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5 days ago by verwinv
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Google Search: Hyper-visibility as a Means of Rendering Black Women and Girls Invisible – InVisible Culture. Type Journal Article Author Safiya Umoja Noble URL http://ift.tt/2h3bhgN Issue 19 Publication InVisible Culture: An Electronic Journal for Visual Culture Date October 23, 2013 Accessed 2017-12-08 14:51:56 .
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8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
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Algorithms of oppression: how search engines reinforce racism. Type Book Author Safiya Umoja Noble ISBN 978-1-4798-4994-9 978-1-4798-3724-3 Date 2018 Extra OCLC: 987591529 Library Catalog Open WorldCat Language English Abstract A revealing look at how negative biases against women of color are embedded in search engine results and algorithms Run a Google search for "black girls"-what will you find? "Big Booty" and other sexually explicit terms are likely to come up as top search terms. But, if you type in "white girls," the results are radically different. The suggested porn sites and un-moderated discussions about "why black women are so sassy" or "why black women are so angry" presents a disturbing portrait of black womanhood in modern society. In Algorithms of Oppression, Safiya Umoja Noble challenges the idea that search engines like Google offer an equal playing field for all forms of ideas, identities, and activities. Data discrimination is a real social problem; Noble argues that the combination of private interests in promoting certain sites, along with the monopoly status of a relatively small number of Internet search engines, leads to a biased set of search algorithms that privilege whiteness and discriminate against people of color, specifically women of color. Through an analysis of textual and media searches as well as extensive research on paid online advertising, Noble exposes a culture of racism and sexism in the way discoverability is created online. As search engines and their related companies grow in importance-operating as a source for email, a major vehicle for primary and secondary school learning, and beyond-understanding and reversing these disquieting trends and discriminatory practices is of utmost importance. Short Title Algorithms of oppression .
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8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
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Weapons of math destruction: how big data increases inequality and threatens democracy. Type Book Author Cathy O'Neil ISBN 978-0-14-198541-1 Date 2017 Extra OCLC: 991124136 Library Catalog Open WorldCat Language English Short Title Weapons of math destruction .
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8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
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The Evolution of Search. Type Video Recording Director Google URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mTBShTwCnD4 Library Catalog YouTube Running Time 380 seconds .
Zotero 
8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
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How Search Works. Type Video Recording Director Google URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNHR6IQJGZs Library Catalog YouTube Running Time 194 seconds .
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8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
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The algorithmic imaginary: exploring the ordinary affects of Facebook algorithms. Type Journal Article Author Taina Bucher URL http://ift.tt/2ABYMoF Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 30-44 Publication Information, Communication & Society ISSN 1369-118X Date January 2, 2017 DOI 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1154086 Library Catalog Taylor and Francis+NEJM Abstract This article reflects the kinds of situations and spaces where people and algorithms meet. In what situations do people become aware of algorithms? How do they experience and make sense of these algorithms, given their often hidden and invisible nature? To what extent does an awareness of algorithms affect people's use of these platforms, if at all? To help answer these questions, this article examines people's personal stories about the Facebook algorithm through tweets and interviews with 25 ordinary users. To understand the spaces where people and algorithms meet, this article develops the notion of the algorithmic imaginary. It is argued that the algorithmic imaginary – ways of thinking about what algorithms are, what they should be and how they function – is not just productive of different moods and sensations but plays a generative role in moulding the Facebook algorithm itself. Examining how algorithms make people feel, then, seems crucial if we want to understand their social power. Short Title The algorithmic imaginary .
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8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
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Algorithmically recognizable: Santorum’s Google problem, and Google’s Santorum problem. Type Journal Article Author Tarleton Gillespie URL http://ift.tt/2nIkRgv Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 63-80 Publication Information, Communication & Society ISSN 1369-118X Date January 2, 2017 DOI 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1199721 Library Catalog Taylor and Francis+NEJM Abstract Because information algorithms make judgments that can have powerful consequences, those interested in having their information selected will orient themselves toward these algorithmic systems, making themselves algorithmically recognizable, in the hopes that they will be amplified by them. Examining this interplay, between information intermediaries and those trying to be seen by them, connects the study of algorithmic systems to long-standing concerns about the power of intermediaries – not an algorithmic power, uniquely, but the power to grant visibility and certify meaning, and the challenge of discerning who to grant it to and why. Here, I consider Dan Savage’s attempt to redefine the name of U.S. Senator Rick Santorum, a tactical intervention that topped Google’s search results for nearly a decade, and then mysteriously dropped during the 2012 Republican nominations. Changes made to Google’s algorithm at the time may explain the drop; here, they help to reveal the kind of implicitly political distinctions search engines must invariably make, between genuine patterns of participation and tactical efforts to approximate them. Short Title Algorithmically recognizable .
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8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
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The social power of algorithms. Type Journal Article Author David Beer URL http://ift.tt/2Am0N9E Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 1-13 Publication Information, Communication & Society ISSN 1369-118X Date January 2, 2017 DOI 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1216147 Library Catalog Taylor and Francis+NEJM Abstract This article explores the questions associated with what might be thought of as the social power of algorithms. The article, which introduces a special issue on the same topic, begins by reflecting on how we might approach algorithms from a social scientific perspective. The article is then split into two sections. The first deals with the issues that might be associated with an analysis of the power of the algorithms themselves. This section outlines a series of issues associated with the functionality of the algorithms and how these functions are powerfully deployed within social world. The second section then focuses upon the notion of the algorithm. In this section, the article argues that we need to look beyond the algorithms themselves, as a technical and material presence, to explore how the notion or concept of the algorithm is also an important feature of their potential power. In this section, it is suggested that we look at the way that notions of the algorithm are evoked as a part of broader rationalities and ways of seeing the world. Exploring the notion of the algorithm may enable us to see how algorithms also play a part in social ordering processes, both in terms of how the algorithm is used to promote certain visions of calculative objectivity and also in relation to the wider governmentalities that this concept might be used to open up. .
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8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
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Algorithmic IF … THEN rules and the conditions and consequences of power. Type Journal Article Author Daniel Neyland Author Norma Möllers URL http://ift.tt/2nIkOkP Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 45-62 Publication Information, Communication & Society ISSN 1369-118X Date January 2, 2017 DOI 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1156141 Library Catalog Taylor and Francis+NEJM Abstract The introduction to this special issue suggests we need to develop ‘a greater understanding of what might be thought of as the social power of algorithms'. In this paper, ‘social power’ will be critically scrutinised through a study of the entanglement of algorithmic rules with contemporary video-based surveillance technologies. The paper will begin with an analysis of algorithmic ‘IF … THEN’ rules and the conditions (IF) and consequences (THEN) that need to be accomplished for an algorithm to be said to succeed. The work of achieving conditions and consequences demonstrates that the form of ‘power’ in focus is not solely attributable to the algorithm as such, but operates through distributed agency and can be noted as a network effect. That is, the conditions and consequences of algorithmic rules only come into being through the careful plaiting of relatively unstable associations of people, things, processes, documents and resources. From this we can say that power is not primarily social in the sense that algorithms alone create an impact on society, but social in the sense of power being derived through algorithmic associations. The paper argues that this kind of power is most clearly visible in moments of breakdown, failure or other forms of trouble, whereby algorithmic conditions and consequences are not met and the careful plaiting of associations has to be brought to the fore and examined. It is through such examinations that the associational dependencies more than the social power of algorithms are made apparent. .
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8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
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Algorithms (and the) everyday. Type Journal Article Author Michele Willson URL http://ift.tt/2jsUI0B Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 137-150 Publication Information, Communication & Society ISSN 1369-118X Date January 2, 2017 DOI 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1200645 Library Catalog Taylor and Francis+NEJM Abstract Our everyday practices are increasingly mediated through online technologies, entailing the navigation and also oft-simultaneous creation of large quantities of information and communication data. The scale and types of activities being undertaken, the data that are being created and engaged with, and the possibilities for analysis, archiving and distribution are now so extensive that technical constructs are necessarily required as a way to manage, interpret and distribute these. These constructs include the platforms, the software, the codes and the algorithms. This paper explores the place of the algorithm in shaping and engaging with the contemporary everyday. It does this via an exploration of some particular instances of algorithmic sorting and presentation as well as considering some of the ways these contribute to shaping our everyday practices and understandings. In doing so, it raises questions about understandings of agency and power, shifting world views and our complex relationship with technologies. .
Zotero 
8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
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Scrutinizing an algorithmic technique: the Bayes classifier as interested reading of reality. Type Journal Article Author Bernhard Rieder URL http://ift.tt/2Am0DPA Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 100-117 Publication Information, Communication & Society ISSN 1369-118X Date January 2, 2017 DOI 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1181195 Library Catalog Taylor and Francis+NEJM Abstract This paper outlines the notion of ‘algorithmic technique’ as a middle ground between concrete, implemented algorithms and the broader study and theorization of software. Algorithmic techniques specify principles and methods for doing things in the medium of software and they thus constitute units of knowledge and expertise in the domain of software making. I suggest that algorithmic techniques are a suitable object of study for the humanities and social science since they capture the central technical principles behind actual software, but can generally be described in accessible language. To make my case, I focus on the field of information ordering and, first, discuss the wider historical trajectory of formal or ‘mechanical’ reasoning applied to matters of commerce and government before, second, moving to the investigation of a particular algorithmic technique, the Bayes classifier. This technique is explicated through a reading of the original work of M. E. Maron in the early 1960 and presented as a means to subject empirical, ‘datafied’ reality to an interested reading that confers meaning to each variable in relation to an operational goal. After a discussion of the Bayes classifier in relation to the question of power, the paper concludes by coming back to its initial motive and argues for increased attention to algorithmic techniques in the study of software. Short Title Scrutinizing an algorithmic technique .
Zotero 
8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
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Computing brains: learning algorithms and neurocomputation in the smart city. Type Journal Article Author Ben Williamson URL http://ift.tt/2nIkG4P Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 81-99 Publication Information, Communication & Society ISSN 1369-118X Date January 2, 2017 DOI 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1181194 Library Catalog Taylor and Francis+NEJM Abstract This article examines IBM’s ‘Smarter Education’ program, part of its wider ‘Smarter Cities’ agenda, focusing specifically on its learning analytics applications (based on machine learning algorithms) and cognitive computing developments for education (which take inspiration from neuroscience for the design of brain-like neural networks algorithms and neurocomputational devices). The article conceptualizes the relationship between learning algorithms, neuroscience, and the new learning spaces of the city by combining the notion of programmable ‘code/space’ with ideas about the ‘social life of the brain’ to suggest that new kinds of ‘brain/code/spaces’ are being developed where the environment itself is imagined to possess brain-like functions of learning and ‘human qualities’ of cognition performed by algorithmic processes. IBM’s ambitions for education constitute a sociotechnical imaginary of a ‘cognitive classroom’ where the practices associated with data analytics and cognitive computing in the smart city are being translated into the neuropedagogic brain/code/spaces of the school, with significant consequences for how learners are to be addressed and acted upon. The IBM imaginary of Smarter Education is one significant instantiation of emerging smart cities that are to be governed by neurocomputational processes modelled on neuroscientific insights into the brain’s plasticity for learning, and part of a ‘neurofuture’ in-the-making where nonconscious algorithmic ‘computing brains’ embedded in urban space are intended to interact with human cognition and brain functioning. Short Title Computing brains .
Zotero 
8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
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Thinking critically about and researching algorithms. Type Journal Article Author Rob Kitchin URL http://ift.tt/2An0PxW Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 14-29 Publication Information, Communication & Society ISSN 1369-118X Date January 2, 2017 DOI 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1154087 Library Catalog Taylor and Francis+NEJM Abstract More and more aspects of our everyday lives are being mediated, augmented, produced and regulated by software-enabled technologies. Software is fundamentally composed of algorithms: sets of defined steps structured to process instructions/data to produce an output. This paper synthesises and extends emerging critical thinking about algorithms and considers how best to research them in practice. Four main arguments are developed. First, there is a pressing need to focus critical and empirical attention on algorithms and the work that they do given their increasing importance in shaping social and economic life. Second, algorithms can be conceived in a number of ways – technically, computationally, mathematically, politically, culturally, economically, contextually, materially, philosophically, ethically – but are best understood as being contingent, ontogenetic and performative in nature, and embedded in wider socio-technical assemblages. Third, there are three main challenges that hinder research about algorithms (gaining access to their formulation; they are heterogeneous and embedded in wider systems; their work unfolds contextually and contingently), which require practical and epistemological attention. Fourth, the constitution and work of algorithms can be empirically studied in a number of ways, each of which has strengths and weaknesses that need to be systematically evaluated. Six methodological approaches designed to produce insights into the nature and work of algorithms are critically appraised. It is contended that these methods are best used in combination in order to help overcome epistemological and practical challenges. .
Zotero 
8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
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‘Hypernudge’: Big Data as a mode of regulation by design. Type Journal Article Author Karen Yeung URL http://ift.tt/2nIzd0j Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 118-136 Publication Information, Communication & Society ISSN 1369-118X Date January 2, 2017 DOI 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1186713 Library Catalog Taylor and Francis+NEJM Abstract This paper draws on regulatory governance scholarship to argue that the analytic phenomenon currently known as ‘Big Data’ can be understood as a mode of ‘design-based’ regulation. Although Big Data decision-making technologies can take the form of automated decision-making systems, this paper focuses on algorithmic decision-guidance techniques. By highlighting correlations between data items that would not otherwise be observable, these techniques are being used to shape the informational choice context in which individual decision-making occurs, with the aim of channelling attention and decision-making in directions preferred by the ‘choice architect’. By relying upon the use of ‘nudge’ – a particular form of choice architecture that alters people’s behaviour in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives, these techniques constitute a ‘soft’ form of design-based control. But, unlike the static Nudges popularised by Thaler and Sunstein [(2008). Nudge. London: Penguin Books] such as placing the salad in front of the lasagne to encourage healthy eating, Big Data analytic nudges are extremely powerful and potent due to their networked, continuously updated, dynamic and pervasive nature (hence ‘hypernudge’). I adopt a liberal, rights-based critique of these techniques, contrasting liberal theoretical accounts with selective insights from science and technology studies (STS) and surveillance studies on the other. I argue that concerns about the legitimacy of these techniques are not satisfactorily resolved through reliance on individual notice and consent, touching upon the troubling implications for democracy and human flourishing if Big Data analytic techniques driven by commercial self-interest continue their onward march unchecked by effective and legitimate constraints. Short Title ‘Hypernudge’ .
Zotero 
8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
www.zotero.org
The algorithmic imaginary: exploring the ordinary affects of Facebook algorithms. Type Journal Article Author Taina Bucher URL http://ift.tt/2ABYMoF Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 30-44 Publication Information, Communication & Society ISSN 1369-118X Date January 2, 2017 DOI 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1154086 Library Catalog Taylor and Francis+NEJM Abstract This article reflects the kinds of situations and spaces where people and algorithms meet. In what situations do people become aware of algorithms? How do they experience and make sense of these algorithms, given their often hidden and invisible nature? To what extent does an awareness of algorithms affect people's use of these platforms, if at all? To help answer these questions, this article examines people's personal stories about the Facebook algorithm through tweets and interviews with 25 ordinary users. To understand the spaces where people and algorithms meet, this article develops the notion of the algorithmic imaginary. It is argued that the algorithmic imaginary – ways of thinking about what algorithms are, what they should be and how they function – is not just productive of different moods and sensations but plays a generative role in moulding the Facebook algorithm itself. Examining how algorithms make people feel, then, seems crucial if we want to understand their social power. Short Title The algorithmic imaginary .
Zotero 
8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
www.zotero.org
Algorithms (and the) everyday. Type Journal Article Author Michele Willson URL http://ift.tt/2jsUI0B Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 137-150 Publication Information, Communication & Society ISSN 1369-118X Date January 2, 2017 DOI 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1200645 Library Catalog Taylor and Francis+NEJM Abstract Our everyday practices are increasingly mediated through online technologies, entailing the navigation and also oft-simultaneous creation of large quantities of information and communication data. The scale and types of activities being undertaken, the data that are being created and engaged with, and the possibilities for analysis, archiving and distribution are now so extensive that technical constructs are necessarily required as a way to manage, interpret and distribute these. These constructs include the platforms, the software, the codes and the algorithms. This paper explores the place of the algorithm in shaping and engaging with the contemporary everyday. It does this via an exploration of some particular instances of algorithmic sorting and presentation as well as considering some of the ways these contribute to shaping our everyday practices and understandings. In doing so, it raises questions about understandings of agency and power, shifting world views and our complex relationship with technologies. .
Zotero 
8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
www.zotero.org
Seams and edges: Dreams of aggregation, access & discovery in a broken world. Type Web Page Author Tim Sherratt URL http://ift.tt/1x3seqw Date 2015-02-03 Language English Abstract Presented at ALIA Online 2015, 3 February 2015 in Sydney. Website Title discontents Short Title Seams and edges .
Zotero 
8 days ago by stephenfrancoeur
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RE-72-17-0103-17. Type Web Page URL http://ift.tt/2AiXe3Q Date 2017-08-30T09:23:19+00:00 Accessed 2017-12-07 14:45:06 Abstract The Montana State University Library will conduct an environmental scan of the field's knowledge of algorithms, develop a proof of concept search application employing common algorithms, and create an Open Educational Resource (OER) curriculum and pilot class that will be taught to librarians to improve digital literacy based on the algorithms that define online experiences and shape technology. Website Title Institute of Museum and Library Services .
Zotero 
9 days ago by stephenfrancoeur

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