What Kids Need to Learn to Succeed in 2050 - Forge
In such a world, the last thing a teacher needs to give her pupils is more information. They already have far too much of it. Instead, people need the ability to make sense of information, to tell the difference between what is important and what is unimportant, and, above all, to combine many bits of information into a broad picture of the world.
In truth, this has been the ideal of Western liberal education for centuries, but up until, now even many Western schools have been rather slack in fulfilling it. Teachers allowed themselves to focus on imparting data while encouraging students “to think for themselves.” Due to their fear of authoritarianism, liberal schools have had a particular horror of grand narratives. They’ve assumed that as long as we give students lots of data and a modicum of freedom, the students will create their own picture of the world, and even if this generation fails to synthesize all the data into a coherent and meaningful story about the world, there will be plenty of time to construct a better synthesis in the future.
higher-education  Teaching  LIU  Learning  liberal_arts  Pol.11  Pol.12  critical_thinking  questioning 
9 days ago
Your Emotional Brain is Smarter Than Your Brain Thinks
The current age of information overload means, a greater amount of emotional decision making because your rational brain sometimes can’t handle all the stress that comes with making calculated choices
Becoming aware of emotions has the benefit of correcting many emotional biases. As you make decisions daily, if you can be mindful and become aware of your emotions, you can identify which decisions can be addressed rationally.
Despite the strength of your emotional brain, you can correct the many emotional biases, and give yourself the chance to make more complex decisions rationally.
Passions  reasoning  pol.508  Psychology  Power_materials  latino  war  state  Leadership  fear 
9 days ago
McCulloch v. Maryland :: 17 U.S. 316 (1819) :: Justia US Supreme Court Center
a Government of the people. In form and in substance, it emanates from them. Its powers are granted by them, and are to be exercised directly on them, and for their benefit.

This Government is acknowledged by all to be one of enumerated powers. The principle that it can exercise only the powers granted to it would seem too apparent to have required to be enforced by all those arguments which its enlightened friends, while it was depending before the people, found it necessary to urge; that principle is now universally admitted.
Latino  war  fear  state  Power_materials  legitimacy  rulers  Violence_y_Power  law  Power_in_America 
11 days ago
(26) (PDF) Three Books Interrogate the Status Quo of Nation Building in Puerto Rico: A Review Essay by Dr. Maritza Stanchich | Marisel Moreno - Academia.edu
Three recent books in Puerto Rican Studiessimultaneously consider both island and dia-spora literature to illuminate the underpinningsof national discourses in Puerto Rico, each withdistinct aims and political positions, and withvarying success in terms of sustaining cogentprojects. The timing, during acute economiccrisis in the so-called US Commonwealth, whichhas drawn comparisons to Detroit and Greece,and has spurred a migration exodus of historicproportions, lends these works a sense of urgency. Being that literature ofthe Puerto Ricandiaspora has historically been excluded fromboth US and Puerto Rican canons, these titlesalso speak to previous trailblazing works indeepening the implications of the Puerto Ricandiaspora
puerto_ricans  nations  state  Power_in_America 
13 days ago
(26) (PDF) Guavas for Dummies, American Jíbaras, & Postnational Autonomy: When I Was Puerto Rican in the Hemispheric Turn | Gregory Stephens - Academia.edu
After teaching four years in Puerto Rico, I see that my first analysis of
 memoir, as a form of
 was truer than I realized. As Ramón Soto-Crespo and others have argued, Puerto Rico is an anomalous
 Its in-between status puts Puerto Rico at the cutting edge of debates about post-nationalism. Rosario Ferré has argued that Puerto Rico is positioned to be
 the vanguard of what America will  be in the
 if not force-fit
 the logic of the nation-
 as Soto-Crespo puts it.
 That is a hemispheric view of the Americas, including but not confined to (or merely opposed to) the United States
puerto_ricans  dominican  Taino  Culture  state  nations 
13 days ago
The CIA's Secret Heart Attack Gun | Military.com
A CIA secret weapon used for assassination shoots a small poison dart to cause a heart attack, as explained in Congressional testimony in the video. The dart from this secret CIA weapon can penetrate clothing and leave nothing but a tiny red dot on the skin. On penetration of the deadly dart, the individual targeted for assassination may feel as if bitten by a mosquito, or they may not feel anything at all. The poisonous dart completely disintegrates upon entering the target. The lethal poison then rapidly enters the bloodstream causing a heart attack. Once the damage is done, the poison denatures quickly, so that an autopsy is very unlikely to detect that the heart attack resulted from anything other than natural causes. Sounds like the perfect James Bond weapon, doesn't it? Yet this is all verifiable in Congressional testimony. The astonishing information about this secret weapon of the CIA comes from U.S. Senate testimony in 1975 on rogue activities of the CIA. This weapon is only one of many James Bond-like discoveries of the Church Committee hearings, officially known as the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence activities.
conspiracy  Pol._120  Power_in_America  Violence_y_Power  manipulation  intelligence 
14 days ago
Conspiracy Theories by Talley Fenn on Prezi
How Do They Spread?
List of Conspiracy Theories
Conspiracy Theories That Turned
Out To Be True
What is a Conspiracy Theory?
A conspiracy theory is a theory that explains an event or set of circumstances as the result of a secret plot by usually powerful conspirators.
("Conspiracy Theory." Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 14 May 2014. <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/conspiracy%2520theory>.).
conspiracy  Pol._120  Power_in_America  Teaching  Learning  truth  manipulation 
14 days ago
Puerto Rican Civic Engagement—Coordinator, Florida - Vamos4PR and Vamos4PR Action | The Center for Popular Democracy
Vamos4PR, a project of the Center for Popular Democracy, and Vamos4PR Action, a project of Center for Popular Democracy Action, are hiring a Coordinator for Puerto Rican Civic Engagement in Central Florida. Vamos4PR is a network of stateside labor, community, cultural, and human rights groups committed to fighting for a better future for Puerto Rico and empowering the Puerto Rican diaspora.  The Coordinator for Civic Engagement will be responsible for aspects of the Vamos4PR Florida campaign to build power for Puerto Ricans on the Island and for the diaspora’s Central Florida communities.   The Coordinator will be responsible for organizing and mobilizing community members around local, state, federal, and island policies and empowering them to use their voices as voters.
NILP_Board  activities  Latino_Journal  Power_in_America  community 
14 days ago
A national experiment reveals where a growth mindset improves achievement | Nature
A global priority for the behavioural sciences is to develop cost-effective, scalable interventions that could improve the academic outcomes of adolescents at a population level, but no such interventions have so far been evaluated in a population-generalizable sample. Here we show that a short (less than one hour), online growth mindset intervention—which teaches that intellectual abilities can be developed—improved grades among lower-achieving students and increased overall enrolment to advanced mathematics courses in a nationally representative sample of students in secondary education in the United States. Notably, the study identified school contexts that sustained the effects of the growth mindset intervention: the intervention changed grades when peer norms aligned with the messages of the intervention. Confidence in the conclusions of this study comes from independent data collection and processing, pre-registration of analyses, and corroboration of results by a blinded Bayesian analysis.
MINDSET  Learning_Communities  LIU  LIUBLC  Pol.11  Pol.12  Teaching  Learning 
14 days ago
Does Gentrification Displace Poor Children? New Evidence from NYC Medicaid Data
In contrast to earlier studies, we focus on young children, given the evidence that they are most sensitive to neighborhood conditions. Specifically, we use New York State’s Medicaid claims database from January 2009 through December 2015 to shed new light on this question. As a large, administrative dataset, the Medicaid claims data contain residential address data for over 6 million New York State Medicaid enrollees annually. Using these longitudinal administrative data, we can track the residential movements of a cohort of low-income, New York City (NYC) children born between 2006 and 2008 who were continuously enrolled in Medicaid from 2009 to 2015. Importantly, because these data contain exact addresses throughout the period, we are also able to control for whether a family is living in public housing or another type of subsidized building, as roughly 20% of our sample does. Families with housing supports are less likely to move and may be less affected by gentrification. In most of our analyses, we exclude subsidized families, focusing on those most vulnerable to displacement.
newyork  housing  gentrification  data  puerto_ricans  Latinos_+_TW  Methodology 
16 days ago
The Fight for Free College Is Your Fight Too - The Chronicle of Higher Education
The loss of public higher education to vast swaths of the population, not coincidentally people of color, more often women than men, is a form of violence — the violence of absolute exclusion. This is exclusion not only from the "opportunity" that higher-education pundits like to talk about, but the exclusion from, dare we say, the life of the mind, the pursuit of knowledge — the useless knowledge engaged by areas like philosophy, the arts, the humanities in general. 
higher-education  finances  development  Business_and_Finance  inequalities 
17 days ago
Our Libraries and Schools Are Vital 'Social Infrastructure' - CityLab
In his new book out today, Palaces for the People, my New York University colleague Eric Klinenberg, a sociologist, makes the case that a better future for our cities and our society can be built around the concept of social infrastructure. Following a long tradition of social thought from Alexis de Tocqueville and John Dewey to Robert Putnam, Klinenberg sees social infrastructure as veritable glue that connects us and binds us together in our communities. He argues that renewing our commitment to this infrastructure is essential to rebuilding a more cohesive, civil, and forward-looking society.
civilization  legitimacy  community  Power_in_America  Passions 
17 days ago
FBI document warns conspiracy theories are a new domestic terrorism threat
The FBI for the first time has identified fringe conspiracy theories as a domestic terrorist threat, according to a previously unpublicized document obtained by Yahoo News. (Read the document below.)

The FBI intelligence bulletin from the bureau’s Phoenix field office, dated May 30, 2019, describes “conspiracy theory-driven domestic extremists,” as a growing threat, and notes that it is the first such report to do so. It lists a number of arrests, including some that haven’t been publicized, related to violent incidents motivated by fringe beliefs.

The document specifically mentions QAnon, a shadowy network that believes in a deep state conspiracy against President Trump, and Pizzagate, the theory that a pedophile ring including Clinton associates was being run out of the basement of a Washington, D.C., pizza restaurant (which didn’t actually have a basement).
Pol._120  conspiracy  Power_in_America  Trump  Violence_y_Power  racism 
20 days ago
How the Political Crisis in Puerto Rico is Unifying the Puerto Rican Diaspora | The Takeaway | WNYC Studios
The resignation of Governor Rossello in Puerto Rico after mass protests was historic and unprecedented. These protests have also served to lift up the voices of groups that were typically politically and culturally underrepresented on the island: LGBTQ people, women, and members of the diaspora. There are currently more Puerto Ricans living off the island than on it, so the very idea of the diaspora, and Puerto Rican identity, is also changing in light of this political crisis.

We are joined by Caridad De La Luz, aka “La Bruja” poet, musician, and activist, along with Andrew Padilla, artist, educator and journalist, and Samy Nemir Olivares, an LGBTQ activist.
puerto_ricans  colonialism  Power_in_America  NILP_Board 
21 days ago
Data Version 9 | V-Dem
V-Dem Dataset - Version 9
Welcome to the V-Dem Data page where you can download the V-Dem data free of charge!
The Varieties of Democracy Project is releasing new datasets every year around April, smaller updates to the datasets may be released in-between.

Countries: 202 countries
Year coverage: 1789-2018
450+ V-Dem indicators, 81 indices and 5 high-level indices
How to download a V-Dem Dataset:
Select type of dataset: Country-Year, Country-Date and Coder-Level
Select size: V-Dem Core, V-Dem Full+Others
Select format: SPSS, STATA, CSV and R
Click on the link to download the file and enter your details in the pop-up window
The dataset and documentation are all yours!
Latino  war  state  Leadership  Power_materials  legitimacy  database  rulers 
4 weeks ago
Patterns of Regime Breakdown since the French Revolution
We present a new dataset comprising more than 1900 regimes in 197 polities over the time period 1789–2016. We use this dataset to describe different historical patterns of regime duration globally, leveraging fine-grained measures on when regimes started and ended and a nuanced scheme of different modes of regime breakdown. To mention a few patterns, we display how the frequency of regime breakdown, and particular modes of breakdown, have followed cyclical rather than linear patterns across modern history and that the most common modes, overall, are coups d’ ́etat and incumbent-guided transformations of regimes. Further, we evaluate whether selected economic and political-institutional features are systematically associated with breakdown. We find robust evidence that low income levels, slow or negative economic growth, and having intermediate levels of democracy predict higher chances of regime breakdown, although these factors are more clearly related to regime breakdown during some periods of modern history than others. When disaggregating different models of breakdown, we find notable differences for these predictors, with low income levels, for example, being strongly related to regime breakdowns due to popular uprisings, whereas intermediate levels of democracy clearly predict regime breakdowns due to coups and incumbent-guided regime transitions.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  rulers  Violence_y_Power  democracy 
4 weeks ago
Introducing the Historical Varieties of Democracy Dataset
The Historical Varieties of Democracy Dataset (Historical V-Dem) is a new dataset containing about 260 indicators, both factual and evaluative, describing various aspects of political regimes and state institutions. The dataset covers 91 polities globally – including most large, sovereign states, as well as some semi-sovereign entities and large colonies – from 1789 to 1920 for many cases. The majority of the indicators are also included in the Varieties of Democracy dataset, which covers the period from 1900 to the present – and together these two datasets cover the bulk of “modern history”. Historical V-Dem also includes several new indicators, covering features that are pertinent for 19th century polities. We describe the data, the process of coding, and the different strategies employed in Historical V-Dem to cope with issues of reliability and validity and ensure inter-temporal- and cross-country comparability. To illustrate the potential uses of the dataset we provide a descriptive account of patterns of democratization in the “long 19th century.” Finally, we perform an empirical investigation of how inter-state war relates to subsequent democratization.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  rulers  legitimacy  database  Violence_y_Power 
4 weeks ago
Keeping the Democratic Facade_Contemporary Autocratization as a game of deception
Less than thirty years after Fukuyama and others declared liberal democracy’s eternal dominance, a third wave of autocratization is manifest. Gradual declines of democratic regime attributes characterize contemporary autocratization. Yet, we lack the appropriate conceptual and empirical tools to diagnose and compare such elusive processes. Addressing that gap, this paper provides the first comprehensive empirical overview of all autocratization episodes from 1900 to today based on data from the Varieties of Democracy Project (V-Dem). We demonstrate that a third wave of autocratization is indeed unfolding. It mainly affects democracies with gradual setbacks under a legal façade. While this is a cause for concern, the historical perspective presented in this paper shows that panic is not warranted: the current declines are relatively mild and the global share of democratic countries remains close to its all-time high. As it was premature to announce the “end of history” in 1992, it is premature to proclaim the “end of democracy” now.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  rulers  Violence_y_Power  democracy 
4 weeks ago
Stairways to Denmark: Does the Sequence of state-building and democratization matter for economic development?
Building effective state institutions before introducing democracy is widely pre- sumed to improve different development outcomes. We discuss the assumptions that this prominent ‘stateness-first’ argument rests upon and how extant studies fail to correctly specify the counter-factual conditions required to test the argument. In ex- tension, we subject the argument to three sets of tests focused on economic develop- ment as the outcome, leveraging new measures of democracy and state institutional features for almost 180 polities with time series extending back to 1789. First, we run standard panel regressions with interactions between state capacity and democracy. Second, we employ coarsened exact matching, specifying and testing different rele- vant counter-factuals embedded in the stateness-first argument. Finally, we employ sequencing methods to identify historically common sequences of institutional change, and use these sequences as growth predictors. We do not find any evidence supporting the stateness-first argument in either of these tests.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Leadership  Power_materials  fear  rulers  Psychology  Violence_y_Power 
4 weeks ago
Regime Legitimation Strategies (RLS), 1900 to 2018
This paper introduces new expert-coded measures of regime legitimation strategies for 179 countries in the world from 1900 up until 2018. Sophisticated methods for the selection and aggregation of expert-coded data from the Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) project ensure the comparability of observations across time and space. Country experts have rated the extent to which the government promotes or references its performance, the person of the leader, rational-legality, and ideology in order to justify the regime in place. The item on ideology asked the experts to further categorize the ideology of the regime as nationalist, communist/socialist, conservative/restorative, religious, and/or separatist. Expanding on von Soest and Grauvogel (2017a, 2017b), our data is the first to capture legitimation claims across time, and for all regime types. The temporal aspect allows not only for tracking trends, but crucially for analyzing what happens following changes in legitimation claims or what happens with legitimation claims when other aspects of rule are transformed. By also measuring claims put forward by democratic regimes we are able to for the first-time document when changes from procedural to identity-based claims, such as the person of the leader or the ideology occur which may coincide with autocratization.
Latino  war  legitimacy  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  Psychology  Violence_y_Power 
4 weeks ago
Beyond the 'Failed State': Toward Conceptual Alternatives
The article advances conceptual alternatives to the ‘failed state.’ It provides reasons why the concept is deficient, showing especially how counterproductive it is to aggregate states as diverse as Colombia, Malawi, Somalia, Iraq, Haiti, and Tajikistan. I argue for distinguishing among capacity gaps, security gaps, and legitimacy gaps that states experience. Importantly, I show that these gaps often do not coincide in a given country, and that the logical responses to each of the three gaps diverge in significant ways. I offer brief case examples of the logic of response to the gaps and of the tensions that must be managed among them.The article advances the debate over an important and under- theorized emergent concept in global politics.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  development  Psychology 
4 weeks ago
Decks | deck repair | Long Island City
Set you up with companies that do decks. Free deck estimates
Home  house 
5 weeks ago
Pseudoscience And Conspiracy Theory Are Not Victimless Crimes Against Science | IFLScience
The truth is that in science there are no authorities. There are experts at most, and even their opinions can be challenged by anyone – so long as there’s evidence to back up the argument. When some people are taken as “authorities” and their claims, however wacky, believed, then the subsequent decisions that millions of people may take could harm them or even bring a premature end to their lives.

If that sounds outlandish, consider two “wellness” bloggers from Australia. Belle Gibson punted her wholefood recipes and alternative therapies (available as a book and smartphone app) as a “natural” weapon in her fight against cancer – a cancer she later admitted she’d entirely fabricated. Or Jessica Ainscough, the Wellness Warrior, whose very real sarcoma was not hindered by the “natural healing” pseudoscience she advocated on her blog. Ainscough died in February 2015.

Cancer is terrifying for those facing it and their families. What some of these “wellness” bloggers do whether misguided or for the sake of personal profit is not only an insult to these people and those that have lost loved ones to the disease, but also an irresponsible act.
Pol._120  conspiracy  Power_in_America  Power_materials  Psychology  Passions  reasoning  Science 
5 weeks ago
QAnon and the Emergence of the Unreal · Journal of Design and Science
A world in which we are constantly questioning is a world that demands endless effort to navigate. It becomes exhausting to follow the news, to understand political developments, to navigate whether a set of facts is believable or is a manifestation of someone’s agenda. A logical response to this rise in unreality is to tune out and sit instead on the sidelines. Another response is to cede agency to those who thrive in this climate of unreality, leaders like Putin and Trump, who seem perfectly adapted to this space.

The main byproduct of unreality is doubt, and doubt is dangerous. Doubt makes it difficult to organize—to demand a change—because movements for change require a set of people to agree on a problem and a possible solution. We know from Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway in Merchants of Doubt that the strategies employed by tobacco companies about the harms of their product or oil companies about anthropogenic climate change were not designed to sway audiences to the corporate narrative, but to generate sufficient doubt to paralyze effective action. As long as there is doubt it is difficult to reach consensus and to move forward. The merchants of doubt wield their product like a weapon, and the primary product of unreality is perpetual paralysis.
Pol._120  conspiracy  Power_in_America  Power_materials  Psychology  Trump  Passions  reasoning 
5 weeks ago
“Everybody can be a sucker”: Marc Maron and Lynn Shelton on conspiracy theories - Vox
Sword of Trust is a movie about conspiracy theories, but it’s not a thriller or a pedantic documentary. It stars Marc Maron — who’s garnered raves for his performance in the Netflix series GLOW and is well known for his popular interview podcast WTF with Marc Maron — as Mel, a pawnshop owner in Birmingham with an assistant named Nathaniel (Jon Bass). One day, a couple (played by Jillian Bell and Michaela Watkins) walk in with a sword that one of the women inherited from her senile grandfather.

At first they all mistrust one another, but eventually the group concocts a plan to make up a story about the sword and sell it to a group of conspiracy theorists who make YouTube videos arguing that the Civil War was actually “secretly” won by the Confederacy, and seek artifacts that “prove” it.

It’s a funny setup, but it’s also more than that. Director Lynn Shelton (Humpday, Laggies) relies on improvisation to make her movies, and her collaborative process means her characters feel very organic — like people you might pass on the street, rather than actors playing a part. In Sword of Trust, the result is a darkly funny story about people who are trying to find something to believe in, whether it’s zany theories propagated on the internet, or love and friendship that makes life worth living.
Pol._120  conspiracy  Trump  Power_in_America  Power_materials  Psychology  Passions  reasoning 
5 weeks ago
We tell ourselves conspiracy theories in order to live | The Outline
A conspiracy theory is an attempt to force a story on a set of disparate, though often distantly related facts and observations. But the real world is not a narrative, not a clever mystery to be unraveled by amateur detectives. Every baroque edifice of conspiracy rests upon a foundational belief that there is a singular truth that diligent investigation will reveal, even if the shape of that truth branches and swirls in an infinite fractal. What this mindset cannot accept is that there may be many simple truths for many disturbing facts, but no single, manifest, capital-T Truth, no secret cabal, and no guiding hand.
Pol._120  conspiracy  Power_in_America  Power_materials  Psychology  teaching_pol_theory 
5 weeks ago
Democracy Political Power and Authority
A exercises power over B because both actors share consensus on the rules of the game. Nor is it correct to claim that such an exercise of power over B is contrary to B’s interests—Lukes’ definition of power (2005: 37). Part of, if not the entire reason for B conceding defeat to A is precisely that both A and B share a common interest in, and understanding of, the democratic process, which trumps their interest in winning. Structural reproduction is the common good of democracy as a set of institutional procedures for containing conflict.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  authority  fear  Violence_y_Power  consciousness 
5 weeks ago
19 conspiracy theories Donald Trump has endorsed - Business Insider
Throughout the 2016 campaign and while in the White House, Trump has floated theories fueled by the conspiratorial-minded corners of supermarket tabloids and the internet, something unprecedented in modern politics. He's often used them as weapons against his opponents.
conspiracy  Pol._120  Power_materials  state  Trump  Psychology  manipulation  Passions  reasoning  myth 
5 weeks ago
The Language of Conspiracy Theories in Online Discussions
Conspiracy theories are omnipresent in online discussions—whether to explain a late-breaking event that still lacks official report or to give voice to political dissent. Conspiracy theories evolve, multiply, and interconnect, further complicating efforts to limit their propagation. It is therefore crucial to develop scalable methods to examine the nature of conspiratorial discussions in online communities. What do users talk about when they discuss conspiracy theories online? What are the recurring elements in their discussions? What do these elements tell us about the way users think? This work answers these questions by analyzing over ten years of discussions in r/conspiracy—an online community on Reddit dedicated to conspiratorial discussions. We focus on the key elements of a conspiracy theory: the conspiratorial agents, the actions they perform, and their targets. By computationally detecting agent–action–target triplets in conspiratorial statements, and grouping them into semantically coherent clusters, we develop a notion of narrative-motif to detect recurring patterns of triplets. For example, a narrative-motif such as “governmental agency–controls–communications” appears in diverse conspiratorial statements alleging that governmental agencies control information to nefarious ends. Thus, narrative-motifs expose commonalities between multiple conspiracy theories even when they refer to different events or circumstances. In the process, these representations help us understand how users talk about conspiracy theories and offer us a means to interpret what they talk about. Our approach enables a population-scale study of conspiracy theories in alternative news and social media with implications for understanding their adoption and combating their spread.
conspiracy  Power_materials  Pol._120  state  Psychology  Passions  reasoning  Language  online 
5 weeks ago
Social exclusion leads to conspiratorial thinking, study finds
New research may show why so many were willing to believe exaggerated and misleading reports. According to a Princeton University study published in the Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, social exclusion leads to conspiratorial thinking.

The two-part analysis — which did not specifically investigate Trump supporters, but two random samples of people — found that the feelings of despair brought on by social exclusion can cause people to seek meaning in miraculous stories, which may not necessarily be true.

Such conspiratorial thinking leads to a dangerous cycle, said co-lead author Alin Coman, assistant professor of psychology and public affairs at Princeton. When those with conspiratorial ideas share their beliefs, it can drive away family and friends, triggering even more exclusion. This may lead them to join conspiracy theory communities where they feel welcome, which in turn will further entrench their beliefs.
conspiracy  Pol._120  Power_materials  state  Psychology  MINDSET  loneliness 
5 weeks ago
Why your brain loves conspiracy theories - Big Think
Engaging in conspiracy theory thinking allows us to make some sense of uncertainty, often spinning a tale that has little basis in facts. A large number of people is still convinced that we don’t know who really killed JFK or that Obama is a Muslim and some secret group is controlling the world. Why are these ideas believed? Largely, because they allow people to explain why the world around them is not what they want, ruled by forces beyond their control. If my life is not working out or the people around me on the street don’t do what I want or don’t look how I’d like them, it’s easier to imagine that there is a group or entity out there making that happen. Something totally beyond my control.
conspiracy  Pol._120  Power_materials  Psychology  myth  Passions  reasoning 
5 weeks ago
How You Could Fall Victim To Conspiracy Theories | HuffPost Life
It works like this: You feel socially excluded and begin believing conspiracy theories. Endorsing those theories, unsurprisingly, prompts your family and friends to exclude you even more. You’re left out again and again, so you double down on your conspiratorial beliefs.
The final stage of the cycle: You seek out a like-minded community that accepts and reinforces your conspiratorial beliefs.
“At that point they become unchangeable,” Study author Alin Coman, assistant professor of psychology and public affairs at Princeton University, told The Huffington Post.
“Social exclusion leads to search for meaning,” Coman continued. “We believe that this search for meaning ‘overshoots’ in a way that makes people assign meaning to situations that are highly ambiguous and meaningless.”
Latino  war  conspiracy  Power_materials  Pol._120  MINDSET  myth  Passions  reasoning 
5 weeks ago
Conspiracy Theories Abound. Here’s How to Curb Their Allure.
To Wang, the three studies showed that conspiratorial thinking is something that can be changed. If you can increase conspiracy proneness by removing personal control, it stands to reason “you can actually shift someone’s mindset so they see fewer conspiracies,” she says.
That’s a heartening finding in a world where conspiracies are flourishing. For example, Wang and her coauthors suggest that government organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control can increase public trust by promoting messages that emphasize the ways individuals have control over their health outcomes.
In future research, Wang hopes to understand the downstream effects of conspiratorial thinking. Are people who believe in conspiracy theories more prone to aggression, for instance?
She also wants to study people’s ability to distinguish real and false conspiracies. Skepticism of powerful institutions is healthy and sometimes warranted: after all, Richard Nixon really was behind the Watergate break-in.
“Are people able to tell actual conspiracies from fake conspiracies?” Wang wonders. Particularly in the age of “fake news,” if people could detect authentic abuses of power, “that would be a big thing that would help society.”
conspiracy  Power_materials  Psychology  MINDSET  Latino  war  Pol._120  Passions  reasoning 
5 weeks ago
What Does This Professor Know About Conspiracy Theorists That We Don’t? - The Chronicle of Higher Education
I teach a course on conspiracy theories, and one of the exercises is that I have them design their own conspiracy theory. I tell them, "The crazier the better." Some of them involve, like, "Donald Trump is a robot." All sorts of weird things. Then they go to the internet and get all the evidence they could, and sort of string it together. And by the time they’re done they have a fairly convincing case.

And then they had to switch with another student, who would then debunk it and tear it to shreds. When the student who made up the conspiracy theory had a chance to respond to the debunker, a lot of times they were offended, even knowing that they made it up.
Power_materials  Pol._120  conspiracy  political_theory  Latino  war  state  Trump  Psychology  myth 
5 weeks ago
EVERYDAY MAKERS AND EXPERT CITIZENS Building Political not Social Capital
"Since the elitist myth of the governing class seeks to eliminate the people in connection with the destiny of society, this myth explodes when it is confronted with the fact that without the people, the rulers are as free spirits wandering lonely, dejected and unemployed in an empty world. But without rulers dominating their existence, the people, on the contrary, find that very freedom that calls forth their most creative efforts. Elitism places blind faith in an appropriate governing class. The democratic ideal incorporates a tempered trust in the wisdom and creative genius of the people" (Easton, 1947:418)
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  Violence_y_Power 
6 weeks ago
A Companion to Cultural Geography
Drawing from a range of contemporary political and social theory, John Agnew (chapter 15) charts the varied approaches that have developed to both understand- ing and, at times, dismissing nationalism. He surveys the strengths and limitations of territorial, diasporic, ethnic, religious, gendered, and landscape-based interpre- tations of the idea and practices of nationalism. Audrey Kobayashi approaches the concept of “race” as both a way of life deeply embedded in the European colonial past and lived out in the present as a taken-for-granted reality and as an analytical concept (chapter 16). The chapter begins with a review of the concept of “race” as it is understood in contemporary antiracist geography, then moves to a brief analy- sis of how the production of antiracist geography has developed in three contem- porary Western and Northern contexts. Nancy Duncan and Stephen Legg (chapter 17) review the reasons why class has remained relatively neglected by cultural geo- graphers, in spite of the tremendous interest shown in subjectivity and identity formation. They argue that while there are some good reasons why older notions of class in geography have been seen as unhelpful in understanding questions of identity, there is also no inherent reason why this should be so. In fact, they suggest, certain reworked Marxian and other dynamic and relational notions of class could contribute greatly to cultural analysis.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  authority  Violence_y_Power  Culture 
6 weeks ago
This article analyses over 400 life trajectories of ordinary peasants in order to complement top-down studies of the Rwandan political transition. Changes and differences according to the ethnicity of the respondents shed light on the Hutu–Tutsi bi-polarity which underlies the transition and reveal a reversal in perceived ethnic dominance accompanying the de- cisive moment in the political transition: the overthrow of the Hutu- dominated regime by the Tutsi-led RPF. This suggests that the experience of the nature of governance and the (perceived) proximity to power lies at the heart of ethnic awareness. The nature of governance at the periphery of society is explored, and the article demonstrates that the instrumental stance on ethnic identity adopted by the post-genocide regime is not only erroneous but counter-productive. Adjusting the socio-political environ- ment in which identities thrive is more important than a direct focus on identity constructs when developing policies to prevent ethnically structured violence.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  Ethnic_Politics  Violence_y_Power  resistance 
6 weeks ago
Governance, Consumers, and Citizens - Book Intro
Governance is, rather, an ongoing activity that involves the creation and recreation of meanings. Of course people inherit ideas and are influenced by their social context, but they also play an active role in creating, modulating, or rejecting the beliefs that then inform their actions. So, processes of governance do not naturally reflect or respond to external conditions: people do not just act out social facts about themselves, be it their class, gender, or status; nor do they adopt beliefs and actions in a passive reflection of some social discourse. Rather, culture and indi- vidual agency are integral to any adequate account of governance.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  Violence_y_Power  marketing 
6 weeks ago
The Politics of Evasion
“The melting of all that is solid” 60
The state, Latham contends, may not be as unique as first thought as a producer of both permanence and temporariness. Institutions such as private property and forces associated with globalization also exhibit this duality. Consideration is given to the relationship between these broader global – and historical - contexts and the state. Mr V suggests that more fluid and transitory contexts explored by postmoderns may, counter-intuitively, open up the possibility of restoring a progressive, just state. Latham reminds Mr V that within those broader contexts is located the basis for hyper-security and the neoliberal state.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  authority  Violence_y_Power 
6 weeks ago
Post-Foundational Political Thought - Taking on the Political Book
[Use this to establish the pre-existence of community and power before the construction of the state]..."the political assumes the role of something which is of an entirely different nature: the principle of autonomy of politics, or the moment of institution of society. As differentiated from politics, the notion of the political cannot be assimilated to social differences, to repetition, tradition, sedimentation, or bureaucracy. Like other figures of contingency and groundlessness, such as the event, anta- gonism, truth, the real, or freedom, the political dwells, as it were, on society’s non-ground, which makes itself felt in the differential play of the political difference. But society’s absent ground is not ‘merely’ absent. It (re-)appears and is supplemented by the moment which we may call, with reference to J. G. A. Pocock’s ‘Machiavellian moment’ (1975), the moment of the political.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy  authority  Violence_y_Power  social 
6 weeks ago
Foucault's Overarching Concept of Power as Governmentality
Power is typically seen as a form of domination, which is operative when agents pursue their interests in conflict with others. Foucault Challenges the prevailing and reductionist conception of power in terms of domination, conflict, and interests. He proposes instead an overarching approach to power as the ability to make a difference. To provide this concept with analytical purchase it has to be viewed as relative to context, which situates and identifies power relations in relation to each other. It is in this light Foucault's reference to power as a complex strategical situation should be seen, where power is immanent in the structuring of context. This refers among other things to the governing of self and others, meaning that it deals with the nature and scope of the political power of authority broadly considered.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy  authority  Violence_y_Power 
6 weeks ago
Becoming Ghosts: The Public Veiling of Puerto Ricans in New York City
Mentions Boricua Power...
In recent years Puerto Ricans in New York City have become difficult to locate in the public realm. This is a paradox given that Puerto Ricans make up the largest Hispanic subgroup in the larger metropolitan region. This study examines how, when, and why Puerto Ricans became publicly invisible in New York City.
Through content analysis of archival newspapers, interviews with local politicians’ offices and local residents, analysis of demographic data, and ethnographic fieldwork in historically Puerto Rican neighborhoods in the 2012-2013 academic year, I examine the impact of changes in local demography, media, politics, and culture on the public identity of Puerto Ricans in New York City. With respect to demography, the Puerto Rican has become increasingly dispersed throughout the region, as well as increasingly dispersed among other Latinos. The result is that Puerto Rican concentration has lessened in historically Puerto Rican neighborhoods, contributing to declining visibility. What has not changed, however, is the high poverty rate, the low labor force participation, the low median income, and the low levels of educational attainment that many local Puerto Ricans continue to face.
In the media, local news reports about Puerto Ricans have dwindled, and in their place, news reports about Hispanics have flourished
puerto_ricans  Latinos  newyork  Latinos_+_TW  Power_in_America  Media 
6 weeks ago
State fragility: Towards a Multi-dimensional Empirical Typology
The paper proceeds as follows: Firstly, we argue the case for a differentiated view of state fragility and for moving from a uni-dimensional to a multi-dimensional concept. We then provide a brief review of the current debate on fragile states in order to derive the main categories that constitute fragility. Thirdly, we present the approach adopted in this paper. Here, we describe how we conceptualise and measure our three dimensions of fragility. Fourthly, based on statistical data, we present empirical results that identify seven groups of states that are characterised by specific constellations of our dimensions. We then present possible policy implications for each group. In our conclusion, we discuss strengths and limitations of the classification exercise presented here and some ways forward.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  rulers  fear  legitimacy  Violence_y_Power 
7 weeks ago
Power in everyday life | PNAS
How does power manifest itself in everyday life? Using experience-sampling methodology, we investigated the prevalence, sources, and correlates of power in people’s natural environments. Participants experienced power-relevant situations regularly, though not frequently. High power was not restricted to a limited few: almost half of the sample reported experiencing high-power positions. Positional power and subjective feelings of power were strongly related but had unique relations with several individual difference measures and independent effects on participants’ affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations. Subjective feelings of power resulted more from within-participant situational fluctuation, such as the social roles participants held at different times, than from stable differences between people. Our data supported some theoretical predictions about power’s effects on affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations, but qualified others, particularly highlighting the role of responsibility in power’s effects. Although the power literature has focused on high power, we found stronger effects of low power than high power.
Latino  war  Power_materials  state  legitimacy  Leadership  fear  resistance  Power_in_America  Violence_y_Power  Pol.11  Pol.12 
7 weeks ago
A Brief History of US Concentration Camps | Portside
“The US ran concentration camps before, when we rounded up Japanese people during World War II,” she tweeted. “It is such a shameful history that we largely ignore it. These camps occur throughout history.” Indeed they do. What follows is an overview of US civilian concentration camps through the centuries. Prisoner-of-war camps, as horrific as they have been, have been excluded due to their legal status under the Geneva Conventions, and for brevity’s sake.
Power_in_America  Violence_y_Power  racism  colonialism  capitalism  exploitation  genocide  Trump 
8 weeks ago
The Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics Book
Homi Bhabha, describing the location of the nation in tempo- rality, pointed out a few years ago how the narrative of the nation tended to be split into a double time and hence an inevitable ambiv- alence: in one, the people were an object of national pedagogy because they were always in the making, in a process of historical progress, not yet fully developed to fulfill the nation’s destiny; but in the other, the unity of the people, their permanent identification with the na- tion, had to be continually signified, repeated, and performed.4 I will illustrate some of the instances of this ambivalence and argue that they are an inevitable aspect of modern politics itself. To disavow them is either wishful piety or an endorsement of the existing structure of dominance within the nation.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Leadership  fear  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power  nations  rulers  government 
8 weeks ago
6 Types of Social Power
Information power doesn’t last. Give away a piece of information and you give your power away.

On the other hand, knowledge and know-how is more enduring than informational power, but it’s limited to the area of expertise.

As you’ll soon see, a little know-how goes a long way, in more ways than one.

In the book, Social Psychology: Theories, Research, and Applications, Robert S. Feldman writes about the six bases of social power.
Power_materials  Pol.11  Pol.12  teaching_pol_theory  Psychology  influence 
8 weeks ago
The Angelo M. Falcón Way-NYC Street Dedication-Tuesday, June 18th, 2019 on Vimeo
The Angelo M. Falcón Way-NYC Street Dedication-Tuesday, June 18th, 2019 on Vimeo
Here you are live. I come in just before 10 minute mark. A crazy street guy heckles me around 16. 🥴
Personal  Sanchez  Angelo  NILP_Board 
8 weeks ago
Four reasons why Trump is cruising toward re-election | Cas Mudde | Opinion | The Guardian
Democrats will dismiss the speech as lacking ideas and just fearmongering, while reveling in recent polls that have virtually every major primary candidate defeat Trump in 2020, sometimes by a significant margin. They believe the president is weakened by a broad range of issues, including the Mueller report, the treatment of immigrants at the southern border and the various scandals surrounding key cabinet members.

Remarkably, given the traumatic experience of 2016, many Democrats have still not learned the key lesson of US democracy: elections are not won by passive majorities but by mobilized minorities. And while the passive majority might be with the Democrats, or at least not with Trump, the mobilized minority is. There are (at least) four reasons why, at this moment, Trump is cruising towards re-election.
Trump  Power_in_America  Passions  reasoning  elections  presidents 
8 weeks ago
Imagining Violence: 'The Power' of Feminist Fantasy | by Elaine Showalter | NYR Daily | The New York Review of Books
It can’t be a coincidence that one of the novels getting international attention this year is about women hurting men. In Naomi Alderman’s bestseller The Power (2017; first published in the UK, 2016), adolescent girls discover they have a devastating electrostatic force in their hands that they can use to shock, torture, and kill. It comes from a striated muscle near their collarbones that alarmed scientists call a skein, and that they can observe through MRI scans of newborn baby girls. The teenagers can help older women activate their Power, too.

Beginning in Saudi Arabia, and moving to other countries, women seize political control, and take violent revenge on the men who have enslaved and abused them. They use the Power to defend and liberate themselves, and it changes their view of themselves. “If you were able to live your life as if you were able to cause hurt when you needed to,” Alderman told NPR, “your life would be so different, even if you never ever had to do it. That makes you less afraid all the time.” A girl electrocutes the foster-father who has been regularly raping her: “He spasms and pops out of her. He is juddering and fitting… He falls to the floor with a loud thump.”
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy  sexism  Violence_y_Power  writing  Literature_and_books 
8 weeks ago
Brooklyn Street Dedicated to Latino Activist Angelo Falcón
Among his many initiatives, Falcón founded the Institute for Puerto Rican Policy in 1982. The name would change to the National Institute for Latino Policy in 2005 but the mission remained the same, to use data and analysis to influence policy makers in ways that would benefit the Hispanic community and a social justice agenda.

"Angelo spent his entire life turning the tables on those of authority. He went after people in politics and corporations and even in our own community if he felt they were not measuring up, not being held accountable for the things they were doing wrong,” said Jose Ramon Sanchez with the National Institute for Latino Policy.
Personal  Sanchez  Angelo  NILP_Board  Latinos  Power_in_America 
8 weeks ago
10 Everyday Acts of Resistance That Changed the World by Steve Crawshaw and John Jackson — YES! Magazine
Throughout history both recent and distant, ordinary people have found innovative and inspiring ways to challenge violent regimes and confront abuses of power: bringing down dictators, changing unjust laws, or simply giving individuals a renewed sense of their own humanity in the face of those who deny it.

The people here treat the impossible as full of possibilities that haven’t been realized yet. Some have achieved the change they were struggling for. For others, it’s yet to come.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  resistance  Violence_y_Power 
9 weeks ago
Our Enemy, The State by Nock - Book
It is unfortunately none too well understood that, just as the State has no money of its own, so it has no power of its own. All the power it has is what society gives it, plus what it confiscates from time to time on one pretext or another; there is no other source from which State power can be drawn. Therefore every assumption of State power, whether by gift or seizure, leaves society with so much less power. There is never, nor can there be, any strengthening of State power without a corresponding and roughly equivalent depletion of social power.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy  Violence_y_Power 
9 weeks ago
The Progressive Conversion of Social Power into State Power | Mises Institute
It is unfortunately none too well understood that, just as the State has no money of its own, so it has no power of its own. All the power it has is what society gives it, plus what it confiscates from time to time on one pretext or another; there is no other source from which State power can be drawn. Therefore every assumption of State power, whether by gift or seizure, leaves society with so much less power. There is never, nor can there be, any strengthening of State power without a corresponding and roughly equivalent depletion of social power.

Moreover, it follows that with any exercise of State power, not only the exercise of social power in the same direction, but the disposition to exercise it in that direction, tends to dwindle. Mayor Gaynor astonished the whole of New York when he pointed out to a correspondent who had been complaining about the inefficiency of the police, that any citizen has the right to arrest a malefactor and bring him before a magistrate. "The law of England and of this country," he wrote, "has been very careful to confer no more right in that respect upon policemen and constables than it confers on every citizen." State exercise of that right through a police force had gone on so steadily that not only were citizens indisposed to exercise it, but probably not one in ten thousand knew he had it.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  capitalism  Leadership  fear  legitimacy 
9 weeks ago
‘Notorious B.I.G.’ Way and 8 Other Public Spaces Named for Rappers - The New York Times
“Why this street co-naming is important is because while everybody is coming to Brooklyn, New York, they want to erase the history,” she said. “They want to put up new cafes and boutiques and to push us out of our community.”

Few honors are as visible as a name on a public space. And in the last decade, at least nine of those spaces in New York have been named for hip-hop pioneers, according to Renee Foster of the Universal Hip Hop Museum in the Bronx.
NILP_Board  Angelo  Latino  newyork  Brooklyn+NYC  Brooklyn 
9 weeks ago
Everyday Forms of State Power and the Kurds in the Early Turkish Republic
This article analyzes the exercise of state authority in Kurdish areas in the early Turkish Republic and discusses the state's ineffectiveness in dominating these areas. It argues that the mere existence of a highly ambitious social-engineering project, increased state presence in the region, and military power does not mean high levels of state capacity. Based on primary documents, this article discusses the problems of autonomy, coherence, and implementation that the Turkish state encountered in its nation-building project. It shows how the state's ideological rigidities and its shortage of resources and dedicated personnel undermined its capacity to control and shape the Kurdish areas. While the state attempted to regulate citizens' private lives in Kurdish areas, the local society also tried to mold state employees in accordance with its own interests. A blurred boundary between the state and society was one of the unintended consequences of increased state presence ih everyday life
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  Violence_y_Power  resistance 
9 weeks ago
Why Foucault's work on power is more important than ever | Aeon Essays
Foucault’s skeptical supposition thus allowed him to conduct careful enquiries into the actual functions of power. What these studies reveal is that power, which easily frightens us, turns out to be all the more cunning because its basic forms of operation can change in response to our ongoing efforts to free ourselves from its grip. To take just one example, Foucault wrote about the way in which a classically sovereign space such as the judicial court came to accept into its proceedings the testimony of medical and psychiatric experts whose authority and power were exercised without recourse to sovereign violence. An expert diagnosis of ‘insanity’ today or ‘perversity’ 100 years ago could come to mitigate or augment a judicial decision.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power  philosophy  political_theory  legitimacy  fear  resistance  Leadership 
9 weeks ago
The Meaning and measure of state legitimacy: Results for 72 countries
This article presents a quantitative measurement of the political legitimacy of states in the late 1990s and early 2000s for 72 states containing 5.1 billion people, or 83 per cent of the world’s population. First, the concept of state legitimacy is defined and justified. The definition includes the subjects, objects and sub-types of legitimacy. A strategy to achieve replicable cross-national measurements of legitimacy is then outlined and imple- mented, including a discussion of data sources and three alternative aggregation methods. The results are briefly examined and tested, and the uncertainties of quantitative measures discussed. Finally, the role of supplementary qualitative measurement is considered.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  rulers  fear  legitimacy  Violence_y_Power 
9 weeks ago
The Right to Rule: How States Win and Lose Legitimacy
Politics is the “master science” as Aristotle described it, not because it explains all socio-economic phenomena but because it sets the ground rules and priortizes the claims of all socio-economic phenomena. Thus, an acceptance of the socio-economic order requires an acceptance of the state that maintains it (Beetham 1991). We can think of the taxation variable as capturing consent to the economic system, and the voting variable as consent to the political system. It is in these consent measures that the constitutive approach to measurement really matters. For without the background conceptualization of legitimacy as requiring acts of consent we might well dismiss most consent indicators as data unrelated to the “attitude” of legitimacy.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  rulers  legitimacy  fear  Violence_y_Power 
9 weeks ago
Legitimating Identities The Self-Presentations of Rulers and Subjects - Book
Legitimation is not only a circus for the mass of sub- jects, but also a private theatre for rulers, where they see their own identity portrayed, confirmed, and justified. The near and dear, inasmuch as they are part of the community of rulers, will send cards, but nobody else will. The larger part of the population will not even know that the ceremonies are occurring. Rulers appear to need to legitimate their power, to demonstrate constantly by rituals both spiritual and secular their unique prestige, as persons autho- rised in a manner that ordinary subjects are not, as persons set apart to exercise the powers and privileges of government.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  rulers  legitimacy  Violence_y_Power 
10 weeks ago
Rebels and Legitimacy; An Introduction
This introduction to the double special issue on the theme of rebels and legitimacy aims to set out the parameters for the discussion. It looks at legitimacy as a concept and at legitimation as a process. To date most of the literature on legitimacy has focused on the state. However, rebel groups such as insurgents, terrorists, warlords and guerrillas have all had claims, and continue to claim, legitimacy as well. How and when are these rebels seen as legitimate actors? Existing suggestions of rebel legitimacy focus heavily on state models of social order and the social contract. This first contribution discusses how to conceptualize legitimacy and how to make it operational. A two-pronged approach, borrowing heavily from Max Weber, is proposed. Legitimacy is investigated based on beliefs and belief systems about what is considered legitimate. This is combined with practices whereby legitimacy is enacted, copied and emulated by the population the rebels claim to represent.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy  resistance 
10 weeks ago
The Making of a YouTube Radical - The New York Times
Mr. Cain, 26, recently swore off the alt-right nearly five years after discovering it, and has become a vocal critic of the movement. He is scarred by his experience of being radicalized by what he calls a “decentralized cult” of far-right YouTube personalities, who convinced him that Western civilization was under threat from Muslim immigrants and cultural Marxists, that innate I.Q. differences explained racial disparities, and that feminism was a dangerous ideology.

“I just kept falling deeper and deeper into this, and it appealed to me because it made me feel a sense of belonging,” he said. “I was brainwashed.”
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear  terrorism  revolution  Psychology 
10 weeks ago
Legitimacy, Civil Society, and State Crime
This article will borrow concepts from the disciplines of political science and international relations and attempt to integrate them into a criminological frame?
work. A key concept is that of legitimacy, along with the closely related concept of hegemony, which connects legitimacy to economic interests. A state's legiti? macy must be considered in the context of the state's relationship to civil society
and to other states, as well as of class relations within the state. This will lead us to an examination of recent work in international relations theory on the processes
by which human rights become institutionalized.
When we discuss "the state" in this context, we use the term in a traditional
Marxist sense to refer to a "public power" comprising personnel organized and equipped for the use of force...
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy  criminal 
10 weeks ago
Legitimacy, Trust and Compliance: An Empirical Test of Procedural Justice Theory using the European Social Survey
This chapter presents findings from a large-scale empirical test of procedural justice theory, which we (and colleagues) designed using the fifth European Social Survey. The chapter first of all locates concerns about institutional legitimacy within a broader framework of ‘compliance theories’. It then sets out its definitional stall in an attempt to clarify what is meant by the ‘slippery’ concept of legitimacy and how the term is used in different contexts. Then, in testing various hypotheses on procedural justice, we employ a tripartite definition of empirical (i.e. perceived) legitimacy. We define empirical legitimacy as the recognition and justification of the right to exercise power and influence, with influence mostly of the normative (rather than instrumental) variety, and importantly our tripartite notions of consent, moral alignment and legality accord with some well-established social psychological mechanisms of identification and internalisation.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy 
10 weeks ago
Political legitimacy, Justice, and Consent
What is it for a state, constitution or set of governmental institutions to have political legitimacy? This paper raises some doubts about two broadly liberal answers to this question, which can be labelled ‘Kan- tian’ and ‘libertarian’. The argument focuses in particular on the rela- tionship between legitimacy and principles of justice and on the place of consent. By contrast with these views, I suggest that, without endorsing the kind of voluntarist theory, according to which political legitimacy is simply created by individual consent, an adequate under- standing of political legitimacy should take much more account than most philosophical theories tend to do of the attitudes and beliefs of citizens and the social and political context in which they have sal- iency. This also involves acknowledging the limits of theory in deter- mining criteria of political legitimacy.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy 
10 weeks ago
Why Donald Trump Will Hate the Presidency | Essay | Zócalo Public Square
Strength, Arendt explains, is a function of the instruments one can literally possess and hold, whether these are the muscles one has or the instruments one wields. Strength helps an individual act. Power, though, is something entirely different; Arendt defines it as the human ability not just to act, but to act with others. And as such, power can arise only from within a broad, plural, group of people encompassing differences both big and small.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear 
10 weeks ago
Our findings suggest that everyday resistance to material dominance is more likely to burgeon in societies at earlier stages of development with more dependence on agricultural economy and burdened by inefficient institutions, lower levels of social trust, high latent anti-authority attitudes, and low levels of public display of contention. When it comes to the causal drivers of everyday resistance, the results indicate that a certain institutional set-up of loose executive institutions, supportive legal institutions, and fragmented horizontal social structure, form an opportunity structure for everyday resistance to grow. Within this institutional arrangement, resisters tend to base their opposition on de jure more than de facto material domination, while being fueled by latent anti- authority attitudes. Interestingly, the scale of everyday resistance is likely to expand under repressive regimes without being independent from different forms of public display of contention.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  legitimacy  Leadership  fear  resistance 
10 weeks ago
Dispersed resistance: unpacking the spectrum and properties of glaring and everyday resistance: Journal of Political Power: Vol 11, No 2
Revisiting James C. Scott’s classification of forms of resistance, this paper argues that (hidden, subtle) everyday resistance is only one of many types of small-scale or individual resistance practices. We propose the concept of ‘dispersed resistance’, which might be ‘everyday’ and subtle, or loud and extraordinary. In addition, drawing on Foucault’s works, we suggest at least two ways of conceptualizing dispersed resistance: as ‘productive’ resistance (related to disciplinary power and biopower) and ‘counter-repressive’ resistance (related to repressive and sovereign power). Finally, since power-relations are often composed by an assemblage of repression, discipline and biopower, resistance practices assemble too.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  resistance 
11 weeks ago
Sovereign power, disciplinary power and biopower: resisting what power with what resistance?: Journal of Political Power: Vol 7, No 1
This article links Foucaultian power forms with its corresponding resistance. If resistance is a reaction to power, then the characteristics of the power strategy/relation affect the kinds of resistance that subsequently prevail. Accordingly, it becomes interesting to discuss what kinds of resistance emanate from what kinds of power. We discuss this relationship between power and resistance by drawing on Foucault’s ‘triangle’: (I) sovereign power; (II) disciplinary power; and (III) biopower. Thus, deviating from Foucaultian studies’ preoccupation with ‘power’, we utilise Foucault in order to focus on ‘resistance’. And by connecting to empirical examples from within the emerging field of resistance studies we argue that the peculiarities of power decide how resistance can be conducted.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Leadership  Power_materials  fear 
11 weeks ago
"Everyday Resistance": Explorations of a a Concept and its Theories
The existence of mundane or non-dramatic resistance shows that resistance could be understood as a continuum between public confrontations and hidden subversion. It also suggests a possibility to understand from where open rebellions come, and why sometimes and in some places they don’t occur, despite “objective” conditions. Furthermore, everyday resistance suggests that resistance is integrated into social life and is a part of normality; not as dramatic or strange as assumed – even if it is still unclear how common it is.4 It is thus a concept that brings new clarity to “resistance”; a recurrent social phenomenon that has often been ignored, feared, demonized or romanticized.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Leadership  fear  Power_materials 
11 weeks ago
Power in everyday life
How does power manifest itself in everyday life? Using experience-sampling methodology, we investigated the prevalence, sources, and correlates of power in people’s natural environments. Participants experienced power-relevant situations regularly, though not frequently. High power was not restricted to a limited few: almost half of the sample reported experiencing high-power positions. Positional power and subjective feelings of power were strongly related but had unique relations with several individual difference measures and independent effects on participants’ affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations. Subjective feelings of power resulted more from within-participant situational fluctuation, such as the social roles participants held at different times, than from stable differences between people. Our data supported some theoretical predictions about power’s effects on affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations, but qualified others, particularly highlighting the role of responsibility in power’s effects. Although the power literature has focused on high power, we found stronger effects of low power than high power.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  legitimacy  fear 
11 weeks ago
How Power Shapes our World – Thought Economics
To understand the story of humanity is to bear witness to the story of its greatest paradox; power. This phenomenon creates the constraints in which we operate, yet is responsible for the structures that bind our society together.
The exercise and accumulation of power is endemic to humanity. In the 20th century alone, this phenomenon has been responsible for over 200 million deaths through war and oppression, and has concentrated over 50% of the world’s wealth into the hands of just 1% of the world’s population meaning that billions of our global family have been subjected to hunger, thirst and disease. Power has also enabled social movements that have brought rights, freedoms and opportunity to many billions more.
Latino  war  state  Power_materials  Leadership  fear  legitimacy 
11 weeks ago
Microcement application for all surfaces
What does the end product look like?

Aquaciment allows any finishing colour whatever, there are no limits. Best of all, one can make demarcation lines or create drawings in different colours. Additionally, inlays with different materials like mosaics, shields, emblems etcetera, can be added ... A totally personalised pool!
house  Home  water 
11 weeks ago
Concrete Sealing Tri-State And New Jersey, NY | Concrete Sealing in Tri-State And New Jersey, NY 10308 | Turoc Concrete Designs
Our concrete specialists use a variety of methods to protect and seal concrete once and for all. What this means is that an already durable substance becomes even more durable. At Turoc Concrete Designs, we're committed to excellence, and we pledge to provide:

Quality service
Reasonable rates
Our full attention to every job
For more information about our concrete sealing services or to schedule an estimate, call us today.
Home  house  water 
11 weeks ago
LockDry® Aluminum Waterproof Decking from Nexan
LockDry® decking is also a great fit for screened in porches and single level decks. The construction and maintenance-free finish are ideal for any climate — it stays cooler than composite decking products in extreme sun exposure and supports up to 240 pounds per square foot of live load for heavy snow fall. Because of aluminum’s unique qualities, LockDry® decking will not absorb water that freezes and cracks other decking materials. Nexan’s aluminum products are fireproof, non-combustible and do not emit any toxic fumes, even when exposed to high temperatures.
house  Home  water 
11 weeks ago
Epoxy watertight membranes
Epoxy.com System #495 is an Elastomeric Urethane Membrane System, that is liquid applied.  System #495 Elastomeric Membrane System is seamless, elastomeric (flexible), and UV.  These qualities make it an excellent choice for outside applications in direct sun and weather, where water tightness, durability, and excellent appearance is required. Its elastomeric properties will allow horizontal movements up to 1/8 inch without breaking.

Epoxy.com System #495 has excellent abrasion and chemical resistance.  The surface of System #495 can be varied to achieve the required anti-skid and decorative look.
house  Home  water 
11 weeks ago
What can you learn from Machiavelli? | Yale Insights
Borgia’s way of dealing with his minister is a prime example of what Machiavelli praises as political virtue, because in this instance Borgia demonstrates a knowledge of the inner essence of the people, or of what the people need and expect in a ruler. The spectacle of punishment on the one hand leaves the people “satisfied,” because iniquities, cruelties, and injustices were indeed committed against the people by the minister, but on the other hand it also leaves them “stupefied,” in the sense that it reminds everyone of an awesome power operating behind the scenes. 
If we look at the symbolism of the minister’s punishment, we find that the spectacle is brilliantly staged. It is almost as if Borgia is declaring, in a sort of ritualistic language, that here one of my ministers, one of my representatives, has done violence to the body politic, and therefore he will have his just punishment, that is to say he will be cut in half, because that is what he did to our state—he divided it. 
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Power_materials  Leadership  fear 
11 weeks ago
Hegel on Sovereignty and Monarchy
Hegel is not a democrat. He is a monarchist. But he wants monarchy because he does not want strong government. He wants to deemphasize power. He develops an idealist conception of sovereignty that allows for a monarch less powerful than a president—one whose task is to expresses the unity of the state and realize the rationality inherent in it. A monarch needs to be a conduit through which reason is expressed and actualized, not a power that might obstruct this process.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Leadership  fear  Power_materials 
11 weeks ago
Legitimacy and Theory of Political Consciousness: Evaluating Political Act of Aggression | OMICS International
The western principles for a legitimate power relation is not only vital for current political relations, including the ability to secure and to develop peace, but also to recognize and address the illegitimate state and their instruments. Given this premise, we can normatively and empirically assess ‘political acts of aggression’, or state’s coercion which are arguably an instrument of every political power. Indeed, such contribution referring mostly to the modern authoritarian/totalitarian states in the Middle East and North Africa which have been used coercion or political aggression in their power relations.1 Moreover, it is important to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate political acts of aggression. The difference will be examined through examples of acts of aggression in politics, carried out especially from top-down approach.
Latino  war  state  legitimacy  Leadership  fear  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power 
11 weeks ago
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