Jibarosoy + state + inequality   19

Opinion | The Real State of the Union, in Charts - The New York Times
My fellow Americans, the state of our union is far weaker than it should be.

The economy’s growth isn’t benefiting most families very much. Life expectancy has been falling. The planet is warming. The rest of the world is less enamored of America than it has been in the past.

But I can offer you one major piece of good news: Our country’s urgent and growing problems have inspired more Americans to vote and to otherwise get involved in politics. And that sort of engagement is the best hope for restoring our country to its rightful strength.
Trump  Power_in_America  Economics  inequality  state  Pol.12 
february 2019 by Jibarosoy
Hierarchy, climate change and the state of nature, from @SymbiosisRev
In Western society, there are two prominent 'origin stories.' One is that of the Hobbesian ‘war of all against all,’ in which humans are innately vicious and violent, and only the introduction of strong authority could keep people's natural state in check.

The other story is that prior to the existence of civilizations, humans lived in egalitarian and mostly peaceful bands enjoying the natural abundance of nature. In this version, it was only with the development of agriculture and centralized societies that we fell from grace and became the violent and hierarchical creatures we are today.

Both stories share an assumption that pre-civilization humans can be painted with a broad brush, and that hierarchy - whether good or bad - can be traced to a natural evolution point in human history.

Thinkers like Rousseau, Spinoza, and Hegel weren't satisfied with the idea that hierarchy is natural. They asserted that humans have the capacity to be either hierarchical or egalitarian, depending on history and existing social structures, and that human beings are dynamic and not static: there is no single human nature.
SON  Pol.11  state  inequality  Violence_y_Power  Power_materials  climatechange  honors 
september 2018 by Jibarosoy
The Economic Rise and Political Fall of Classical Greece
The following two chapters are adapted from a book in progress that pulls together some work I have been doing on classical Greek political thought and practice over the last 30 years, and sets it within an economic framework defined by “New Institutional Economics.” The book documents and explains the economic development of the Greek world in 800-300 BCE. This was a period of intense and sustained efflorescence, as the term is used by Jack Goldstone (2002): a extended period of intensive (per capita) and extensive (demographic) growth, accompanied by a sharp uptick in cultural achievement. Efflorescence is characterized by more people living at a higher level of welfare and by more culture at a higher level. Some of the evidence that the period 800-300 was an era of exceptional efflorescence, and a hypothetical explanation for that efflorescence was offered in Ober 2010. In a nutshell, the argument is that (1) this era saw unusually high levels (by premodern standards) of both demographic and per capita income growth, (2) Greek economic development was driven by political development. In the book I add (3) political development led to political fall -- i.e. the loss of independence of the Greek city- states to Macedonian and then Roman imperial states. Explaining why and how the Greek ecology of small states got so relatively wealthy and for so long seems particularly important insofar as Hellas is an exceptionally well documented and extensive small state ecology – and thus offers a counterpoint to recent work done on ancient empires
honors  civilization  inequality  teaching_pol_theory  political_theory  state  democracy  Power_materials 
august 2018 by Jibarosoy
A Discussion of Josiah Ober's The Rise and Fall of Classical Greece | Political Science Now
Ancient Greece has long exercised a powerful hold on the imagination of modern political science. But until fairly recently, this influence has largely been philosophical, related to the origins of many theoretical concepts—including the concept of politics itself—in the ancient world. In The Rise and Fall of Classical Greece, Josiah Ober offers a synoptic and ambitious social theoretical account of the ancient Greek world, the sources of its power, the causes of its decline, and the lessons that can be drawn from this story for contemporary social and political science. We have thus invited a range of political scientists to comment on Ober’s account of classical Greece and its relevance to contemporary political inquiry.
honors  civilization  state  democracy  teaching_pol_theory  political_theory  inequality 
august 2018 by Jibarosoy
Josiah Ober | Economic Lessons From Ancient Greece | Foreign Affairs
Among the remarkable features of the ancient economy of democratic Athens was the relatively low level of income inequality. Athens was home to many foreign “guest workers” and Athenians employed large numbers of slaves. But even taking slaves and foreigners into account, the distribution of Athenian income was much less unequal than in most premodern societies. Athenian wages for non-skilled laborers were high—comparable to the wages being paid in the most advanced economy of early modern Europe, Holland during its seventeenth century Golden Age. Athens’ Inequality Extraction Ratio, a measure based on estimating the maximum feasible level of inequality for a given society, devised by a team led by Branko Milanovic (former lead research economist at the World Bank), is lower than that for any other premodern economy for which data is available. Although we do not have data to measure the Inequality Extraction Ratio for other ancient Greek states, nutritional evidence gleaned from the scientific study of bones and studies of comparative house sizes are consistent with a historically low level of inequality. As Milanovic and other economists have long pointed out, there is a strong correlation between relatively low inequality and robust and sustained economic growth. 
civilization  state  honors  teaching_pol_theory  political_theory  inequality  reasoning  democracy 
august 2018 by Jibarosoy
Printing a Revolution: The Posters of Paris ’68 - The New York Times
The show’s title refers to the way the 1968 protests evolved from uniting the left and people from different backgrounds — middle class and working class — to dividing them when the strikes ended and leftist factions re-emerged. But in those first months of protest, university students, factory workers and government employees joined intellectuals and teachers to try to fulfill the dream of making France a more egalitarian place.
Latino  war  fear  Leadership  state  inequality  Pol._147  revolution  Violence_y_Power  Power_materials 
may 2018 by Jibarosoy
‘They Eat Money’: How Mandela’s Political Heirs Grow Rich Off Corruption - The New York Times
Corruption has enriched A.N.C. leaders and their business allies — black and white South Africans, as well as foreigners. But the supposed beneficiaries of many government projects, in whose names the money was spent, have been left with little but seething anger and deepening disillusionment with the state of post-apartheid South Africa.

While poverty has declined since the end of apartheid, inequality has risen in a society that was already one of the world’s most unequal, according to a recent report by the World Bank and the South African government.

South Africa has a large, advanced economy, an aggressively free press and a wealth of independent organizations and scholars who keep a close watch on government malfeasance. But even with its vibrant democracy, in which the details of corruption schemes are routinely aired and condemned by the news media and opposition politicians, graft has engulfed the country.
pol.639  corruption  state  inequality  IPE  international  politics  political_economy  Political_Geography 
april 2018 by Jibarosoy
Trump’s plan to punish immigrants for sending US-born kids to Head Start - Vox
The rule wouldn’t make it illegal for immigrants to use public services that are open to everyone regardless of immigration status, or that are available to their US-born children. But it would make it possible for the government to deny their applications for a new type of visa, or a green card, if they’d used those services. In other words, it could force them to choose between taking advantage of available social services, and their family’s future ability to stay in the United States permanently.
immigration  Trump  Power_in_America  state  Violence_y_Power  inequality  Latinos_+_TW 
february 2018 by Jibarosoy
Political Economy of State Building - Acemoglu
Main thesis of Why Nations Fail: growth is much more likely under inclusive (economic and political) institutions than extractive institutions.
But why? Why wouldnít every dictator, tyrant and elite wish to create as much wealth as possible?
The reason is that growth, and inclusive institutions that will support it, will create both winners and losers.
pol.639  political_economy  state  Violence_y_Power  inequality  Power_materials 
january 2018 by Jibarosoy
Peter Turchin The Strange Disappearance of Cooperation in America - Peter Turchin
Putnam has argued, in particular, that last several decades saw lower levels of trust in government, lower levels of civic participation, lower connectedness among ordinary Americans, and lower social cooperation.

This is a puzzling development, because from its inception the American society was characterized, to an unusual degree, by the density of associational ties and an abundance of social capital. Almost 200 years ago that discerning observer of social life, Alexis de Tocqueville, wrote about the exceptional ability of Americans to form voluntary associations and, more generally, to cooperate in solving problems that required concerted collective action. This capacity for cooperation apparently lasted into the post-World War II era, but several indicators suggest that during the last 3-4 decades it has been unraveling.

Robert Putnam points to such indicators as the participation rate in voluntary organizations (Masonic lodges, Parent-Teacher Associations, sports clubs and bowling leagues
Latino  war  inequality  state  Leadership  Violence_y_Power  Power_materials  pol.639  Pol._185 
january 2018 by Jibarosoy
Tax Plan Aims to Slay a Reagan Target: The Government Beast - The New York Times
But there is more strategic vision than is immediately evident. The plan to starve the beast of government by depriving it of money, it seems, is back in the saddle. This time around it might succeed where Reagan failed: Barring taxpayers from deducting state and local income taxes and limiting the property taxes they can deduct on their federal returns, the Republican bills could, for the first time, force high-tax states run by Democrats to capitulate.
state  GOP  finances  Economics  Power_in_America  inequality  class 
december 2017 by Jibarosoy
Getting Radical About Inequality - The New York Times
His great subject was the struggle for power in society, especially cultural and social power. We all possess, he argued, certain forms of social capital. A person might have academic capital (the right degrees from the right schools), linguistic capital (a facility with words), cultural capital (knowledge of cuisine or music or some such) or symbolic capital (awards or markers of prestige). These are all forms of wealth you bring to the social marketplace.

In addition, and more important, we all possess and live within what Bourdieu called a habitus. A habitus is a body of conscious and tacit knowledge of how to travel through the world, which gives rise to mannerisms, tastes, opinions and conversational style. A habitus is an intuitive feel for the social game. It’s the sort of thing you get inculcated with unconsciously, by growing up in a certain sort of family or by sharing a sensibility with a certain group of friends.
Passions  Latino  war  Power_materials  state  Culture  inequality  Trump 
july 2017 by Jibarosoy
What Monkeys Can Teach Us About Fairness - The New York Times
In fact, economists have crunched the data and found the opposite is true. Teams with greater equality did much better, perhaps because they were more cohesive.

What’s more, it turned out that even the stars did better when they were on teams with flatter pay. “Higher inequality seemed to undercut the superstar players it was meant to incentivize, which is what you would expect if you believed that the chief effect of pay inequality was to reduce cooperation and team cohesion,” Payne notes.

Something similar emerges in national statistics. Countries with the widest gaps in income, including the United States, generally have worse health, more homicides and a greater array of social problems.
inequality  America  Political  teaching_pol_theory  Passions  Power_in_America  Power_materials  state  policy  Latinos_y_Eco_Crisis  Latinos_+_TW 
july 2017 by Jibarosoy
20 Lessons from the 20th Century on How to Survive in Trump’s America - In These Times
Do not obey in advance. Much of the power of authoritarianism is freely given. In times like these, individuals think ahead about what a more repressive government will want, and then start to do it without being asked. You've already done this, haven't you? Stop. Anticipatory obedience teaches authorities what is possible and accelerates unfreedom.
LIU  Trump  Cline  inequality  state  latino  war  proposal  latino_war 
december 2016 by Jibarosoy
How Finance Behaves like a Parasite Toward the Economy - Evonomics
The word “rent” originally was French, for a government bond (rente). Owners received a regular income every quarter or every year. A lot of bonds used to have coupons, and you would clip off the coupon and collect your interest. It’s passively earned income, that is, income not actually earned by your own labor or enterprise. It’s just a claim that society has to pay, whether you’re a government bond holder or whether you own land.

This concept of income without labor – but simply from privileges that had been made hereditary – was extended to the ideas of monopolies like the East India Company and other trade monopolies. They could produce or buy goods for, let’s say, a dollar a unit, and sell them for whatever the market will bear – say, $4.00. The markup is “empty pricing.” It’s pure price gouging by a natural monopoly, like today’s drug companies.
economics  power  in  America  state  class  inequality  theory 
november 2016 by Jibarosoy
Why I’m Voting for Trump
Listen: We can’t figure this out like this but until we figure out a better way to communicate I’m voting my gut. My gut tells me this is the best thing for us all. You can’t convince me otherwise this time but maybe next time you can respect my place and I’ll respect yours and we can start talking. Maybe that’s where we’re headed. Until then, what can this guy do that’s any worse than what the rest of those DC clowns have done?
Trump  GOP  power  in  America  state  politics  inequality 
october 2016 by Jibarosoy
The Rise and Fall of an All-American Catchphrase: 'Free, White, and 21'
censors just didn’t see the bigger picture, so as World War II began, the United States’ new propaganda arm, the Office of War Information, intervened. Amazingly, the US government showed greater racial sensitivity than Hollywood, repeatedly urging film producers to cut back on offensive stereotypes. But then again, the government had a better read on how bad things were. A poll of African-Americans in 1942 showed that 49 percent of respondents thought they would be treated as well or even better under a Japanese government. The OWI also knew what the Afro-American had foreseen—that films were making us look bad abroad. They insisted on cutting references to “white” and “colored” signs in films and denied foreign distribution to Alfred Hitchcock’s Lifeboat (1944) because it depicted American mob violence. And although the military was segregated, they encouraged films that portrayed integrated ranks. The message: we didn’t need to fix our problems as much as keep them from the neighbors.
race  latino  war  proposal  state  power  in  America  racism  violence_y_power  inequality  propaganda  latino_war 
april 2016 by Jibarosoy
The Impact of Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Cash Transfers on High-Risk Young Men in Liberia | Innovations for Poverty Action
n many fragile states, poor young men with limited economic opportunities drive high rates of crime and violence, and are easily mobilized into destructive activities such as rioting and rebellion. A large body of largely observational evidence in psychology research in the United States demonstrates that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), a therapeutic approach to improving a wide range of harmful beliefs and behaviors, is an effective way to reduce violence and criminality among children and adolescents. To understand the potential effectiveness of CBT among adults in fragile states, researchers evaluated the impact of a short-term CBT program and the distribution of unconditional cash transfers on the behavior of high-risk young men in Liberia. Results demonstrate that CBT reduced criminal behavior and improved self-control and self-image among participants; these results were greater for participants who received both CBT and cash grants, but cash grants alone had no impact.
poverty  criminal  justice  inequality  Pol  508  violence_y_power  state  power_materials  latino  war  proposal  latino_war 
november 2015 by Jibarosoy
Jobs and jail might not keep young men out of crime, but how about therapy? - The Washington Post
Just the offer of therapy had huge impacts. Crime, carrying a weapon, fights with each other and police, arrests, and even things as simple as losing your temper — they dropped by 20 to 50 percent within a few weeks of finishing the therapy. After a year, these effects had started to dissipate if the men got therapy alone. But if they got cash after the therapy, the effects stayed steady or grew.
inequality  criminal  justice  state  violence_y_power  latino  war  proposal  power_materials  latino_war 
november 2015 by Jibarosoy

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