being safe and causing relatively few serious [adverse] effects—plus, it also works! Chances are, if you have Type 2 diabetes and need to start on medication, your health-care provider will recommend you take metformin....
Metformin works by:
* Reducing the amount of glucose released by your liver (and your liver regularly releases glucose)
* Helping the insulin in your body work better (i.e., increasing insulin sensitivity).
Metformin doesn’t cause your pancreas to secrete insulin, as do sulfonylureas, so it’s very unlikely that you will experience hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) with metformin alone; however, if you take a sulfonylurea or insulin along with metformin, you may get hypoglycemia.
[Adverse] effects are usually temporary, and consist of gas, nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea. Some people have [adverse] effects, some never do. And if you can “stomach” metformin for the first month or so, you may end up losing weight...
diabetes  treatment  drug  effects  adverse  effectiveness  efficacy  metformin  liver  fat  loss  body  weight  peer-reviewed  research  T2D  risk  fatty  metabolic  syndrome  disorder  etiology  correlation  factor  from delicious
april 2011 by Michael.Massing
Predictors of New-Onset Diabetes in Patients Treated With Atorvastatin - DiabetesPro - American Diabetes Association
Investigators examined the incidence and clinical predictors of new-onset type 2 diabetes [in 3 large randomized trials involving atorvastatin. In the TNT (Treating to New Targets) trial, 9.24% of 3,798 patients on 80 mg of atorvastatin and 8.11% of 3,797 patients on 10 mg developed new-onset DM2]. In the IDEAL (Incremental Decrease in End Points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering) trial, 6.40% of 3,737 patients [on atorvastatin 80 mg/day and 5.59 percent of 3,724 patients on simvastatin 20 mg/day developed new-onset DM2]. In the SPARCL (Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels) trial, new-onset [DM2 was seen in 8.71% of 1,905 patients on atorvastatin 80 mg/day and in 6.06% of 1,898 placebo patients. Baseline fasting blood glucose, body-mass index, hypertension, and fasting triglycerides were independent predictors of new-onset DM2 in each trial. High-dose atorvastatin treatment] is associated with a slightly higher risk of type 2 diabetes.
statins  drug  effects  risk  benefit  diabetes  atorvastatin  Lipitor  medical  research  via:diabetes.org  correlation  adverse  from delicious
april 2011 by Michael.Massing
Vitamin D Can Decrease — or Increase — Breast Cancer Development and Insulin Resistance
“In the many studies [of] the effect of vitamin D in different cancer types, there is no straight link between use and benefit"...
[Vitamin D may reduce the risk of colon cancer development, with no effect on later stages, and] may increase the risk of prostate, esophagus and pancreatic cancer. [With endometrial cancer,] vitamin D was not beneficial in lean mice, in obese animals it reverses both early and advanced stages...
“[Vitamin D should not be taken lightly. Sufficient amounts have overall health benefits] that have nothing to do with preventing cancer. [Those who want to boost their use of vitamin D must have individual levels tested by a physician"...
A higher dose (25K IU) was used in mice fed the obesity-inducing diet because vitamin D becomes trapped in fatty tissue and thus is reduced in the blood stream...
[Obese mice developed insulin resistance, and vitamin D supplementation reversed it. Vitamin D in lean mice reduced insulin sensitivity in both mouse models.]
vitamin  D  supplements  diet  risk  benefit  medical  research  cancer  obesity  insulin  resistance  sensitivity  pancreas  pancreatic  via:dLife.com  T2D  diabetes  type  2  peer-reviewed  adverse  effects  from delicious
april 2011 by Michael.Massing
Aspirin can help prevent heart attack, stroke — but it's not for everyone - St. Petersburg Times
[In all men and in women over] 65, aspirin can prevent a 1st or 2nd heart attack and reduces overall heart-disease risk. [Aspirin can prevent or protect against a 1str stroke in women, depending on age, and in women under 65 can prevent] a 2nd heart attack.<br />
[Adverse effects range from stomach upset to bleeding in the brain if given DURING a stroke. [Don't combine aspirin with ibuprofen without medical advice]....<br />
Aspirin therapy is [contraindicated with bleeding or clotting disorder, asthma, stomach ulcers or heart failure. Too much aspirin can cause tinnitus] and hearing loss. <br />
[Daily low-dose aspirin therapy—81 mg or one baby aspirin a day—is usually protective. Heart attack symptoms—severe chest pain, difficulty breathing, profuse sweating, pain radiating] to the back, jaw, throat or arm, indigestion or heartburn, anxiety, extreme weakness, dizziness, irregular heartbeat—[call for chewing 4 baby aspirin and calling 911. <br />
Chewing helps rapid absorption that can heart prevent damage.]
aspirin  NSAID  drug  effects  risk  benefit  heart  circulation  stroke  treatment  adverse  beneficial  contraindication  cited  interaction  hatmandu  earnest  from delicious
march 2011 by Michael.Massing
Rosiglitazone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Senate Finance Committee accused GlaxoSmithKline of knowing about the drug's risks well before they became public. The report also criticized the FDA for letting clinical trials continue, despite 83,000 heart attacks from 1999 to 2007 that the FDA linked to rosiglitazone. GlaxoSmithKline maintains the drug is safe and that the Senate report did not consider scientific evidence or the company's efforts to make known its concerns to the parties involved. However, the FDA still recommends patients continue taking it unless their doctor tells them otherwise. <br />
[A 2010] retrospective study of 227,571 elderly American patients, comparing roziglitazone to pioglitazone, the other thiazolidinedione marketed in the [US, associated rosiglitazone] with "an increased risk of stroke, heart failure, and all-cause mortality and an increased risk of the composite of AMI, stroke, heart failure, or all-cause mortality in patients 65 years or older." The number needed to harm with roziglitazone was 60.
rosiglitazone  risk  benefit  drug  adverse  effects  number  needed  to  harm  from delicious
february 2011 by Michael.Massing
Muscle Cramps: Are They Preventable or Inevitable with Physical Activity?
[Muscle cramps are likely related to] poor flexibility, muscle fatigue, and/or doing new physical activities. [A]thletes are more likely to get cramps in the preseason when less conditioned and more subject to fatigue. Cramps often develop near the end of unaccustomed intense or prolonged exercise or during the night following the activity...
[C]ramps can also be related to dehydration and depletion of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium) lost through sweating...[M]any people with diabetes already have low blood levels of magnesium...[P]otassium and sodium can also become unbalanced during periods of uncontrolled hyperglycemia when water losses through urine are usually greater. Finally, cramps in people with diabetes also may occur as a side effect of certain drugs (e.g., lipid-lowering agents, antihypertensives, beta-agonists, insulin, oral contraceptives, and alcohol).
muscle  conditioning  electrolytes  calcium  potassium  magnesium  supplements  deficiency  diabetes  statins  adverse  effects  fatigue  symptoms  hyperglycemia  dysglycemia  morbidity  risk  medical  research  drug  correlation  benefit  cramps 
august 2010 by Michael.Massing
bupropion tachycardia heart rate - Google Search
In a study of bupropion for ADHD, a rise of systolic blood pressure by 6 mm Hg and of heart rate by 7 beats per minute (both statistically significant) were ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bupropion....there are possible side effects with Wellbutrin® (bupropion hydrochloride). ... A rapid heart rate (tachycardia) -- up to 10.8 percent of people ...
depression.emedtv.com/wellbutrin/wellbutrin-side-effects.html....Pharmacologic Treatment of Depression in Patients With Heart ....by SP Roose - 2005 - Cited by 28 - Related articles
TCAs routinely increase heart rate by 11%, induce orthostatic hypotension, .... The cardiovascular effects of bupropion treatment were documented in 36 patients ... Flecainide-induced ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation in patients ...www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/cgi/content/full/67/....How does bupropion increase a person's heartrate?... elevated heartbeat in the upper intake portion of the heart) is a ...www.answerbag.com › Categories › Health & Fitness
tachycardia  heart  rate  adverse  effects  bupropion  risk  benefit  SxRI  interaction  drug  hatmandu 
december 2009 by Michael.Massing
Hydroxymethylglutaryl Coenzyme A Inhibitors (Statins) and Arrhythmias: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors (statins) reduce mortality in coronary artery disease, heart failure and have been shown to have pleiotropic anti-arrhythmic effects. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the utility of statins in atrial fibrillation (AF) and ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VA). Systematic review of all studies from 1990 until 2006 identified fourteen good quality studies on statins and AF and five studies on statins and VA. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model and the pooled risk ratio (RR) for AF was RR: 0.73 (95% CI: 0.62-0.86) and for long term VA was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.44-0.94). In the sub-group analysis that included only randomized studies, the pooled risk ratio (RR) using random effects model for AF was RR: 0.64 (95% CI: 0.37-1.14). In conclusion, statins decrease the incidence and recurrence of AF and VA, but additional randomized studies are required to confirm this pleiotropic effect of statins.
risk  benefit  statins  heart  rate  tachycardia  drug  effects  adverse 
december 2009 by Michael.Massing
Reduction in Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias With Statins in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT)-II
The cumulative rate of ICD therapy for VT/VF or cardiac death, whichever occurred first, was significantly reduced in those with ≥90% statin usage compared to those with lower statin usage (p = 0.01). The time-dependent statin:no statin therapy hazard ratio was 0.65 (p < 0.01) for the end point of VT/VF or cardiac death and 0.72 (p = 0.046) for VT/VF after adjusting for relevant covariates.
risk  benefit  statins  heart  rate  tachycardia  drug  effects  adverse 
december 2009 by Michael.Massing
Heart Rhythm Disturbances and Statins
The heart is usually the first to feel statin associated CoQ10 depletion because of its extremely high-energy demands....Most of us now know that Statins lower cholesterol through inhibition of the mevalonate pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis. An unfortunate and inevitable side effect of mevalonate blocking is interference of ubiquinone metabolism. The implications of this were well known to the pharmaceutical industry from the very beginning of statin development. Ubiquinone is more commonly known [as] Co-enzyme Q10, CoQ10 and Q10. Its role in energy production is to make possible the transfer of electrons from one protein complex to another (within the inner membrane of the mitochondria) to its ultimate recipient, ATP. The statin drug impact on CoQ10 availability and mitochondrial energy production in the form of diminished cardiac contractility is easily understood. This same explanation must also be considered for altered nodal sensitivity and cardiac conductivity as well.
statins  risk  benefit  heart  rate  tachycardia  adverse  effects  drug 
december 2009 by Michael.Massing
High-Dose Atorvastatin Is a "Clinically Meaningful Intervention" for Diabetic Foot Ulcers | Johansen, O. J Diabetes 2009-09;1:182-187.
6 subjects (6 ulcers) took 10 mg of atorvastatin daily and 7 subjects (9 ulcers) took 80 mg/day. Everyone also received conventional management, including debridement, pressure relief, and antibiotics for underlying infections. There was no difference in ulcer characteristics or antibiotic use between the groups. In the low-dose group, all 6 ulcers healed over a median of 49 days. In the high-dose group, 6 of 9 ulcers healed over a median of 89 days. In the low-dose group, however, 2 healed ulcers recurred at 60 and 86 days after healing, and 6 new ulcers developed within a median of 108 days from baseline. There were no recurrences in the high-dose group, and only one new ulcer at 91 days from baseline....Changes in lipid parameters were similar between the groups, with the exceptions of a significant decrease in C-reactive protein...in the high-dose group. This group also had a non-significant trend toward improvement in ankle-brachial pressure index.
feet  ulcer  statins  prevention  risk  benefit  drug  effects  adverse 
november 2009 by Michael.Massing
Venlafaxine - Effexor - Drug Interactions and Warnings
Clinicians should be aware of the risk of serotonin syndrome when the patient receives not only a combination of 2 antidepressants, but also the single potent serotonergic agent [!?] venlafaxine.
- Ann Pharmacother 2003 Feb;37(2):209-11 -- Serotonin syndrome induced by low-dose venlafaxine. -- Pan JJ, Shen WW....Bupropion had an effect on the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine.
- J Clin Psychiatry 2002 Mar;63(3):181-6 -- Combining bupropion SR with venlafaxine, paroxetine, or fluoxetine: a preliminary report on pharmacokinetic, therapeutic, and sexual dysfunction effects. -- Kennedy SH, McCann SM, Masellis M, McIntyre RS, Raskin J, McKay G, Baker GB.
drug  adverse  effects  bupropion  venlafaxine  serotonin  syndrome  hatmandu  SxRI  risk  skin  interaction 
october 2009 by Michael.Massing
Combining bupropion SR with venlafaxine, paroxetine, or fluoxetine [J Clin Psychiatry. 2002] - PubMed Result
There was a clinically significant benefit in 14 (78%) of 18 partial responders or nonresponders, and 33% (N = 6) achieved a full response (chi2= 8.06, df = 2, p = .017). Sexual dysfunction, particularly a decrease in orgasmic delay, was also significantly improved with combination therapy (men: paired t = -2.1, df = 6, p = .08; women: paired t = -3.0, df = 7, p = .02). Plasma monitoring of drugs and their metabolites revealed a statistically significant increase in venlafaxine levels (F = 6.89, df = 4,24; p = .001) accompanied by a decrease in O-desmethylvenlafaxine (F = 14.26; df = 4,24; p < .0005) during combined treatment with bupropion SR. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma levels of SSRIs (paroxetine and fluoxetine) during the trial. CONCLUSION: Bupropion had an effect on the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine but not those of the SSRIs.
interaction  adverse  effects  sex  SNRI  venlafaxine  bupropion  SxRI  risk  drug  hatmandu  SSRI 
october 2009 by Michael.Massing
Venlafaxine ( Effexor ) Symptoms or Effects
See physician always: Abnormal speech, bleeding / irritated gums, chest pain, depression, difficulty breathing, dry skin, ear pain, hair loss, excessive salivation, loss of strength, migraines, problem urinating, seizures, sensitivity to sun, soft stools, stomach irritation, suicide attempts, taste disorders, tongue discoloring, thyroid changes, tremors, problems with vision, and /or vomiting

See physician if severe: Anxiety, constipation, delayed orgasm, dizziness, dry mouth, itching, loss of appetite, nausea, nervousness, sedation, sleepiness / sleeplessness, sweating, tingling hands / feet, unusual dreams, weight loss, and / or weakness.

See physician NOW: Skin rash or vomiting.

Stop taking and see physician NOW: Seizures.
adverse  effects  SNRI  drug  SxRI  risk 
october 2009 by Michael.Massing
Depression Lowers Blood Pressure, but Antidepressants increase it and Tricyclics could be a Cause | Licht, C. Hypertensipn (online) 2009-02-23
Contrary to prevailing opinion, new research indicates it is not depression that raises blood pressure but the drugs used to treat depression.

Investigators at the VU University Medical Center, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, show that depression is associated with low — not high — blood pressure but that taking certain antidepressants, particularly tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), tends to raise blood pressure and increase the risk for hypertension.

Lead author Carmilla Licht, from the department of psychiatry at VU University Medical Center, stated that, "Doctors should at least be aware of a potential blood-pressure rise that could be linked to TCA use, especially for patients with cardiovascular disease or high blood pressure or others who are at risk for hypertension."

"They may consider meticulously monitoring these patients' blood pressure when they prescribe one of these antidepressants or consider prescribing another antidepressant medication."
treatment  blood  pressure  risk  benefit  drug  hypertension  high  correlation  adverse  effects  peer-reviewed  research 
april 2009 by Michael.Massing
Statins Associated With Lower All-Cause Mortality, Even in Primary Prevention
Better continuity of statin treatment was associated with an ongoing reduction in cardiovascular mortality in patients without any evidence of coronary heart disease. In this primary prevention cohort, risk reduction was stronger for patients aged 55 to 64 years. Better continuity of statin treatment was also associated with an ongoing reduction in cardiovascular mortality in patients with a known history of coronary heart disease. In this secondary prevention group, there was greater reduction in mortality associated with younger age at baseline.
treatment  risk  benefit  mortality  heart  circulation  statins  drug  effects  adverse 
march 2009 by Michael.Massing
Two Lipid Drugs May Be Better Than One :: Diabetes Self-Management
Combining two different types of drugs—a statin and a fibrate—to treat abnormal lipid levels may be better than using just one drug for people with Type 2 diabetes. The study, which was published in February [2008] in The American Journal of Cardiology, looked at 300 people with Type 2 diabetes and "mixed dyslipedemia," but no history of heart disease....After 12 weeks of drug therapy, the researchers...found that combination therapy showed the most benefit overall, lowering markers such as dense very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and small, dense LDL cholesterol molecules. The combination therapy was... effective at raising HDL cholesterol. The combination of drugs may have been more successful because the two drugs work to control lipid levels by different mechanisms....More information about how these two drugs affect the actual development of cardiovascular disease should be available when the lipid-treatment arm of the ACCORD trial ends in 2009.
risk  benefit  heart  circulation  statins  fibrates  drug  effects  adverse 
december 2008 by Michael.Massing
Fibrate Drug Alone Doesn't Cut Heart Risks for Type 2's :: Diabetes Self-Management
A new study of the lipid-lowering drug fenofibrate (brand names TriCor, Lofibra, and others) has shown that taking it alone may not cut the risk of heart disease in people with Type 2 diabetes....However, fenofibrate may still be effective when used in combination with other cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering drugs, such as statins. Commenting in 2005 on the main FIELD study results, lead researcher Professor Anthony Keech said, "In the context of the well established benefits of statin therapy in this patient group, the main use of fenofibrate will probably be in combination therapy"....[(link) A] shorter-term study found that people who took the statin drug simvastatin and fenofibrate together had fewer markers for cardiovascular disease risk after 12 weeks than those who took either drug alone. That study was paid for by the manufacturers of brand-name simvastatin (Zocor) and fenofibrate (TriCor), although generic versions of these drugs are available, too.
risk  heart  circulation  statins  fibrates  drug  effects  benefit  adverse 
december 2008 by Michael.Massing
Drug Combo Linked to Increased Health Risks :: Diabetes Self-Management
'A combination of two common types of Type 2 diabetes drugs may be linked to an increased risk of dying or ending up in the hospital due to cardiovascular disease...[but these results showed only] when risk of death was combined with risk of hospitalization....Trying to explain their findings, the researchers offered [that]:
* People who need combination therapy to control their blood glucose levels are likely to have more rapidly-progressing diabetes or have had diabetes for a longer period of time (or both); it may be the more advanced diabetes, rather than the treatment, that raises risks.
* Weight gain...associated with sulfonylureas [may increase risk] even when the drug is [combined] with metformin, which is not associated with weight gain.
* Sulfonylureas can cause hypoglycemia, and [combining them] with metformin may make hypoglycemic episodes harder to recover from because metformin prevents the liver from making extra glucose[, increasing] cardiovascular risk.'
risk  drug  effects  adverse  morbidity  hospitalization  interaction  peer-reviewed  research  metformin  T2D  diabetes  treatment  human  in  vivo  mortality  type  2  liver  fatty  body  fat  metabolic  syndrome  disorder  etiology  correlation  clinical  trial  factor 
august 2008 by Michael.Massing
Fish Oil, Red Yeast Rice Cut Cholesterol?
I'm baffled by the discrepancy between the intensive coaching of the supplement-takers and the laissez-faire approach to the statin-takers, and wonder how any conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of the supplements: 'The supplement group took three fish oil capsules twice daily. In addition, those with an LDL cholesterol higher than 160 mg/dL took 3.6 grams of red yeast rice daily, divided into two doses. If the initial LDL level was 160 or less, they took 2.4 grams of red yeast rice daily, divided into two doses....The supplement group also attended weekly meetings and was taught about lifestyle changes by a cardiologist and a dietitian. The group was urged to follow a modified Mediterranean diet, limiting fat intake to less than 25% of daily total calories, and to exercise for 30 to 45 minutes five to six times a week.' (In passing, it's also peculiar that Dr. Becker seems to have no clue what homeopathy is.)
statins  cholesterol  alternative  supplements  fishoil  red.yeast.rice  science  criticism  blood  fats  lipids  self  care  bad  health  literacy  research  medical  reporting  journalism  news  media  drug  effects  risk  benefit  adverse 
august 2008 by Michael.Massing
Cannabinoids Block Release of Serotonin in Migraine Patients
Table I documents the effect of delta-1-THC, CBD, and DMHP-CBD on 14C labelled serotonin release from normal platelets when incubated with the migraine patient's plasma obtained during a migraine attack. There is a statistically inhibitory effect of 14C serotonin release (p<0.005) at 10 -5M, 10 -6M, 10 -7M delta-1-THC concentrations. It should be noted that delta-1-THC added at the same concentrations to plasma of migraine patients obtained in an attack-free period revealed no significant inhibitory effect on 14C serotonin release compared with normal platelets.

The other two cannabinoid derivatives CBD and DMHP-CBD had no significant inhibitory effect on 14C serotonin release from normal platelets, when tested either with migraine-free period plasma or plasma obtained during a migraine attack. These two derivatives were tested at the same concentrations as described in Table I.
treatment  cannabis  research  medical  biological  serotonin  pain  marijuana  drug  effects  migraine  interaction  adverse  risk  peer-reviewed  CBD  THC  in  vitro 
may 2008 by Michael.Massing
First Time in 50 Years - Average Total-Cholesterol Levels Fall Below 200 mg/dL
'The way that some newspapers picked up the story is rosier than it really should be, because if you just looked at people not on drug therapy, the total cholesterol numbers really haven't changed that much in the past 20 years.'
statins  cholesterol  risk  treatment  blood  fats  lipids  drug  effects  benefit  adverse 
december 2007 by Michael.Massing
Fluoxetine: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: Fluoxetine may inhibit the metabolism of lovastatin and simvastatin resulting in myositis and rhabdomyolysis; these combinations are best avoided.
muscle  reaction  interaction  statins  SSRI  drug  risk  adverse  effects  hatmandu  benefit 
december 2007 by Michael.Massing
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: Fluoxetine may inhibit the metabolism of lovastatin and simvastatin resulting in myositis and rhabdomyolysis; these combinations are best avoided.
muscle  metabolic  syndrome  statins  fluoxetine  drug  effects  risk  interaction  SSRI  benefit  adverse 
december 2007 by Michael.Massing
Rhabdomyolysis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Injury leading to rhabdomyolysis can be due to mechanical, physical and chemical causes:
chemical: metabolic disorders...statins...alcohol... Skeletal muscle relaxants that are consumed in overdose are rarely associated with this condition.
muscle  metabolic  syndrome  statins  drug  effects  risk  benefit  adverse  interaction  alcohol 
december 2007 by Michael.Massing
>> Center for Food-Drug Interaction >> Research and Education
grapefruit-drug interactions with graphically clear ratings and possible alternatives, sortable by compound or brand name, or by drug category
food  interaction  drug  effects  adverse  risk 
november 2007 by Michael.Massing
Statins for All Diabetic Patients Justified
'We advocate that in the absence of a specific indication for statin therapy (e.g., microalbuminuria...), statins should still be routinely prescribed to all men and women with diabetes aged over 40 and 45 years, respectively, for primary CVD prevention.'
heart  circulation  diabetes  statins  drug  effects  risk  benefit  adverse 
october 2007 by Michael.Massing
Cardiovascular Risk Increases with Low LDL When HDL is Low
•Among subjects with cholesterol levels<70mg/dL, those with HDL cholesterol≥55mg/dL still showed significantly less risk for major cardiovascular events...
•Green tea component EGCG tests as effective as Avandia against moderate diabetes.
cholesterol  statins  tea  herbs  blood  fats  lipids  green  drug  effects  risk  benefit  adverse  activity  exercise 
october 2007 by Michael.Massing
Ezetimibe/Simvastatin a Novel Way for Type 2's to Reduce CVD Risk
Therapy employing the use of ezetimibe/simvastatin offers [controlled/treated diabetics] the option of lowering not only LDL-C, but also non-HDL-C, apo-B, and hs-CRP.
risk  heart  circulation  diabetes  statins  drug  effects  benefit  adverse  interaction  therapy 
october 2007 by Michael.Massing
Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Bulletin, Volume 24, Number 2, April 2005
Recovery on withdrawal of the statin was noted in approximately half of the ADRAC cases including cases where the patient also had diabetes, and some reports describe positive rechallenge. In two cases, symptoms developed after an increase in dose.
neuropathy  statins  drug  effects  adverse  risk  benefit 
august 2007 by Michael.Massing
ADA: Statins and Fibrates Prevents Diabetic Neuropathy by 35-48%
A major epidemiological study conducted over eight years in Australia has shown that two classes of lipid-lowering drugs - statins and fibrates - significantly lower the risk of developing nerve damage known as peripheral sensory diabetic neuropathy.
neuropathy  fibrates  diabetes  statins  drug  effects  risk  benefit  adverse 
june 2007 by Michael.Massing

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