within-without   36

Cultural variation in cultural evolution | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
Cultural evolutionary models have identified a range of conditions under which social learning (copying others) is predicted to be adaptive relative to asocial learning (learning on one's own), particularly in humans where socially learned information can accumulate over successive generations. However, cultural evolution and behavioural economics experiments have consistently shown apparently maladaptive under-utilization of social information in Western populations. Here we provide experimental evidence of cultural variation in people's use of social learning, potentially explaining this mismatch. People in mainland China showed significantly more social learning than British people in an artefact-design task designed to assess the adaptiveness of social information use. People in Hong Kong, and Chinese immigrants in the UK, resembled British people in their social information use, suggesting a recent shift in these groups from social to asocial learning due to exposure to Western culture. Finally, Chinese mainland participants responded less than other participants to increased environmental change within the task. Our results suggest that learning strategies in humans are culturally variable and not genetically fixed, necessitating the study of the ‘social learning of social learning strategies' whereby the dynamics of cultural evolution are responsive to social processes, such as migration, education and globalization.


Western education emphasizes individual discovery and creativity, whereas East Asian education emphasizes rote learning from authority [25]. The adoption of consumer products shows less social influence in Western than East Asian countries [26]. Westerners are described as more individualistic/independent, while East Asians are described as more collectivistic/interdependent [27], dimensions which intuitively map on to asocial and social learning, respectively.

Societal background influences social learning in cooperative decision making: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090513817303501
We demonstrate that Chinese participants base their cooperation decisions on information about their peers much more frequently than their British counterparts. Moreover, our results reveal remarkable societal differences in the type of peer information people consider. In contrast to the consensus view, Chinese participants tend to be substantially less majority-oriented than the British. While Chinese participants are inclined to adopt peer behavior that leads to higher payoffs, British participants tend to cooperate only if sufficiently many peers do so too. These results indicate that the basic processes underlying social transmission are not universal; rather, they vary with cultural conditions. As success-based learning is associated with selfish behavior and majority-based learning can help foster cooperation, our study suggests that in different societies social learning can play diverging roles in the emergence and maintenance of cooperation.
study  org:nat  anthropology  cultural-dynamics  sapiens  pop-diff  comparison  sociality  learning  duplication  individualism-collectivism  n-factor  europe  the-great-west-whale  china  asia  sinosphere  britain  anglosphere  strategy  environmental-effects  biodet  within-without  auto-learning  tribalism  things  broad-econ  psychology  cog-psych  social-psych  🎩  🌞  microfoundations  egalitarianism-hierarchy  innovation  creative  explanans  education  culture  curiosity  multi  occident  cooperate-defect  coordination  organizing  self-interest  altruism  patho-altruism  orient  ecology  axelrod 
may 2018 by nhaliday
What's Wrong With Growing Blobs of Brain Tissue? - The Atlantic
These increasingly complex organoids aren't conscious—but we might not know when they cross that line.

I don't know why you would even *want* to do this tbh... What's the application?
news  org:mag  popsci  hmm  :/  dignity  morality  ethics  formal-values  philosophy  biotech  neuro  dennett  within-without  weird  wtf  ed-yong  brain-scan  medicine  science 
april 2018 by nhaliday
Eliminative materialism - Wikipedia
Eliminative materialism (also called eliminativism) is the claim that people's common-sense understanding of the mind (or folk psychology) is false and that certain classes of mental states that most people believe in do not exist.[1] It is a materialist position in the philosophy of mind. Some supporters of eliminativism argue that no coherent neural basis will be found for many everyday psychological concepts such as belief or desire, since they are poorly defined. Rather, they argue that psychological concepts of behaviour and experience should be judged by how well they reduce to the biological level.[2] Other versions entail the non-existence of conscious mental states such as pain and visual perceptions.[3]

Eliminativism about a class of entities is the view that that class of entities does not exist.[4] For example, materialism tends to be eliminativist about the soul; modern chemists are eliminativist about phlogiston; and modern physicists are eliminativist about the existence of luminiferous aether. Eliminative materialism is the relatively new (1960s–1970s) idea that certain classes of mental entities that common sense takes for granted, such as beliefs, desires, and the subjective sensation of pain, do not exist.[5][6] The most common versions are eliminativism about propositional attitudes, as expressed by Paul and Patricia Churchland,[7] and eliminativism about qualia (subjective interpretations about particular instances of subjective experience), as expressed by Daniel Dennett and Georges Rey.[3] These philosophers often appeal to an introspection illusion.

In the context of materialist understandings of psychology, eliminativism stands in opposition to reductive materialism which argues that mental states as conventionally understood do exist, and that they directly correspond to the physical state of the nervous system.[8][need quotation to verify] An intermediate position is revisionary materialism, which will often argue that the mental state in question will prove to be somewhat reducible to physical phenomena—with some changes needed to the common sense concept.

Since eliminative materialism claims that future research will fail to find a neuronal basis for various mental phenomena, it must necessarily wait for science to progress further. One might question the position on these grounds, but other philosophers like Churchland argue that eliminativism is often necessary in order to open the minds of thinkers to new evidence and better explanations.[8]
concept  conceptual-vocab  philosophy  ideology  thinking  metameta  weird  realness  psychology  cog-psych  neurons  neuro  brain-scan  reduction  complex-systems  cybernetics  wiki  reference  parallax  truth  dennett  within-without  the-self  subjective-objective  absolute-relative  deep-materialism  new-religion  identity  analytical-holistic  systematic-ad-hoc  science  theory-practice  theory-of-mind  applicability-prereqs  nihil  lexical 
april 2018 by nhaliday
"Really six people present": origin of phrase commonly attributed to William James - English Language & Usage Stack Exchange
Whenever two people meet, there are really six people present. There is each man as he sees himself, each man as the other person sees him, and each man as he really is.


Here's a graph of the number of references of the phrase "really six people present" Click on the first range (1800-1017) and you'll see this, which attributes this statement to Oliver Wendell Holmes. What's perhaps relevant is the reference to "John and James"--I'm guessing two placeholder names.
q-n-a  stackex  quotes  aphorism  law  big-peeps  old-anglo  illusion  truth  anthropology  psychology  cog-psych  social-psych  realness  dennett  biases  neurons  rationality  within-without  theory-of-mind  subjective-objective  forms-instances  parallax  the-self 
march 2018 by nhaliday

related tags

2016  80000-hours  :/  aaronson  absolute-relative  abstraction  accuracy  adversarial  advice  africa  age-generation  age-of-discovery  aging  ai-control  ai  akrasia  alignment  altruism  analogy  analysis  analytical-holistic  anglosphere  anthropic  anthropology  antidemos  antiquity  aphorism  apollonian-dionysian  applicability-prereqs  arrows  art  article  ascetic  asia  attention  audio  authoritarianism  autism  auto-learning  axelrod  barons  behavioral-gen  being-becoming  biases  big-peeps  big-picture  bio  biodet  biotech  bits  boaz-barak  books  bostrom  bounded-cognition  brain-scan  britain  broad-econ  buddhism  canon  causation  chapman  characterization  charity  cheatsheet  checklists  china  christianity  civil-liberty  civilization  cliometrics  coalitions  coding-theory  cog-psych  commentary  communication  comparison  competition  complement-substitute  complex-systems  complexity  composition-decomposition  computation  concept  conceptual-vocab  confounding  context  contrarianism  cooperate-defect  coordination  cost-benefit  counterexample  courage  cracker-econ  creative  critique  cs  cultural-dynamics  culture  curiosity  cybernetics  cynicism-idealism  dark-arts  darwinian  data  database  death  decentralized  decision-making  deep-materialism  definite-planning  definition  degrees-of-freedom  demographics  dennett  descriptive  detail-architecture  developmental  dignity  direct-indirect  direction  discipline  discrete  distribution  diversity  duplication  duty  ecology  economics  ed-yong  eden-heaven  eden  education  eea  effective-altruism  efficiency  egalitarianism-hierarchy  egt  emergent  emotion  empirical  ems  endo-exo  entropy-like  environmental-effects  envy  epistemic  equilibrium  error  essay  ethics  europe  events  evidence  evolution  evopsych  examples  existence  expanders  explanans  explanation  explore-exploit  extrema  farmers-and-foragers  fashun  fertility  field-study  fields  fitness  flexibility  flux-stasis  formal-values  forms-instances  frontier  futurism  game-theory  gedanken  gender  general-survey  generalization  genetics  giants  gnxp  god-man-beast-victim  good-evil  gotchas  government  gowers  graph-theory  graphs  gray-econ  growth-econ  growth  gt-101  gxe  hanson  hardness  hari-seldon  healthcare  heuristic  hi-order-bits  hidden-motives  higher-ed  history  hmm  homo-hetero  hsu  human-capital  humanity  hypocrisy  ideas  identity  ideology  illusion  impetus  impro  incentives  india  individualism-collectivism  inference  info-dynamics  infographic  information-theory  innovation  insight  instinct  institutions  intel  intelligence  interdisciplinary  interests  interview  intricacy  intuition  iq  iron-age  is-ought  iteration-recursion  janus  knowledge  labor  land  latin-america  law  leadership  learning  legacy  len:long  len:short  lens  lesswrong  letters  leviathan  lexical  linear-algebra  links  list  literature  local-global  long-short-run  long-term  longform  malthus  manifolds  markets  math.co  math.ds  math  mathtariat  meaningness  measure  measurement  medicine  mediterranean  meta-analysis  meta:math  meta:medicine  meta:prediction  metabuch  metameta  methodology  metrics  microfoundations  mobility  model-organism  models  moloch  mood-affiliation  morality  multi  musk  mutation  mystic  n-factor  nature  near-far  network-structure  neuro-nitgrit  neuro  neurons  new-religion  news  nibble  nietzschean  nihil  nitty-gritty  no-go  nordic  novelty  number  occam  occident  old-anglo  open-closed  optimism  optimization  order-disorder  org:bleg  org:junk  org:lite  org:mag  org:med  org:nat  org:sci  organizing  orient  oscillation  parable  paradox  parallax  parsimony  patho-altruism  paying-rent  pdf  people  personality  persuasion  pessimism  phalanges  philosophy  physics  pic  piracy  play  plots  podcast  policy  politics  poll  pop-diff  popsci  population  postrat  power  prediction-markets  prediction  predictive-processing  preference-falsification  presentation  priors-posteriors  privacy  pro-rata  productivity  profile  properties  property-rights  psychology  public-goodish  q-n-a  quality  quantitative-qualitative  quotes  race  random  rat-pack  rationality  ratty  reading  realness  reason  reduction  reference  reflection  regression  regulation  reinforcement  religion  reputation  responsibility  retention  revealed-preference  review  rhetoric  rigidity  rigor  risk  ritual  roots  s-factor  sanctity-degradation  sapiens  science  scitariat  selection  self-control  self-interest  sequential  sex  sexuality  signal-noise  signaling  singularity  sinosphere  sleep  smoothness  social-choice  social-norms  social-psych  social-science  social  sociality  society  spearhead  speculation  speed  speedometer  spock  sports  ssc  stackex  stats  status  stereotypes  stories  strategy  structure  study  stylized-facts  subjective-objective  success  summary  survey  systematic-ad-hoc  taxes  tcs  tcstariat  teaching  technology  telos-atelos  tetlock  the-classics  the-devil  the-great-west-whale  the-monster  the-self  theory-of-mind  theory-practice  theos  things  thinking  time  top-n  track-record  tradeoffs  trends  tribalism  trust  truth  turchin  twitter  unintended-consequences  universalism-particularism  us-them  utopia-dystopia  vague  values  variance-components  video  virtu  visuo  volo-avolo  vr  walls  weird  west-hunter  westminster  whole-partial-many  wiki  wire-guided  wonkish  working-stiff  workshop  wtf  x-not-about-y  yvain  zeitgeist  🌞  🎩  👽  🤖  🦉 

Copy this bookmark: