Jibarosoy + state   672

Your Emotional Brain is Smarter Than Your Brain Thinks
The current age of information overload means, a greater amount of emotional decision making because your rational brain sometimes can’t handle all the stress that comes with making calculated choices
Becoming aware of emotions has the benefit of correcting many emotional biases. As you make decisions daily, if you can be mindful and become aware of your emotions, you can identify which decisions can be addressed rationally.
Despite the strength of your emotional brain, you can correct the many emotional biases, and give yourself the chance to make more complex decisions rationally.
Passions  reasoning  pol.508  Psychology  Power_materials  latino  war  state  Leadership  fear 
6 days ago by Jibarosoy
McCulloch v. Maryland :: 17 U.S. 316 (1819) :: Justia US Supreme Court Center
a Government of the people. In form and in substance, it emanates from them. Its powers are granted by them, and are to be exercised directly on them, and for their benefit.

This Government is acknowledged by all to be one of enumerated powers. The principle that it can exercise only the powers granted to it would seem too apparent to have required to be enforced by all those arguments which its enlightened friends, while it was depending before the people, found it necessary to urge; that principle is now universally admitted.
Latino  war  fear  state  Power_materials  legitimacy  rulers  Violence_y_Power  law  Power_in_America 
8 days ago by Jibarosoy
(26) (PDF) Three Books Interrogate the Status Quo of Nation Building in Puerto Rico: A Review Essay by Dr. Maritza Stanchich | Marisel Moreno - Academia.edu
Three recent books in Puerto Rican Studiessimultaneously consider both island and dia-spora literature to illuminate the underpinningsof national discourses in Puerto Rico, each withdistinct aims and political positions, and withvarying success in terms of sustaining cogentprojects. The timing, during acute economiccrisis in the so-called US Commonwealth, whichhas drawn comparisons to Detroit and Greece,and has spurred a migration exodus of historicproportions, lends these works a sense of urgency. Being that literature ofthe Puerto Ricandiaspora has historically been excluded fromboth US and Puerto Rican canons, these titlesalso speak to previous trailblazing works indeepening the implications of the Puerto Ricandiaspora
puerto_ricans  nations  state  Power_in_America 
10 days ago by Jibarosoy
(26) (PDF) Guavas for Dummies, American Jíbaras, & Postnational Autonomy: When I Was Puerto Rican in the Hemispheric Turn | Gregory Stephens - Academia.edu
After teaching four years in Puerto Rico, I see that my first analysis of
Santiago’s
 memoir, as a form of
“borderland
 
literature,”
 was truer than I realized. As Ramón Soto-Crespo and others have argued, Puerto Rico is an anomalous
“borderland
 
state.”
 Its in-between status puts Puerto Rico at the cutting edge of debates about post-nationalism. Rosario Ferré has argued that Puerto Rico is positioned to be
“in
 the vanguard of what America will  be in the
future,”
 if not force-fit
“within
 the logic of the nation-
state,”
 as Soto-Crespo puts it.
1
 That is a hemispheric view of the Americas, including but not confined to (or merely opposed to) the United States
puerto_ricans  dominican  Taino  Culture  state  nations 
10 days ago by Jibarosoy
Data Version 9 | V-Dem
V-Dem Dataset - Version 9
Welcome to the V-Dem Data page where you can download the V-Dem data free of charge!
The Varieties of Democracy Project is releasing new datasets every year around April, smaller updates to the datasets may be released in-between.

Overview:
Countries: 202 countries
Year coverage: 1789-2018
450+ V-Dem indicators, 81 indices and 5 high-level indices
How to download a V-Dem Dataset:
Select type of dataset: Country-Year, Country-Date and Coder-Level
Select size: V-Dem Core, V-Dem Full+Others
Select format: SPSS, STATA, CSV and R
Click on the link to download the file and enter your details in the pop-up window
The dataset and documentation are all yours!
Latino  war  state  Leadership  Power_materials  legitimacy  database  rulers 
28 days ago by Jibarosoy
Patterns of Regime Breakdown since the French Revolution
We present a new dataset comprising more than 1900 regimes in 197 polities over the time period 1789–2016. We use this dataset to describe different historical patterns of regime duration globally, leveraging fine-grained measures on when regimes started and ended and a nuanced scheme of different modes of regime breakdown. To mention a few patterns, we display how the frequency of regime breakdown, and particular modes of breakdown, have followed cyclical rather than linear patterns across modern history and that the most common modes, overall, are coups d’ ́etat and incumbent-guided transformations of regimes. Further, we evaluate whether selected economic and political-institutional features are systematically associated with breakdown. We find robust evidence that low income levels, slow or negative economic growth, and having intermediate levels of democracy predict higher chances of regime breakdown, although these factors are more clearly related to regime breakdown during some periods of modern history than others. When disaggregating different models of breakdown, we find notable differences for these predictors, with low income levels, for example, being strongly related to regime breakdowns due to popular uprisings, whereas intermediate levels of democracy clearly predict regime breakdowns due to coups and incumbent-guided regime transitions.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  rulers  Violence_y_Power  democracy 
28 days ago by Jibarosoy
Introducing the Historical Varieties of Democracy Dataset
The Historical Varieties of Democracy Dataset (Historical V-Dem) is a new dataset containing about 260 indicators, both factual and evaluative, describing various aspects of political regimes and state institutions. The dataset covers 91 polities globally – including most large, sovereign states, as well as some semi-sovereign entities and large colonies – from 1789 to 1920 for many cases. The majority of the indicators are also included in the Varieties of Democracy dataset, which covers the period from 1900 to the present – and together these two datasets cover the bulk of “modern history”. Historical V-Dem also includes several new indicators, covering features that are pertinent for 19th century polities. We describe the data, the process of coding, and the different strategies employed in Historical V-Dem to cope with issues of reliability and validity and ensure inter-temporal- and cross-country comparability. To illustrate the potential uses of the dataset we provide a descriptive account of patterns of democratization in the “long 19th century.” Finally, we perform an empirical investigation of how inter-state war relates to subsequent democratization.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  rulers  legitimacy  database  Violence_y_Power 
29 days ago by Jibarosoy
Keeping the Democratic Facade_Contemporary Autocratization as a game of deception
Less than thirty years after Fukuyama and others declared liberal democracy’s eternal dominance, a third wave of autocratization is manifest. Gradual declines of democratic regime attributes characterize contemporary autocratization. Yet, we lack the appropriate conceptual and empirical tools to diagnose and compare such elusive processes. Addressing that gap, this paper provides the first comprehensive empirical overview of all autocratization episodes from 1900 to today based on data from the Varieties of Democracy Project (V-Dem). We demonstrate that a third wave of autocratization is indeed unfolding. It mainly affects democracies with gradual setbacks under a legal façade. While this is a cause for concern, the historical perspective presented in this paper shows that panic is not warranted: the current declines are relatively mild and the global share of democratic countries remains close to its all-time high. As it was premature to announce the “end of history” in 1992, it is premature to proclaim the “end of democracy” now.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  rulers  Violence_y_Power  democracy 
29 days ago by Jibarosoy
Stairways to Denmark: Does the Sequence of state-building and democratization matter for economic development?
Building effective state institutions before introducing democracy is widely pre- sumed to improve different development outcomes. We discuss the assumptions that this prominent ‘stateness-first’ argument rests upon and how extant studies fail to correctly specify the counter-factual conditions required to test the argument. In ex- tension, we subject the argument to three sets of tests focused on economic develop- ment as the outcome, leveraging new measures of democracy and state institutional features for almost 180 polities with time series extending back to 1789. First, we run standard panel regressions with interactions between state capacity and democracy. Second, we employ coarsened exact matching, specifying and testing different rele- vant counter-factuals embedded in the stateness-first argument. Finally, we employ sequencing methods to identify historically common sequences of institutional change, and use these sequences as growth predictors. We do not find any evidence supporting the stateness-first argument in either of these tests.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Leadership  Power_materials  fear  rulers  Psychology  Violence_y_Power 
29 days ago by Jibarosoy
Regime Legitimation Strategies (RLS), 1900 to 2018
This paper introduces new expert-coded measures of regime legitimation strategies for 179 countries in the world from 1900 up until 2018. Sophisticated methods for the selection and aggregation of expert-coded data from the Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) project ensure the comparability of observations across time and space. Country experts have rated the extent to which the government promotes or references its performance, the person of the leader, rational-legality, and ideology in order to justify the regime in place. The item on ideology asked the experts to further categorize the ideology of the regime as nationalist, communist/socialist, conservative/restorative, religious, and/or separatist. Expanding on von Soest and Grauvogel (2017a, 2017b), our data is the first to capture legitimation claims across time, and for all regime types. The temporal aspect allows not only for tracking trends, but crucially for analyzing what happens following changes in legitimation claims or what happens with legitimation claims when other aspects of rule are transformed. By also measuring claims put forward by democratic regimes we are able to for the first-time document when changes from procedural to identity-based claims, such as the person of the leader or the ideology occur which may coincide with autocratization.
Latino  war  legitimacy  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  Psychology  Violence_y_Power 
29 days ago by Jibarosoy
Beyond the 'Failed State': Toward Conceptual Alternatives
The article advances conceptual alternatives to the ‘failed state.’ It provides reasons why the concept is deficient, showing especially how counterproductive it is to aggregate states as diverse as Colombia, Malawi, Somalia, Iraq, Haiti, and Tajikistan. I argue for distinguishing among capacity gaps, security gaps, and legitimacy gaps that states experience. Importantly, I show that these gaps often do not coincide in a given country, and that the logical responses to each of the three gaps diverge in significant ways. I offer brief case examples of the logic of response to the gaps and of the tensions that must be managed among them.The article advances the debate over an important and under- theorized emergent concept in global politics.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  development  Psychology 
29 days ago by Jibarosoy
Democracy Political Power and Authority
A exercises power over B because both actors share consensus on the rules of the game. Nor is it correct to claim that such an exercise of power over B is contrary to B’s interests—Lukes’ definition of power (2005: 37). Part of, if not the entire reason for B conceding defeat to A is precisely that both A and B share a common interest in, and understanding of, the democratic process, which trumps their interest in winning. Structural reproduction is the common good of democracy as a set of institutional procedures for containing conflict.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  authority  fear  Violence_y_Power  consciousness 
5 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
19 conspiracy theories Donald Trump has endorsed - Business Insider
Throughout the 2016 campaign and while in the White House, Trump has floated theories fueled by the conspiratorial-minded corners of supermarket tabloids and the internet, something unprecedented in modern politics. He's often used them as weapons against his opponents.
conspiracy  Pol._120  Power_materials  state  Trump  Psychology  manipulation  Passions  reasoning  myth 
5 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
The Language of Conspiracy Theories in Online Discussions
Conspiracy theories are omnipresent in online discussions—whether to explain a late-breaking event that still lacks official report or to give voice to political dissent. Conspiracy theories evolve, multiply, and interconnect, further complicating efforts to limit their propagation. It is therefore crucial to develop scalable methods to examine the nature of conspiratorial discussions in online communities. What do users talk about when they discuss conspiracy theories online? What are the recurring elements in their discussions? What do these elements tell us about the way users think? This work answers these questions by analyzing over ten years of discussions in r/conspiracy—an online community on Reddit dedicated to conspiratorial discussions. We focus on the key elements of a conspiracy theory: the conspiratorial agents, the actions they perform, and their targets. By computationally detecting agent–action–target triplets in conspiratorial statements, and grouping them into semantically coherent clusters, we develop a notion of narrative-motif to detect recurring patterns of triplets. For example, a narrative-motif such as “governmental agency–controls–communications” appears in diverse conspiratorial statements alleging that governmental agencies control information to nefarious ends. Thus, narrative-motifs expose commonalities between multiple conspiracy theories even when they refer to different events or circumstances. In the process, these representations help us understand how users talk about conspiracy theories and offer us a means to interpret what they talk about. Our approach enables a population-scale study of conspiracy theories in alternative news and social media with implications for understanding their adoption and combating their spread.
conspiracy  Power_materials  Pol._120  state  Psychology  Passions  reasoning  Language  online 
5 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Social exclusion leads to conspiratorial thinking, study finds
New research may show why so many were willing to believe exaggerated and misleading reports. According to a Princeton University study published in the Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, social exclusion leads to conspiratorial thinking.

The two-part analysis — which did not specifically investigate Trump supporters, but two random samples of people — found that the feelings of despair brought on by social exclusion can cause people to seek meaning in miraculous stories, which may not necessarily be true.

Such conspiratorial thinking leads to a dangerous cycle, said co-lead author Alin Coman, assistant professor of psychology and public affairs at Princeton. When those with conspiratorial ideas share their beliefs, it can drive away family and friends, triggering even more exclusion. This may lead them to join conspiracy theory communities where they feel welcome, which in turn will further entrench their beliefs.
conspiracy  Pol._120  Power_materials  state  Psychology  MINDSET  loneliness 
5 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
What Does This Professor Know About Conspiracy Theorists That We Don’t? - The Chronicle of Higher Education
I teach a course on conspiracy theories, and one of the exercises is that I have them design their own conspiracy theory. I tell them, "The crazier the better." Some of them involve, like, "Donald Trump is a robot." All sorts of weird things. Then they go to the internet and get all the evidence they could, and sort of string it together. And by the time they’re done they have a fairly convincing case.

And then they had to switch with another student, who would then debunk it and tear it to shreds. When the student who made up the conspiracy theory had a chance to respond to the debunker, a lot of times they were offended, even knowing that they made it up.
Power_materials  Pol._120  conspiracy  political_theory  Latino  war  state  Trump  Psychology  myth 
5 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
EVERYDAY MAKERS AND EXPERT CITIZENS Building Political not Social Capital
"Since the elitist myth of the governing class seeks to eliminate the people in connection with the destiny of society, this myth explodes when it is confronted with the fact that without the people, the rulers are as free spirits wandering lonely, dejected and unemployed in an empty world. But without rulers dominating their existence, the people, on the contrary, find that very freedom that calls forth their most creative efforts. Elitism places blind faith in an appropriate governing class. The democratic ideal incorporates a tempered trust in the wisdom and creative genius of the people" (Easton, 1947:418)
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  Violence_y_Power 
5 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
A Companion to Cultural Geography
Drawing from a range of contemporary political and social theory, John Agnew (chapter 15) charts the varied approaches that have developed to both understand- ing and, at times, dismissing nationalism. He surveys the strengths and limitations of territorial, diasporic, ethnic, religious, gendered, and landscape-based interpre- tations of the idea and practices of nationalism. Audrey Kobayashi approaches the concept of “race” as both a way of life deeply embedded in the European colonial past and lived out in the present as a taken-for-granted reality and as an analytical concept (chapter 16). The chapter begins with a review of the concept of “race” as it is understood in contemporary antiracist geography, then moves to a brief analy- sis of how the production of antiracist geography has developed in three contem- porary Western and Northern contexts. Nancy Duncan and Stephen Legg (chapter 17) review the reasons why class has remained relatively neglected by cultural geo- graphers, in spite of the tremendous interest shown in subjectivity and identity formation. They argue that while there are some good reasons why older notions of class in geography have been seen as unhelpful in understanding questions of identity, there is also no inherent reason why this should be so. In fact, they suggest, certain reworked Marxian and other dynamic and relational notions of class could contribute greatly to cultural analysis.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  authority  Violence_y_Power  Culture 
6 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
PEASANTS, POWER AND ETHNICITY A BOTTOM_UP PERSPECTIVE ON RWANDA_S POLITICAL TRANSITION
This article analyses over 400 life trajectories of ordinary peasants in order to complement top-down studies of the Rwandan political transition. Changes and differences according to the ethnicity of the respondents shed light on the Hutu–Tutsi bi-polarity which underlies the transition and reveal a reversal in perceived ethnic dominance accompanying the de- cisive moment in the political transition: the overthrow of the Hutu- dominated regime by the Tutsi-led RPF. This suggests that the experience of the nature of governance and the (perceived) proximity to power lies at the heart of ethnic awareness. The nature of governance at the periphery of society is explored, and the article demonstrates that the instrumental stance on ethnic identity adopted by the post-genocide regime is not only erroneous but counter-productive. Adjusting the socio-political environ- ment in which identities thrive is more important than a direct focus on identity constructs when developing policies to prevent ethnically structured violence.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  Ethnic_Politics  Violence_y_Power  resistance 
6 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Governance, Consumers, and Citizens - Book Intro
Governance is, rather, an ongoing activity that involves the creation and recreation of meanings. Of course people inherit ideas and are influenced by their social context, but they also play an active role in creating, modulating, or rejecting the beliefs that then inform their actions. So, processes of governance do not naturally reflect or respond to external conditions: people do not just act out social facts about themselves, be it their class, gender, or status; nor do they adopt beliefs and actions in a passive reflection of some social discourse. Rather, culture and indi- vidual agency are integral to any adequate account of governance.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  Violence_y_Power  marketing 
6 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
The Politics of Evasion
“The melting of all that is solid” 60
The state, Latham contends, may not be as unique as first thought as a producer of both permanence and temporariness. Institutions such as private property and forces associated with globalization also exhibit this duality. Consideration is given to the relationship between these broader global – and historical - contexts and the state. Mr V suggests that more fluid and transitory contexts explored by postmoderns may, counter-intuitively, open up the possibility of restoring a progressive, just state. Latham reminds Mr V that within those broader contexts is located the basis for hyper-security and the neoliberal state.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  authority  Violence_y_Power 
6 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Post-Foundational Political Thought - Taking on the Political Book
[Use this to establish the pre-existence of community and power before the construction of the state]..."the political assumes the role of something which is of an entirely different nature: the principle of autonomy of politics, or the moment of institution of society. As differentiated from politics, the notion of the political cannot be assimilated to social differences, to repetition, tradition, sedimentation, or bureaucracy. Like other figures of contingency and groundlessness, such as the event, anta- gonism, truth, the real, or freedom, the political dwells, as it were, on society’s non-ground, which makes itself felt in the differential play of the political difference. But society’s absent ground is not ‘merely’ absent. It (re-)appears and is supplemented by the moment which we may call, with reference to J. G. A. Pocock’s ‘Machiavellian moment’ (1975), the moment of the political.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy  authority  Violence_y_Power  social 
6 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Foucault's Overarching Concept of Power as Governmentality
Power is typically seen as a form of domination, which is operative when agents pursue their interests in conflict with others. Foucault Challenges the prevailing and reductionist conception of power in terms of domination, conflict, and interests. He proposes instead an overarching approach to power as the ability to make a difference. To provide this concept with analytical purchase it has to be viewed as relative to context, which situates and identifies power relations in relation to each other. It is in this light Foucault's reference to power as a complex strategical situation should be seen, where power is immanent in the structuring of context. This refers among other things to the governing of self and others, meaning that it deals with the nature and scope of the political power of authority broadly considered.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy  authority  Violence_y_Power 
6 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
State fragility: Towards a Multi-dimensional Empirical Typology
The paper proceeds as follows: Firstly, we argue the case for a differentiated view of state fragility and for moving from a uni-dimensional to a multi-dimensional concept. We then provide a brief review of the current debate on fragile states in order to derive the main categories that constitute fragility. Thirdly, we present the approach adopted in this paper. Here, we describe how we conceptualise and measure our three dimensions of fragility. Fourthly, based on statistical data, we present empirical results that identify seven groups of states that are characterised by specific constellations of our dimensions. We then present possible policy implications for each group. In our conclusion, we discuss strengths and limitations of the classification exercise presented here and some ways forward.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  rulers  fear  legitimacy  Violence_y_Power 
7 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Power in everyday life | PNAS
How does power manifest itself in everyday life? Using experience-sampling methodology, we investigated the prevalence, sources, and correlates of power in people’s natural environments. Participants experienced power-relevant situations regularly, though not frequently. High power was not restricted to a limited few: almost half of the sample reported experiencing high-power positions. Positional power and subjective feelings of power were strongly related but had unique relations with several individual difference measures and independent effects on participants’ affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations. Subjective feelings of power resulted more from within-participant situational fluctuation, such as the social roles participants held at different times, than from stable differences between people. Our data supported some theoretical predictions about power’s effects on affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations, but qualified others, particularly highlighting the role of responsibility in power’s effects. Although the power literature has focused on high power, we found stronger effects of low power than high power.
Latino  war  Power_materials  state  legitimacy  Leadership  fear  resistance  Power_in_America  Violence_y_Power  Pol.11  Pol.12 
7 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
The Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics Book
Homi Bhabha, describing the location of the nation in tempo- rality, pointed out a few years ago how the narrative of the nation tended to be split into a double time and hence an inevitable ambiv- alence: in one, the people were an object of national pedagogy because they were always in the making, in a process of historical progress, not yet fully developed to fulfill the nation’s destiny; but in the other, the unity of the people, their permanent identification with the na- tion, had to be continually signified, repeated, and performed.4 I will illustrate some of the instances of this ambivalence and argue that they are an inevitable aspect of modern politics itself. To disavow them is either wishful piety or an endorsement of the existing structure of dominance within the nation.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Leadership  fear  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power  nations  rulers  government 
7 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Imagining Violence: 'The Power' of Feminist Fantasy | by Elaine Showalter | NYR Daily | The New York Review of Books
It can’t be a coincidence that one of the novels getting international attention this year is about women hurting men. In Naomi Alderman’s bestseller The Power (2017; first published in the UK, 2016), adolescent girls discover they have a devastating electrostatic force in their hands that they can use to shock, torture, and kill. It comes from a striated muscle near their collarbones that alarmed scientists call a skein, and that they can observe through MRI scans of newborn baby girls. The teenagers can help older women activate their Power, too.

Beginning in Saudi Arabia, and moving to other countries, women seize political control, and take violent revenge on the men who have enslaved and abused them. They use the Power to defend and liberate themselves, and it changes their view of themselves. “If you were able to live your life as if you were able to cause hurt when you needed to,” Alderman told NPR, “your life would be so different, even if you never ever had to do it. That makes you less afraid all the time.” A girl electrocutes the foster-father who has been regularly raping her: “He spasms and pops out of her. He is juddering and fitting… He falls to the floor with a loud thump.”
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy  sexism  Violence_y_Power  writing  Literature_and_books 
8 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
10 Everyday Acts of Resistance That Changed the World by Steve Crawshaw and John Jackson — YES! Magazine
Throughout history both recent and distant, ordinary people have found innovative and inspiring ways to challenge violent regimes and confront abuses of power: bringing down dictators, changing unjust laws, or simply giving individuals a renewed sense of their own humanity in the face of those who deny it.

The people here treat the impossible as full of possibilities that haven’t been realized yet. Some have achieved the change they were struggling for. For others, it’s yet to come.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  resistance  Violence_y_Power 
8 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Our Enemy, The State by Nock - Book
It is unfortunately none too well understood that, just as the State has no money of its own, so it has no power of its own. All the power it has is what society gives it, plus what it confiscates from time to time on one pretext or another; there is no other source from which State power can be drawn. Therefore every assumption of State power, whether by gift or seizure, leaves society with so much less power. There is never, nor can there be, any strengthening of State power without a corresponding and roughly equivalent depletion of social power.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy  Violence_y_Power 
8 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
The Progressive Conversion of Social Power into State Power | Mises Institute
It is unfortunately none too well understood that, just as the State has no money of its own, so it has no power of its own. All the power it has is what society gives it, plus what it confiscates from time to time on one pretext or another; there is no other source from which State power can be drawn. Therefore every assumption of State power, whether by gift or seizure, leaves society with so much less power. There is never, nor can there be, any strengthening of State power without a corresponding and roughly equivalent depletion of social power.

Moreover, it follows that with any exercise of State power, not only the exercise of social power in the same direction, but the disposition to exercise it in that direction, tends to dwindle. Mayor Gaynor astonished the whole of New York when he pointed out to a correspondent who had been complaining about the inefficiency of the police, that any citizen has the right to arrest a malefactor and bring him before a magistrate. "The law of England and of this country," he wrote, "has been very careful to confer no more right in that respect upon policemen and constables than it confers on every citizen." State exercise of that right through a police force had gone on so steadily that not only were citizens indisposed to exercise it, but probably not one in ten thousand knew he had it.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  capitalism  Leadership  fear  legitimacy 
8 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Everyday Forms of State Power and the Kurds in the Early Turkish Republic
This article analyzes the exercise of state authority in Kurdish areas in the early Turkish Republic and discusses the state's ineffectiveness in dominating these areas. It argues that the mere existence of a highly ambitious social-engineering project, increased state presence in the region, and military power does not mean high levels of state capacity. Based on primary documents, this article discusses the problems of autonomy, coherence, and implementation that the Turkish state encountered in its nation-building project. It shows how the state's ideological rigidities and its shortage of resources and dedicated personnel undermined its capacity to control and shape the Kurdish areas. While the state attempted to regulate citizens' private lives in Kurdish areas, the local society also tried to mold state employees in accordance with its own interests. A blurred boundary between the state and society was one of the unintended consequences of increased state presence ih everyday life
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  Violence_y_Power  resistance 
9 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Why Foucault's work on power is more important than ever | Aeon Essays
Foucault’s skeptical supposition thus allowed him to conduct careful enquiries into the actual functions of power. What these studies reveal is that power, which easily frightens us, turns out to be all the more cunning because its basic forms of operation can change in response to our ongoing efforts to free ourselves from its grip. To take just one example, Foucault wrote about the way in which a classically sovereign space such as the judicial court came to accept into its proceedings the testimony of medical and psychiatric experts whose authority and power were exercised without recourse to sovereign violence. An expert diagnosis of ‘insanity’ today or ‘perversity’ 100 years ago could come to mitigate or augment a judicial decision.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power  philosophy  political_theory  legitimacy  fear  resistance  Leadership 
9 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
The Meaning and measure of state legitimacy: Results for 72 countries
This article presents a quantitative measurement of the political legitimacy of states in the late 1990s and early 2000s for 72 states containing 5.1 billion people, or 83 per cent of the world’s population. First, the concept of state legitimacy is defined and justified. The definition includes the subjects, objects and sub-types of legitimacy. A strategy to achieve replicable cross-national measurements of legitimacy is then outlined and imple- mented, including a discussion of data sources and three alternative aggregation methods. The results are briefly examined and tested, and the uncertainties of quantitative measures discussed. Finally, the role of supplementary qualitative measurement is considered.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  rulers  fear  legitimacy  Violence_y_Power 
9 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
The Right to Rule: How States Win and Lose Legitimacy
Politics is the “master science” as Aristotle described it, not because it explains all socio-economic phenomena but because it sets the ground rules and priortizes the claims of all socio-economic phenomena. Thus, an acceptance of the socio-economic order requires an acceptance of the state that maintains it (Beetham 1991). We can think of the taxation variable as capturing consent to the economic system, and the voting variable as consent to the political system. It is in these consent measures that the constitutive approach to measurement really matters. For without the background conceptualization of legitimacy as requiring acts of consent we might well dismiss most consent indicators as data unrelated to the “attitude” of legitimacy.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  rulers  legitimacy  fear  Violence_y_Power 
9 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Legitimating Identities The Self-Presentations of Rulers and Subjects - Book
Legitimation is not only a circus for the mass of sub- jects, but also a private theatre for rulers, where they see their own identity portrayed, confirmed, and justified. The near and dear, inasmuch as they are part of the community of rulers, will send cards, but nobody else will. The larger part of the population will not even know that the ceremonies are occurring. Rulers appear to need to legitimate their power, to demonstrate constantly by rituals both spiritual and secular their unique prestige, as persons autho- rised in a manner that ordinary subjects are not, as persons set apart to exercise the powers and privileges of government.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  rulers  legitimacy  Violence_y_Power 
9 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Rebels and Legitimacy; An Introduction
This introduction to the double special issue on the theme of rebels and legitimacy aims to set out the parameters for the discussion. It looks at legitimacy as a concept and at legitimation as a process. To date most of the literature on legitimacy has focused on the state. However, rebel groups such as insurgents, terrorists, warlords and guerrillas have all had claims, and continue to claim, legitimacy as well. How and when are these rebels seen as legitimate actors? Existing suggestions of rebel legitimacy focus heavily on state models of social order and the social contract. This first contribution discusses how to conceptualize legitimacy and how to make it operational. A two-pronged approach, borrowing heavily from Max Weber, is proposed. Legitimacy is investigated based on beliefs and belief systems about what is considered legitimate. This is combined with practices whereby legitimacy is enacted, copied and emulated by the population the rebels claim to represent.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy  resistance 
9 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
The Making of a YouTube Radical - The New York Times
Mr. Cain, 26, recently swore off the alt-right nearly five years after discovering it, and has become a vocal critic of the movement. He is scarred by his experience of being radicalized by what he calls a “decentralized cult” of far-right YouTube personalities, who convinced him that Western civilization was under threat from Muslim immigrants and cultural Marxists, that innate I.Q. differences explained racial disparities, and that feminism was a dangerous ideology.

“I just kept falling deeper and deeper into this, and it appealed to me because it made me feel a sense of belonging,” he said. “I was brainwashed.”
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  terrorism  revolution  Psychology 
9 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Legitimacy, Civil Society, and State Crime
This article will borrow concepts from the disciplines of political science and international relations and attempt to integrate them into a criminological frame?
work. A key concept is that of legitimacy, along with the closely related concept of hegemony, which connects legitimacy to economic interests. A state's legiti? macy must be considered in the context of the state's relationship to civil society
and to other states, as well as of class relations within the state. This will lead us to an examination of recent work in international relations theory on the processes
by which human rights become institutionalized.
When we discuss "the state" in this context, we use the term in a traditional
Marxist sense to refer to a "public power" comprising personnel organized and equipped for the use of force...
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy  criminal 
10 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Legitimacy, Trust and Compliance: An Empirical Test of Procedural Justice Theory using the European Social Survey
This chapter presents findings from a large-scale empirical test of procedural justice theory, which we (and colleagues) designed using the fifth European Social Survey. The chapter first of all locates concerns about institutional legitimacy within a broader framework of ‘compliance theories’. It then sets out its definitional stall in an attempt to clarify what is meant by the ‘slippery’ concept of legitimacy and how the term is used in different contexts. Then, in testing various hypotheses on procedural justice, we employ a tripartite definition of empirical (i.e. perceived) legitimacy. We define empirical legitimacy as the recognition and justification of the right to exercise power and influence, with influence mostly of the normative (rather than instrumental) variety, and importantly our tripartite notions of consent, moral alignment and legality accord with some well-established social psychological mechanisms of identification and internalisation.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy 
10 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Political legitimacy, Justice, and Consent
What is it for a state, constitution or set of governmental institutions to have political legitimacy? This paper raises some doubts about two broadly liberal answers to this question, which can be labelled ‘Kan- tian’ and ‘libertarian’. The argument focuses in particular on the rela- tionship between legitimacy and principles of justice and on the place of consent. By contrast with these views, I suggest that, without endorsing the kind of voluntarist theory, according to which political legitimacy is simply created by individual consent, an adequate under- standing of political legitimacy should take much more account than most philosophical theories tend to do of the attitudes and beliefs of citizens and the social and political context in which they have sal- iency. This also involves acknowledging the limits of theory in deter- mining criteria of political legitimacy.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy 
10 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Why Donald Trump Will Hate the Presidency | Essay | Zócalo Public Square
Strength, Arendt explains, is a function of the instruments one can literally possess and hold, whether these are the muscles one has or the instruments one wields. Strength helps an individual act. Power, though, is something entirely different; Arendt defines it as the human ability not just to act, but to act with others. And as such, power can arise only from within a broad, plural, group of people encompassing differences both big and small.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear 
10 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
WORKING IN THE SHADOWS: A CROSS- NATIONAL ANALYSIS OF EVERYDAY RESISTANCE
Our findings suggest that everyday resistance to material dominance is more likely to burgeon in societies at earlier stages of development with more dependence on agricultural economy and burdened by inefficient institutions, lower levels of social trust, high latent anti-authority attitudes, and low levels of public display of contention. When it comes to the causal drivers of everyday resistance, the results indicate that a certain institutional set-up of loose executive institutions, supportive legal institutions, and fragmented horizontal social structure, form an opportunity structure for everyday resistance to grow. Within this institutional arrangement, resisters tend to base their opposition on de jure more than de facto material domination, while being fueled by latent anti- authority attitudes. Interestingly, the scale of everyday resistance is likely to expand under repressive regimes without being independent from different forms of public display of contention.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  legitimacy  Leadership  fear  resistance 
10 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Dispersed resistance: unpacking the spectrum and properties of glaring and everyday resistance: Journal of Political Power: Vol 11, No 2
Revisiting James C. Scott’s classification of forms of resistance, this paper argues that (hidden, subtle) everyday resistance is only one of many types of small-scale or individual resistance practices. We propose the concept of ‘dispersed resistance’, which might be ‘everyday’ and subtle, or loud and extraordinary. In addition, drawing on Foucault’s works, we suggest at least two ways of conceptualizing dispersed resistance: as ‘productive’ resistance (related to disciplinary power and biopower) and ‘counter-repressive’ resistance (related to repressive and sovereign power). Finally, since power-relations are often composed by an assemblage of repression, discipline and biopower, resistance practices assemble too.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  resistance 
10 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Sovereign power, disciplinary power and biopower: resisting what power with what resistance?: Journal of Political Power: Vol 7, No 1
This article links Foucaultian power forms with its corresponding resistance. If resistance is a reaction to power, then the characteristics of the power strategy/relation affect the kinds of resistance that subsequently prevail. Accordingly, it becomes interesting to discuss what kinds of resistance emanate from what kinds of power. We discuss this relationship between power and resistance by drawing on Foucault’s ‘triangle’: (I) sovereign power; (II) disciplinary power; and (III) biopower. Thus, deviating from Foucaultian studies’ preoccupation with ‘power’, we utilise Foucault in order to focus on ‘resistance’. And by connecting to empirical examples from within the emerging field of resistance studies we argue that the peculiarities of power decide how resistance can be conducted.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Leadership  Power_materials  fear 
10 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
"Everyday Resistance": Explorations of a a Concept and its Theories
The existence of mundane or non-dramatic resistance shows that resistance could be understood as a continuum between public confrontations and hidden subversion. It also suggests a possibility to understand from where open rebellions come, and why sometimes and in some places they don’t occur, despite “objective” conditions. Furthermore, everyday resistance suggests that resistance is integrated into social life and is a part of normality; not as dramatic or strange as assumed – even if it is still unclear how common it is.4 It is thus a concept that brings new clarity to “resistance”; a recurrent social phenomenon that has often been ignored, feared, demonized or romanticized.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Leadership  fear  Power_materials 
10 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Power in everyday life
How does power manifest itself in everyday life? Using experience-sampling methodology, we investigated the prevalence, sources, and correlates of power in people’s natural environments. Participants experienced power-relevant situations regularly, though not frequently. High power was not restricted to a limited few: almost half of the sample reported experiencing high-power positions. Positional power and subjective feelings of power were strongly related but had unique relations with several individual difference measures and independent effects on participants’ affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations. Subjective feelings of power resulted more from within-participant situational fluctuation, such as the social roles participants held at different times, than from stable differences between people. Our data supported some theoretical predictions about power’s effects on affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations, but qualified others, particularly highlighting the role of responsibility in power’s effects. Although the power literature has focused on high power, we found stronger effects of low power than high power.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear 
10 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
How Power Shapes our World – Thought Economics
To understand the story of humanity is to bear witness to the story of its greatest paradox; power. This phenomenon creates the constraints in which we operate, yet is responsible for the structures that bind our society together.
The exercise and accumulation of power is endemic to humanity. In the 20th century alone, this phenomenon has been responsible for over 200 million deaths through war and oppression, and has concentrated over 50% of the world’s wealth into the hands of just 1% of the world’s population meaning that billions of our global family have been subjected to hunger, thirst and disease. Power has also enabled social movements that have brought rights, freedoms and opportunity to many billions more.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy 
10 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
What can you learn from Machiavelli? | Yale Insights
Borgia’s way of dealing with his minister is a prime example of what Machiavelli praises as political virtue, because in this instance Borgia demonstrates a knowledge of the inner essence of the people, or of what the people need and expect in a ruler. The spectacle of punishment on the one hand leaves the people “satisfied,” because iniquities, cruelties, and injustices were indeed committed against the people by the minister, but on the other hand it also leaves them “stupefied,” in the sense that it reminds everyone of an awesome power operating behind the scenes. 
If we look at the symbolism of the minister’s punishment, we find that the spectacle is brilliantly staged. It is almost as if Borgia is declaring, in a sort of ritualistic language, that here one of my ministers, one of my representatives, has done violence to the body politic, and therefore he will have his just punishment, that is to say he will be cut in half, because that is what he did to our state—he divided it. 
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Power_materials  Leadership  fear 
10 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Hegel on Sovereignty and Monarchy
Hegel is not a democrat. He is a monarchist. But he wants monarchy because he does not want strong government. He wants to deemphasize power. He develops an idealist conception of sovereignty that allows for a monarch less powerful than a president—one whose task is to expresses the unity of the state and realize the rationality inherent in it. A monarch needs to be a conduit through which reason is expressed and actualized, not a power that might obstruct this process.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Leadership  fear  Power_materials 
10 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Legitimacy and Theory of Political Consciousness: Evaluating Political Act of Aggression | OMICS International
The western principles for a legitimate power relation is not only vital for current political relations, including the ability to secure and to develop peace, but also to recognize and address the illegitimate state and their instruments. Given this premise, we can normatively and empirically assess ‘political acts of aggression’, or state’s coercion which are arguably an instrument of every political power. Indeed, such contribution referring mostly to the modern authoritarian/totalitarian states in the Middle East and North Africa which have been used coercion or political aggression in their power relations.1 Moreover, it is important to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate political acts of aggression. The difference will be examined through examples of acts of aggression in politics, carried out especially from top-down approach.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Leadership  fear  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power 
10 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
The challenge of Trump’s presidency is legitimacy, not power - Vox
This kind of legitimacy issue is not entirely new. When presidents have pushed at the boundaries of their accepted authority, they’ve needed to draw on core concepts, like electoral mandates, to reframe what they’re doing. And the Nixon parallels that we keep hearing about have a strong legitimacy component. Abuse of power is partly about what’s being done, but a great deal of it is about the reasons — self-serving and anti-democratic — behind the actions.

The situation the country finds itself in now inverts the usual question of presidential power: Do the ends justify the means? Can presidential action that pushes against. or past, accepted boundaries be justified if it addresses a pressing problem? Who gets to decide?
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  fear  Leadership  legitimacy  Trump 
10 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Power, Authority & Legitimacy Theory - Politics Revision
Good summary of power, authority, and legitimacy theory...from Hobbes to Dahl to Lukes to Marx
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  authority  Power_materials  fear  Leadership 
11 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
The online data analysis tool | Afrobarometer
A pan-African series of national public attitude surveys on democracy, governance, and society
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  data  legitimacy  Research 
11 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Sources of State Legitimacy in Contemporary South Africa: A theory of political goods
BASICALLY ARGUES THAT STATE GATHERS POWER BEFORE IT GETS LEGITIMACY...CALLS IT POLITICAL GOODS...In this paper I argue for the supremacy of political goods, suggesting that those who rate the state positively in providing personal security, political rights and a rule of law, to be more likely to see the state as legitimate. I test these propositions in the context of South Africa, a state that was viewed as illegitimate by the majority of individuals until very recently. Using 2008 Afrobarometer data, I find strong support for my contention that the provision of political goods is a key determinant of legitimacy attitudes.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power 
11 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Replication Data for: "Legislative Staff and Representation in Congress" - American Political Science Review Dataverse
Replication Data for: "Legislative Staff and Representation in Congress"
Subject Social Sciences
Related Publication Hertel-Fernandez, Alexander, Matto Mildenberger, and Leah C. Stokes. "Legislative Staff and Representation in Congress." American Political Science Review, 1-18. Published online 9 November 2018. doi: 10.1017/S0003055418000606
Latino  war  state  information  Power_materials  legitimacy 
11 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
The Soul of Statesmanship: Shakespeare on Nature, Virtue, and Political Wisdom - VoegelinView
We believe Shakespeare’s plays teach thoughtful readers the kind of political wisdom Burke (and Lincoln) saw as necessary for civic education and statesmanship. This volume—with contributions from some of the most accomplished and promising scholars in the fields of philosophy, political science, and legal studies—seeks further to enrich our understanding and appreciation of Shakespeare’s profound and inspiring teachings on the nature, character, and limits of personal virtue, political wisdom, and prudence.

No one discipline or school of thought can justifiably claim a monopoly on how Shakespeare—one of the thinkers most talked about, read, and written on—ought to be read, enjoyed, or interpreted. The approach we take to understanding these Shakespeare plays neither follows the conventional methods of the literary cultural critics, who confine Shakespeare’s thought to the prejudices of his times, nor follows those of the critical-theory school who “deconstruct” the Bard’s works only in order to convince themselves and others that they do not contain timeless truths about human themes. Such approaches underestimate Shakespeare’s profound concern and peerless facility with issues such as political liberty, justice, tyranny, moral virtue, and self-knowledge, among many other important issues and themes that make up our bewildering human condition. Read with an open mind, Shakespeare can help to awaken an awareness of the most vital and enduring questions of human life and politics.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Power_materials  shakespeare  fear 
11 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
The Problems Are Everlasting, the Bard Indispensable - VoegelinView
According to Carson Holloway, Macbeth’s tragedy is to be more like Iago, whose attack on Othello was motivated by his concern for reputation.  “At both the beginning and end of his tragic career, Macbeth loves his honor more than he loves himself, and fears disgrace more than he fears evil.”  The irony is that the tyrannical pride that overwhelms Macbeth is truly a trick of the devil by which the love of honor for itself negates the possibility of receiving it. Tyrants fear not merely the many who might wish to be ruled by another, but also the brave and the wise who might do or arrange to do something about the tyrant. The end result is that they must eliminate the only people from whom they could actually gain true honor or true friendship. Holloway focuses very closely on the demonic character of Macbeth’s path; not that he is himself a demon, but one who has been tricked by them into forging a path of public and spiritual ruin that is seemingly total. Holloway notes that Macbeth alone among the great Shakespearean tragic figures has no one to speak a kind word after his death. Holloway speculates that a word of pity in his lifetime might have changed him, but the rest of his analysis leads one to think that such a change would be, if not impossible, unlikely.
Latino  war  legitimacy  state  Leadership  fear  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power  shakespeare 
11 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Short Stories and Political Philosophy: Power, Prose, and Persuasion - VoegelinView
While we hope to illustrate the congruity and utility of reading short stories alongside political philosophy over the course of this volume, one may ask: What is the preliminary evidence to support these claims? Consider, first, the contention that the broad concerns of political philosophy and the short story as a literary device are shared and even homologous. Generally speaking, political philosophy is comprised of at least three central, and often intertwined, threads of intellectual thought and related research programs. The first strand draws specifically on the field’s philosophical orientation by engaging in “the search for certainty and truth, not merely by the pursuit of methodological purity or self-critical understanding,” and by attempting to identify reliable if not “unshakeable” knowledge about political phenomena.[9] A second, cognate tradition of political philosophy focuses on specifically normative questions, especially debating and proposing “forms of the good life” (for individuals, communities, and states), identifying “what is morally proper” behavior, and providing “yardsticks for public conduct.”[10] The third strand relates to the history of political thought, especially by placing the different thinkers who have contributed to the first two projects into a “sequenced story” or conversation.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  fiction  writing  Leadership  Power_materials 
11 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Legitimation in Non-Democracies: Concepts, Theories and Empirical Evidence across Regime Subtypes
Legitimation aims to secure active consent, compliance with the regime's rules, passive obedience, or toleration and resignation within the population. There are at least two major challenges to incorporating legitimation into the study of non-democratic regimes. First is the objection that legitimation is mere 'window dressing.' On this account, there is nothing substantive in the legitimation efforts of autocracies because they are epiphenomenal to the violence, coercion, or co-optation the regime is able to deploy. Second, even if it is agreed that legitimation is important to the maintenance of non-democratic rule, it is often argued that the conceptual and methodological difficulties associated with analysing it are insurmountable. These are important challenges to meet because understanding how, why, and with what effect non-democratic regimes aim to secure legitimation can illuminate numerous aspects of autocratic rule.
Latino  war  state  Leadership  legitimacy  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power  authority 
11 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Regime Legitimation Expert Survey (RLES)
We present a data set on authoritarian regimes’ claims to legitimacy that is based on leading experts’ assessments of 98 states for the period 1991–2010. The experts assessed these regimes on the basis of six conceptually distinguishable but interlinked claims to legitimacy – namely (1) foundational myth, (2) ideology, (3) personalism, (4) international engagement, (5) procedural mechanisms and (6) performance. For the survey, we contacted approximately 800 renowned international and local experts. They were selected on the basis of their publication records, their local expertise and their work for high-quality country-based indices, research institutes, and/or high-profile think tanks. 273 online questionnaires were completed. We collected expert assessments for the most recent non-democratic regime (as of 2013, the year of assessment). The survey comprised questions covering the strength of a regime’s six legitimation strategies, based on a six-point scale ranging from 0-5. In addition, the dataset includes information regarding the number of experts per country and the experts’ average confidence in answering the questions on the respective country.
Latino  war  state  Leadership  fear  Power_materials  legitimacy  database 
11 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
How do Non-Democratic Regimes Claim Legitimacy? Comparative Insights from Post-Soviet Countrires
The analysis using the new Regime Legitimation Expert Survey (RLES) demonstrates that non‐democratic rulers in post‐Soviet countries use specific combinations of legitimating claims to stay in power. Most notably, rulers claim to be the guardians of citizens’ socio‐ economic well‐being. Second, despite recurrent infringements on political and civil rights, they maintain that their power is rule‐based and embodies the will of the people, as they have been given popular electoral mandates. Third, they couple these elements with input‐ based legitimation strategies that focus on nationalist ideologies, the personal capabilities and charismatic aura of the rulers, and the regime’s foundational myth. Overall, the reli‐ ance on these input‐based strategies is lower in the western post‐Soviet Eurasian countries and very pronounced among the authoritarian rulers of Central Asia
Latino  war  legitimacy  state  fear  Leadership  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power 
11 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Reports of U.S. Democracy's Death Have Been Greatly Exaggerated | Essay | Zócalo Public Square
Before I looked at conscription I looked at taxation. Of Rule and Revenue (published in 1988) started with trying to understand why tax systems look so different across countries and across eras. I started in ancient Rome and ended in contemporary Australia. I thought my answer was going to have to do with economic transaction costs. But it turns out that the major issue was political transaction costs. That is, no ruler can really force everyone to pay up. They can’t have a fed under every bed, and it doesn’t matter how much they use the military or the police. They need to get what I call “quasi-voluntary compliance,” where people feel like they have some obligation to pay but they will do so only under certain conditions. Those conditions include the trustworthiness or reliability of the government. There has to be some confidence that the government is trying to keep its promises. There has to be some belief that the process by which the policy was made is fair according to the norms of the place, which can vary a lot. And people have to believe that government will enforce the rules against those who don’t comply; no one wants to be a sucker, one of the few paying taxes or signing up for military service in a full-blown war.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  fear  Leadership  Trump  Power_materials  democracy 
11 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
The relevance of legitimation – a new framework for analysis: Contemporary Politics: Vol 23, No 3
The legitimacy of political orders is an important reference point in political analysis, but the concept is difficult to operationalize and measure – particularly in those countries where legitimacy is critical, i.e. cases of political transformation, non-democratic rule and high state fragility. To be successful, legitimation (the process by which legitimacy is procured) has to fulfil two functions: relate demands for legitimation to government performance (the ‘demand cycle’), and relate legitimacy claims issued by the rulers to behavioural patterns of the ruled (the ‘supply cycle’). Looking at the recent academic debate, the article finds that empirical research has largely ignored the demand cycle, while attempts to explore the relationships underlying the supply cycle tend to suffer from misconceptions of basic terms. The article proposes a framework for empirical enquiry that addresses both shortcomings.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Power_materials  data  political_theory 
12 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Opinion | The Fight Over How Trump Fits in With the Other 44 Presidents - The New York Times
It didn’t take long after President Trump took office for conflicting views about the strength and duration of his legacy to surface.

A “regime” theory of the presidency — developed in “The Politics Presidents Make” by Stephen Skowronek, a political scientist at Yale — provides the theoretical basis for the view that despite his victory in 2016, Trump represents the final collapse of Reagan-era conservatism. Skowronek described his overall project as a “study of presidents as agents of political change” that produced a framework of “four types of political leadership,” each of which I will explore in more detail below, with and without reference to the seeming anomaly of Trump.

Jack Balkin, a law professor at Yale, adapting Skowronek’s model, argues that Trump epitomizes the fourth type of political leadership Skowronek identifies because Trump is “in the same structural position as Herbert Hoover and Jimmy Carter,” caught in an uphill, presumptively doomed, struggle “to hold together the fraying coalition of an exhausted regime.”
Latino  war  state  presidents  Trump  Power_materials  data 
12 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Liberal Democracy Is Too Limited in the Era of the On-Demand Economy | Essay | Zócalo Public Square
Changes in democracy are occurring now because of tectonic shifts in the relationship between citizens and government. As a population, we are better educated than ever before. We are not as deferential to expertise and authority as we once were. And we are networked through the internet to an almost infinite number of potential connections and sources of information. In other words, the people have more capacity. The question of whether governments, civil society, and other institutions can develop the ability to unleash that capacity underlies most of the public problems we face.

This new reality of rising citizen capacity makes some public servants uncomfortable. Trapped in systems designed to protect their expertise, besieged by people who no longer believe their data or respect their authority, and faced with hostile constituents at public events, public officials are understandably skeptical about the virtues, capabilities, and good sense of their fellow men and women.

In turn, citizens are skeptical about the virtues, capabilities, and good sense of their public officials. People are used to having choices in every other aspect of their lives—what to buy, where to live, how to earn a living—but there are few choices they can make in the public sector, other than which of two candidates to pick in each election. In the U.S., the level of trust in government has reached the lowest point on record.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  legitimacy 
12 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
How Governments Gain and Lose Legitimacy | Zócalo Public Square
Even if political power sometimes comes from the barrel of a gun, any government is more effective if it enjoys popular acceptance. Today, governments usually claim a popular mandate from an election, even if that election is fraudulent. In the past, however, elections played little role in bestowing legitimacy.
Latino  war  state  Trump  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power  legitimacy 
12 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
World Leaders Who Lied On the Job
World leaders lie. One look at history backs up this claim. Today, lying is almost expected from leaders. Continue reading to find out more about presidents, dictators, and other world leaders who lie.
Latino  war  state  presidents  Trump  Power_materials 
12 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
About | Presidential Power
We follow the activity of both directly elected and indirectly elected presidents. We post information about how presidents use their powers in different countries as well as information about events that affect presidents. We also post reflections on presidential power generally both in individual countries and cross-nationally.

We include coverage of democracies, autocracies, and the range of regimes in between.

We examine presidential politics from a political science perspective. We aim to provide information and analysis for the academic, research and practitioner communities.
Latino  war  state  presidents  Power_materials  data  Trump 
12 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Where are the margins of the state
The overall argument that seems to emerge from the introduction is that the state’s margins can be viewed differently precisely because “the state” itself is not a fixed object. This argument is enormously suggestive, and I want to think a little along these lines.
Latino  war  state  rulers  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power  political_theory 
12 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
State Failure, State Collapse, and State Reconstruction: Concepts, Lessons and Strategies
The modern state, since it emerged out of the ashes of the medieval order, has always been a work in progress. The aspirations of its most ardent defenders for legitimate, representative, redistributive or just governance have shimmered on the horizon distant from the reality of contemporary states, whether in their eighteenth century absolutist, or twentieth century authoritarian, versions. But it is against this backdrop that the current discourse of ‘failed’ or ‘collapsed’ states must be understood. For every claim that a state has collapsed, is failing, or is going to fail, contains two usually implicit definitions or benchmarks. One concerns the ‘stateness’ against which any given state should be measured as having succeeded or failed (the institutional dimension of state collapse), and the other concerns the normative and practical implications of such a failure (the functional dimension of state failure). Concern over the possibility of state failure thus often has as much to do with dashed expectations
Latino  war  state  rulers  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power  political_theory 
12 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
On Geoffrey Benjamin’s deep sociology of the nation-state: EBSCOhost
What is the unseen presence of the nation-state? What is so mystifying about the state of social theory that has effectively masked the nature of its cultural hegemony? At the time of his initial writing, Geoffrey Benjamin’s ruminations on these themes were novel and theoretically critical. Thirty years on, many of these conceptual mysteries remain unresolved. However, like the advent of governmentality, neo-liberalism and biopolitics, the omnipresence of national imagination and violence of state power still warrant problematization.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power  political_theory  teaching_pol_theory 
12 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Information Warfare Is Here To Stay
The German example offers two main lessons for today. First, whoever controls the relevant infrastructure can also exert influence over the data and news that flow through it. For Germany, this meant investing in new wireless technology and supporting homegrown news agencies. Today, the Chinese technology giant Huawei is aiming for global leadership in 5G, the latest generation of wireless communication. U.S. intelligence agencies have claimed that the company receives funding from several Chinese state security agencies, although Huawei has denied this. Huawei’s control may enable China to determine future technical standards and surveil data flows in ways that we cannot fully anticipate today.
state  communications  Power_materials  capitalism  china 
may 2019 by Jibarosoy
Friedman and Hayek: How Neoliberal Revolutionaries Took over the World - Evonomics
Excellent article that lays out the obstacles and paths to changing our worlds! 🤗
“If it is true that that ideas don’t change things gradually but in fits and starts — in shocks — then the basic premise of our democracy, our journalism, and our education is all wrong. It would mean, in essence, that the Enlightenment model of how people change their opinions — through information-gathering and reasoned deliberation — is really a buttress for the status quo. It would mean that those who swear by rationality, nuance, and compromise fail to grasp how ideas govern the world. A worldview is not a Lego set where a block is added here, removed there. It’s a fortress that is defended tooth and nail, with all possible reinforcements, until the pressure becomes so overpowering that the walls cave in.”
pol.505  pol.508  Passions  reasoning  capitalism  state  idea  ideology  identity  critical_thinking  politics 
may 2019 by Jibarosoy
Where Does Religion Come From? : NPR
For most of human history, we lived in small groups of about 50 people. Everyone knew everybody. If you told a lie, stole someone's dinner, or failed to defend the group against its enemies, there was no way to disappear into the crowd. Everyone knew you, and you would get punished.

But in the last 12,000 years or so, human groups began to expand. It became more difficult to identify and punish the cheaters and free riders. So we needed something big — really big. An epic force that could see what everyone was doing, and enforce the rules. That force, according to social psychologist Azim Shariff, was the popular idea of a "supernatural punisher" – also known as God.

Think of the vengeful deity of the Hebrew Bible, known for sending punishments like rains of burning sulfur and clouds of locusts, blood and lice.

"It's an effective stick to deter people from immoral behavior," says Shariff.
Religion  state  Latino  war  fear  rulers  Pol.11  Pol.12  Passions  reasoning  Power_materials 
may 2019 by Jibarosoy
Friedrich Hayek and the Market Algorithm
Friedrich A. Hayek (1899–1992) is known for his vision of the market economy as an information processing system characterized by spontaneous order: the emergence of coherence through the independent actions of large numbers of individuals, each with limited and local knowledge, coordinated by prices that arise from decen- tralized processes of competition. Hayek is also known for his advocacy of a broad range of free market policies and, indeed, considered the substantially unregulated market system to be superior to competing alternatives precisely because it made the best use of dispersed knowledge
Latino  war  state  rulers  information  marketing  economy  Power_materials 
may 2019 by Jibarosoy
Hayek “The Use of Knowledge in Society”
The peculiar character of the problem of a rational economic order is determined precisely by the fact that the knowledge of the circumstances of which we must make use never exists in concentrated or integrated form but solely as the dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge which all the separate individuals possess. The economic problem of society is thus not merely a problem of how to allocate “given” resources—if “given” is taken to mean given to a single mind which deliberately solves the problem set by these “data.” It is rather a problem of how to secure the best use of resources known to any of the members of society, for ends whose relative importance only these individuals know. Or, to put it briefly, it is a problem of the utilization of knowledge which is not given to anyone in its totality.
Latino  war  rulers  state  information  economy  marketing  Power_materials 
may 2019 by Jibarosoy
List of countries by system of government
Where a president is the active head of the executive branch of government and is independent from the legislature. The following list includes democratic and non-democratic states:
Pol.11  Pol.12  state  president  Trump  government 
may 2019 by Jibarosoy
Friedrich Hayek on Economic Nationalism and Central Planning | National Review
Historically, the primary conservative argument against top-down planning wasn’t so much that politicians and bureaucrats aren’t smart enough to run the economy from some Washington-based control room, but that it simply can’t be done. Policymakers suffer from what Hayek called “the knowledge problem.” The market is too complex, with too many variables on the ground, for anyone to manage things from above.
Latino  war  fear  state  Leadership  Power_in_America  Power_materials  capitalism  Economics 
may 2019 by Jibarosoy
A President of the People or a President of His People? - The New York Times
The old-fashioned idea that a president, once reaching office, should at least pretend to be the leader of all the people these days seems so, well, old-fashioned. Mr. Trump does not bother with the pretense. He is speaking to his people, not the people. He has become, or so it often seems, the president of the United Base of America.

Mr. Trump travels nearly five times as often to states that were in his column in 2016 as to those that supported Hillary Clinton. He has given nearly four times as many interviews to Fox News as to all the other major networks combined. His social media advertising is aimed disproportionately at older Americans who were the superstructure of his victory in the Electoral College in 2016. His messaging is permeated with divisive language that galvanizes core supporters more than it persuades anyone on the fence, much less on the other side.
Latino  war  state  Leadership  president  Trump  Power_materials 
april 2019 by Jibarosoy
How a comedian called out Jared Kushner to his face — and it worked
Saudi Arabia’s human rights violations have continued unabated despite the increased scrutiny facing that country. The government has already executed more than 100 people in the first four months of 2019 and is on track to kill more than 300 people this year, according to the Detroit Free Press. The most recent was Mujtaba al-Sweikat, a Saudi Arabian man who was arrested when he was 17-years-old in 2012 as he prepared to begin his studies at Western Michigan University. He was arrested for allegedly attending a pro-democracy rally during the Arab Spring movement, and was beheaded by the Saudi government on Tuesday.
Latino  war  Leadership  state  Trump  Violence_y_Power  Power_materials 
april 2019 by Jibarosoy
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