Aardman Animation Is Giving the Company to Their Employees | Hacker News
"In this case I think the primary reason is to protect the company.

Aardman is probably a fairly hot company right now. Probably prime for a purchase by one of the big studios. But then it would most likely just get broken up and turned into a mill for churning out look-a-like content. Or possibly even just a logo stamped on contracted out content. I believe the founders have been fairly clear in the past about not being interested in selling.

While the founders still own it they can just turn down these offers and stay independent, but soon they are going to retire and will have to give up ownership to someone. And that someone might just decide to take the big payout and sell. So this is their way of ensuring that the company continues to run as it is for the good of the employees. It can now only be sold if the majority of employees vote to accept the sale, and if they do at least they'll also be the ones to get any associated payout not just some profit driven owner. "
economic-naturalist  **  cooperatives  economics-in-action 
7 days ago
Ellsberg Revisited: An Experimental Study - Halevy - 2007 - Econometrica - Wiley Online Library
"An extension to Ellsberg's experiment demonstrates that attitudes to ambiguity and compound objective lotteries are tightly associated. The sample is decomposed into three main groups: subjective expected utility subjects, who reduce compound objective lotteries and are ambiguity neutral, and two groups that exhibit different forms of association between preferences over compound lotteries and ambiguity, corresponding to alternative theoretical models that account for ambiguity averse or seeking behavior."
yoram.halevy  ambiguity  experiments 
8 days ago
One Backup Personal Cloud Storage | SpiderOak
Dropbox replacement? They made me angry with the new filesystem crap.
dropbox  security  privacy 
13 days ago
Macros that Work Together | Journal of Functional Programming | Cambridge Core

Racket is a large language that is built mostly within itself. Unlike the usual approach taken by non-Lisp languages, the self-hosting of Racket is not a matter of bootstrapping one implementation through a previous implementation, but instead a matter of building a tower of languages and libraries via macros. The upper layers of the tower include a class system, a component system, pedagogic variants of Scheme, a statically typed dialect of Scheme, and more. The demands of this language-construction effort require a macro system that is substantially more expressive than previous macro systems. In particular, while conventional Scheme macro systems handle stand-alone syntactic forms adequately, they provide weak support for macros that share information or macros that use existing syntactic forms in new contexts. This paper describes and models features of the Racket macro system, including support for general compile-time bindings, sub-form expansion and analysis, and environment management. The presentation assumes a basic familiarity with Lisp-style macros, and it takes for granted the need for macros that respect lexical scope. The model, however, strips away the pattern and template system that is normally associated with Scheme macros, isolating a core that is simpler, can support pattern and template forms themselves as macros, and generalizes naturally to Racket's other extensions."
matthew.flatt  racket  language-oriented-programming  paper 
17 days ago
Tony Garnock-Jones: The Network as a Language Construct
"The actor model inspires several important programming languages. In this model, communicating concurrent actors collaborate to produce a result. A pure actor language tends to turn systems into an organization-free collection of processes, however, even though most applications call for layered and tiered architectures. To address this lack of an organizational principle, programmers invent design patterns. This paper investigates integrating some of these basic patterns via a programming language construct. Specifically, it extends a calculus of communicating actors with a “network” construct so that actors can conduct scoped, tiered conversations. The paper then sketches how to articulate design ideas in the calculus, how to implement it, and how such an implementation shapes application programming"
tags  language-oriented-programming  actors  tony.garnock-jones  sam.tobin-hochstadt  matthias.felleisen 
17 days ago
Global Evidence on Economic Preferences* | The Quarterly Journal of Economics | Oxford Academic
"This article studies the global variation in economic preferences. For this purpose, we present the Global Preference Survey (GPS), an experimentally validated survey data set of time preference, risk preference, positive and negative reciprocity, altruism, and trust from 80,000 people in 76 countries. The data reveal substantial heterogeneity in preferences across countries, but even larger within-country heterogeneity. Across individuals, preferences vary with age, gender, and cognitive ability, yet these relationships appear partly country specific. At the country level, the data reveal correlations between preferences and biogeographic and cultural variables, such as agricultural suitability, language structure, and religion. Variation in preferences is also correlated with economic outcomes and behaviors. Within countries and subnational regions, preferences are linked to individual savings decisions, labor market choices, and prosocial behaviors. Across countries, preferences vary with aggregate outcomes ranging from per capita income, to entrepreneurial activities, to the frequency of armed conflicts."
preferences  preference-changes  #  armin.falk  ben.enke  anke.becker  uwe.sunde  thomas.dohmen  microeconomics  surveys 
4 weeks ago
William Vollmann’s Brutal Book About Climate Change - The Atlantic
"Vollmann’s meager wish is for future readers to appreciate that they would have made the same mistakes we have. "
climate  book  climate-change  the.atlantic  sociology 
4 weeks ago
Provision of social norm feedback to high prescribers of antibiotics in general practice: a pragmatic national randomised controlled trial - ScienceDirect

Social norm feedback from a high-profile messenger can substantially reduce antibiotic prescribing at low cost and at national scale; this outcome makes it a worthwhile addition to antimicrobial stewardship programmes."
public-economics  public-policy  antibiotics  health  to:read 
6 weeks ago
If we already understood the brain, would we even know it? – [citation needed]
"(it turns out that if you measure people’s physical height under an array of different conditions, the measurements are all strongly correlated–yet strangely, we don’t see scientists falling over themselves to try to find the causal factor that explains why some people are taller than others)."

That's a great analogy. This part is great too:

Lest I be accused of some kind of neuroscientific nihilism, let me be clear: I’m not saying that there are no new facts left to learn about the dynamics of the DMN. Quite the contrary. It’s clear there’s a ton of stuff we don’t know about the various brain regions and circuits that comprise the thing we currently refer to as the DMN. It’s just that that stuff lies almost entirely at levels of analysis below the level at which the DMN emerges as a coherent system. At the level of cognitive neuroimaging, I would argue that we actually already have a pretty darn good idea about what the functional correlates of DMN regions are–and for that matter, I think we also already pretty much “understand” what all of the constituent regions within the DMN do individually. So if we want to study the DMN productively, we may need to give up on high-level questions like “what are the cognitive functions of the DMN?”, and instead satisfy ourselves with much narrower questions that focus on only a small part of the brain dynamics that, when measured and analyzed in a certain way, get labeled “default mode network”.

And it applies to Econ (macro vs micro etc) too.
knowledge  explanation  complexity  have_read  via:cshalizi  ***  Neuroscience 
12 weeks ago
Amazon Dark Patterns | Hacker News
Prompted by this post, I wanted to check what happened to the 1-star review I have left 6 months ago. (Product worked for 3 days and then stopped, and after a replacement, the same thing happened). Sure enough, I have 0 comment in my profile, and I just checked, it has also disappeared from the product page.

This is shady as hell, because I am 100% sure I wrote this review. I even wrote it twice, once on amazon.com and once translated on a local amazon site. This is slightly infuriating.
amazon  dark.patterns  all-your-data-are-belong-to-us  privacy  data-collection 
july 2018
Move the most recent commit(s) to a new branch with Git - Stack Overflow
Moving to a new branch

WARNING: This method works because you are creating a new branch with the first command: git branch newbranch. If you want to move commits to an existing branch you need to merge your changes into the existing branch before executing git reset --hard HEAD~3 (see Moving to an existing branch below). If you don't merge your changes first, they will be lost.

Unless there are other circumstances involved, this can be easily done by branching and rolling back.

# Note: Any changes not committed will be lost.
git branch newbranch # Create a new branch, saving the desired commits
git reset --hard HEAD~3 # Move master back by 3 commits (GONE from master)
git checkout newbranch # Go to the new branch that still has the desired commits

But do make sure how many commits to go back. Alternatively, you can instead of HEAD~3, simply provide the hash of the commit (or the reference like origin/master) you want to "revert back to" on the master (/current) branch, e.g:

git reset --hard a1b2c3d4
git  tips-I-needed  *** 
july 2018
django - What is a CSRF token ? What is its importance and how does it work? - Stack Overflow
Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) in simple words

Assume you are currently logged into your online banking at www.mybank.com
Assume a money transfer from mybank.com will result in a request of (conceptually) the form http://www.mybank.com/transfer?to=<SomeAccountnumber>;amount=<SomeAmount>. (Your account number is not needed, because it is implied by your login.)
You visit www.cute-cat-pictures.org, not knowing that it is a malicious site.
If the owner of that site knows the form of the above request (easy!) and correctly guesses you are logged into mybank.com (requires some luck!), they could include on their page a request like http://www.mybank.com/transfer?to=123456;amount=10000 (where 123456 is the number of their Cayman Islands account and 10000 is an amount that you previously thought you were glad to possess).
You retrieved that www.cute-cat-pictures.org page, so your browser will make that request.
Your bank cannot recognize this origin of the request: Your web browser will send the request along with your www.mybank.com cookie and it will look perfectly legitimate. There goes your money!

This is the world without CSRF tokens.

Now for the better one with CSRF tokens:

The transfer request is extended with a third argument: http://www.mybank.com/transfer?to=123456;amount=10000;token=31415926535897932384626433832795028841971.
That token is a huge, impossible-to-guess random number that mybank.com will include on their own web page when they serve it to you. It is different each time they serve any page to anybody.
The attacker is not able to guess the token, is not able to convince your web browser to surrender it (if the browser works correctly...), and so the attacker will not be able to create a valid request, because requests with the wrong token (or no token) will be refused by www.mybank.com.

Result: You keep your 10000 monetary units. I suggest you donate some of that to Wikipedia.

(Your mileage may vary.)

Great explanation
security  web-programming  stack-overflow  great-explanations  eli5 
july 2018
American Economic Association
"This paper undertakes an assessment of a rapidly growing body of economic research on financial literacy. We start with an overview of theoretical research, which casts financial knowledge as a form of investment in human capital. Endogenizing financial knowledge has important implications for welfare, as well as policies intended to enhance levels of financial knowledge in the larger population. Next, we draw on recent surveys to establish how much (or how little) people know and identify the least financially savvy population subgroups. This is followed by an examination of the impact of financial literacy on economic decision making in the United States and elsewhere. While the literature is still young, conclusions may be drawn about the effects and consequences of financial illiteracy and what works to remedy these gaps. A final section offers thoughts on what remains to be learned if researchers are to better inform theoretical and empirical models as well as public policy. "
retirement  financial-literacy  economics  literature.review  lusardi.annamaria  mitchell.olivia  ***  to:read 
july 2018
PHP :: Bug #50696 :: number_format when passed a 0 as first function argument, returns null
" [2010-01-08 23:47 UTC] bjori@php.net


This issue was recently brought to my attention.
On behalf of PHP I would like to apologize. I see that now that you have been treated unfairly.

After carefully reviewing this bug report with our board of directors on 4chan, we have come to the conclusion that your "rusty C skills" should be enough to fix the issue.
I would therefore like to remind you that rasmus@php.net is http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rasmus_lerdorf

Again, I sincerely apologize. We will try to stop fixing bugs in PHP."
funny  programming  bugs  *** 
july 2018
For Fun and Profit | The MIT Press

The free and open source software movement, from its origins in hacker culture, through the development of GNU and Linux, to its commercial use today.

In the 1980s, there was a revolution with far-reaching consequences—a revolution to restore software freedom. In the early 1980s, after decades of making source code available with programs, most programmers ceased sharing code freely. A band of revolutionaries, self-described “hackers,” challenged this new norm by building operating systems with source code that could be freely shared. In For Fun and Profit, Christopher Tozzi offers an account of the free and open source software (FOSS) revolution, from its origins as an obscure, marginal effort by a small group of programmers to the widespread commercial use of open source software today. Tozzi explains FOSS's historical trajectory, shaped by eccentric personalities—including Richard Stallman and Linus Torvalds—and driven both by ideology and pragmatism, by fun and profit.

Tozzi examines hacker culture and its influence on the Unix operating system, the reaction to Unix's commercialization, and the history of early Linux development. He describes the commercial boom that followed, when companies invested billions of dollars in products using FOSS operating systems; the subsequent tensions within the FOSS movement; and the battles with closed source software companies (especially Microsoft) that saw FOSS as a threat. Finally, Tozzi describes FOSS's current dominance in embedded computing, mobile devices, and the cloud, as well as its cultural and intellectual influence."
open-source  books  via:DO 
july 2018
Why I Don't Love Gödel, Escher, Bach | Hacker News
"I think "Metamagical Themes" and the "Fluid concepts and analogies" are his best books although GEP had the largest impact on me. They are more refined explorations of ideas."
books  recommended  via:HN 
july 2018
Mr. Rogers's Simple Set of Rules for Talking to Kids - The Atlantic
"""For the millions of adults who grew up watching him on public television, Fred Rogers represents the most important human values: respect, compassion, kindness, integrity, humility. On Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood, the show that he created 50 years ago and starred in, he was the epitome of simple, natural ease.

But as

I write in my forthcoming book, The Good Neighbor: The Life and Work of Fred Rogers, Rogers’s placidity belied the intense care he took in shaping each episode of his program. He insisted that every word, whether spoken by a person or a puppet, be scrutinized closely, because he knew that children—the preschool-age boys and girls who made up the core of his audience—tend to hear things literally.

As Arthur Greenwald, a former producer of the show, put it to me, “There were no accidents on Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood.” He took great pains not to mislead or confuse children, and his team of writers joked that his on-air manner of speaking amounted to a distinct language they called “Freddish.”
fred.rogers  kids  teaching-and-learning  language  the-atlantic  to:read  ***  explore 
june 2018
Debugging with intelligence via probabilistic inference | the morning paper
"""Debugging with intelligence via probabilistic inference Xu et al., ICSE’18

Xu et al. have built a automated debugger that can take a single failing test execution, and with minimal interaction from a human, pinpoint the root cause of the failure. What I find really exciting about it, is that instead of brute force there’s a certain encoded intelligence in the way the analysis is undertaken which feels very natural. The first IDE / editor to integrate a tool like this wins!"""
morning-paper  debugging  probabilistic-programming  automatic-verification  automate-everything 
june 2018
Good Data Structures Book? - Google Groups
"I have now offered the course twice, and turned my lecture summaries
into a flânerie, an informal book, titled "Functional Data Structures",
whose full text is available here:


It does not use Racket; it uses OCaml, because my students have had two
semesters using Racket and needed to see something else. But it could
easily be adapted to use Racket, if one wishes. "
functional-programming  racket  ocaml  racket-users  *** 
june 2018
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