top-n   293

« earlier    

List of languages by total number of speakers - Wikipedia
- has both L1 (native speakers) and L2 (second-language speakers)
- I'm guessing most of Mandarin's L2 speakers are Chinese natives. Lots of dialects and such (Cantonese) within the country.
wiki  reference  data  list  top-n  ranking  population  scale  language  linguistics  anglo  china  asia  foreign-lang  objektbuch  india  MENA  europe  gallic  demographics 
2 days ago by nhaliday
Existential Risks: Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios
Would you endorse choosing policy to max the expected duration of civilization, at least as a good first approximation?
Can anyone suggest a different first approximation that would get more votes?
How useful would it be to agree on a relatively-simple first-approximation observable-after-the-fact metric for what we want from the future universe, such as total life years experienced, or civilization duration?

We're Underestimating the Risk of Human Extinction:
An Oxford philosopher argues that we are not adequately accounting for technology's risks—but his solution to the problem is not for Luddites.

Anderson: You have argued that we underrate existential risks because of a particular kind of bias called observation selection effect. Can you explain a bit more about that?

Bostrom: The idea of an observation selection effect is maybe best explained by first considering the simpler concept of a selection effect. Let's say you're trying to estimate how large the largest fish in a given pond is, and you use a net to catch a hundred fish and the biggest fish you find is three inches long. You might be tempted to infer that the biggest fish in this pond is not much bigger than three inches, because you've caught a hundred of them and none of them are bigger than three inches. But if it turns out that your net could only catch fish up to a certain length, then the measuring instrument that you used would introduce a selection effect: it would only select from a subset of the domain you were trying to sample.

Now that's a kind of standard fact of statistics, and there are methods for trying to correct for it and you obviously have to take that into account when considering the fish distribution in your pond. An observation selection effect is a selection effect introduced not by limitations in our measurement instrument, but rather by the fact that all observations require the existence of an observer. This becomes important, for instance, in evolutionary biology. For instance, we know that intelligent life evolved on Earth. Naively, one might think that this piece of evidence suggests that life is likely to evolve on most Earth-like planets. But that would be to overlook an observation selection effect. For no matter how small the proportion of all Earth-like planets that evolve intelligent life, we will find ourselves on a planet that did. Our data point-that intelligent life arose on our planet-is predicted equally well by the hypothesis that intelligent life is very improbable even on Earth-like planets as by the hypothesis that intelligent life is highly probable on Earth-like planets. When it comes to human extinction and existential risk, there are certain controversial ways that observation selection effects might be relevant.
bostrom  ratty  miri-cfar  skunkworks  philosophy  org:junk  list  top-n  frontier  speedometer  risk  futurism  local-global  scale  death  nihil  technology  simulation  anthropic  nuclear  deterrence  environment  climate-change  arms  competition  ai  ai-control  genetics  genomics  biotech  parasites-microbiome  disease  offense-defense  physics  tails  network-structure  epidemiology  space  geoengineering  dysgenics  ems  authoritarianism  government  values  formal-values  moloch  enhancement  property-rights  coordination  cooperate-defect  flux-stasis  ideas  prediction  speculation  humanity  singularity  existence  cybernetics  study  article  letters  eden-heaven  gedanken  multi  twitter  social  discussion  backup  hanson  metrics  optimization  time  long-short-run  janus  telos-atelos  poll  forms-instances  threat-modeling  selection  interview  expert-experience  malthus  volo-avolo  intel  leviathan  drugs  pharma  data  estimate  nature  longevity  expansionism  homo-hetero  utopia-dystopia 
march 2018 by nhaliday
Which Countries Create the Most Ocean Trash? - WSJ
China and Indonesia Are Top Sources of Plastic Garbage Reaching Oceans, Researchers Say
news  org:rec  china  asia  developing-world  environment  oceans  attaq  trivia  cocktail  data  visualization  maps  world  scale  top-n  ranking 
january 2018 by nhaliday

« earlier    

related tags

2016-election  2017  2018  80000-hours  aaronson  ability-competence  abortion-contraception-embryo  academia  accretion  accuracy  acm  advice  africa  age-of-discovery  aggregator  aging  agriculture  ai-control  ai  albion  algebra  alien-character  alignment  allodium  altruism  analogy  analysis  anglo  anglosphere  anthropic  anthropology  antidemos  antiquity  aphorism  applications  archaeology  aristos  arms  art  article  asia  atmosphere  attaq  authoritarianism  axelrod  axioms  backup  baez  bare-hands  beauty  behavioral-gen  being-right  benchmarks  benevolence  best-practices  better-explained  big-peeps  big-picture  bio  biodet  bioinformatics  biophysical-econ  biotech  bits  blog  blowhards  books  bostrom  bounded-cognition  brands  britain  broad-econ  brooks  business-models  business  caching  calculation  california  canada  cancer  canon  capital  cardio  career  causation  chart  cheatsheet  checklists  china  christianity  civic  civil-liberty  civilization  cjones-like  class  classic  classical  climate-change  coalitions  cocktail  cog-psych  cohesion  commentary  communication  communism  comparison  compensation  competition  concept  conceptual-vocab  concurrency  confidence  confluence  confucian  conquest-empire  constraint-satisfaction  contradiction  contrarianism  convexity-curvature  cooking  cooperate-defect  coordination  core-rats  correlation  corruption  cost-benefit  counter-revolution  creative  crime  criminal-justice  criminology  critique  crooked  crosstab  cultural-dynamics  culture-war  culture  current-events  cybernetics  cycles  cynicism-idealism  dan-luu  darwinian  data-science  data  database  dataset  death  debate  decision-making  defense  definite-planning  democracy  demographics  dennett  density  deterrence  developing-world  diet  dignity  dimensionality  dirty-hands  discipline  discovery  discussion  disease  divergence  diversity  domestication  drugs  duty  dynamic  dynamical  dysgenics  early-modern  econ-metrics  econometrics  economics  econotariat  eden-heaven  education  effect-size  effective-altruism  efficiency  egalitarianism-hierarchy  ego-depletion  electromag  embedded-cognition  emergent  empirical  ems  encyclopedic  endo-exo  endogenous-exogenous  energy-resources  engineering  enhancement  enlightenment-renaissance-restoration-reformation  ensembles  environment  envy  epidemiology  epistemic  ergodic  eric-kaufmann  essay  estimate  ethics  ethnocentrism  europe  evidence-based  evolution  evopsych  exegesis-hermeneutics  existence  exocortex  expansionism  experiment  expert-experience  expert  explanans  explanation  exploratory  extra-introversion  facebook  faq  farmers-and-foragers  fashun  fermi  fertility  fiction  film  finance  fisher  fitness  fitsci  flexibility  fluid  flux-stasis  food  foreign-lang  foreign-policy  formal-values  forms-instances  frontier  futurism  gallic  games  garett-jones  gedanken  gender-diff  gender  generalization  genetics  genomics  geoengineering  geography  geopolitics  germanic  giants  gibbon  gnon  gnosis-logos  gnxp  good-evil  government  grad-school  graphics  great-powers  group-level  growth-econ  gt-101  guide  guilt-shame  gwas  hanson  hardware  hari-seldon  health  healthcare  heavy-industry  heterodox  hi-order-bits  hidden-motives  higher-ed  history  hive-mind  hmm  homo-hetero  honor  howto  human-bean  human-capital  humanity  humility  hypothesis-testing  ideas  identity-politics  ideology  ieee  illusion  impetus  impro  incentives  india  individualism-collectivism  industrial-org  industrial-revolution  inequality  info-dynamics  info-foraging  infographic  information-theory  infrastructure  init  innovation  input-output  instinct  institutions  integrity  intel  interdisciplinary  internet  interview  intricacy  investing  iq  iran  iron-age  is-ought  islam  israel  isteveish  janus  japan  jargon  jobs  journos-pundits  judaism  knowledge  kumbaya-kult  labor  language  latin-america  law  leadership  learning  left-wing  legacy  lens  let-me-see  letters  leviathan  lexical  libraries  life-history  limits  liner-notes  linguistics  links  list  literature  local-global  lol  long-short-run  long-term  longevity  low-hanging  machine-learning  macro  magnitude  malaise  malthus  management  maps  marginal  market-failure  markets  martial  math.ds  math  mathtariat  matrix-factorization  measurement  mechanics  media  medicine  medieval  mediterranean  memory-management  mena  mental-math  meta-analysis  meta:prediction  meta:rhetoric  meta:science  meta:war  metabolic  metabuch  metameta  methodology  metrics  micro  midwest  migration  military  minimum-viable  miri-cfar  missing-heritability  mit  ml-map-e  mobility  model-class  modernity  mokyr-allen-mccloskey  moloch  monetary-fiscal  money  morality  mostly-modern  multi  music  mystic  n-factor  nascent-state  nationalism-globalism  nature  navigation  network-structure  neurons  new-religion  news  nibble  nietzschean  nihil  nitty-gritty  noble-lie  nonlinearity  nordic  northeast  nostalgia  nuclear  number  numerics  nutrition  objektbuch  occident  oceans  ocw  offense-defense  old-anglo  open-things  optimism  optimization  orfe  org:biz  org:bleg  org:data  org:davos  org:econlib  org:edge  org:edu  org:fin  org:foreign  org:gov  org:health  org:junk  org:lite  org:mag  org:mat  org:med  org:ngo  org:popup  org:rec  org:sci  org:theos  organization  organizing  orient  os  outcome-risk  overflow  p:someday  p:whenever  paleocon  papers  paradox  parasites-microbiome  parenting  pdf  peace-violence  people  performance  personal-finance  personality  pessimism  phalanges  pharma  phase-transition  phd  philosophy  physics  pic  pinker  planning  plots  pls  poast  podcast  poetry  polarization  policy  polisci  political-econ  politics  poll  polynomials  population-genetics  population  power  practice  pre-ww2  prediction  preference-falsification  prepping  preprint  prioritizing  probability  problem-solving  programming  project  proofs  propaganda  properties  property-rights  protestant-catholic  prudence  pseudoe  psychology  publishing  python  q-n-a  qra  quality  quantitative-qualitative  quantum  questions  quixotic  quotes  race  ranking  rationality  ratty  reading  realness  realpolitik  reason  recommendations  reddit  redistribution  reference  reflection  regression-to-mean  regression  regulation  relativity  religion  replication  reputation  responsibility  retention  review  revolution  rhetoric  right-wing  rigor  risk  ritual  roadmap  robust  rock  roots  rot  russia  s:*  sanctity-degradation  sapiens  scale  scaling-tech  schelling  science  scifi-fantasy  scitariat  search  securities  selection  self-control  sex  sexuality  shakespeare  shift  signaling  simulation  singularity  sinosphere  skeleton  skunkworks  sky  sleuthin  slippery-slope  social-capital  social-psych  social-science  social-structure  social  society  sociology  space  speaking  spearhead  speculation  speedometer  sports  spreading  stackex  stat-mech  state  statesmen  stats  status  stereotypes  stochastic-processes  stoic  strategy  straussian  stream  street-fighting  study  studying  stylized-facts  success  sulla  summary  supply-demand  symmetry  syntax  synthesis  systems  tactics  tails  taxes  tcstariat  teaching  tech  technology  techtariat  telos-atelos  tetlock  the-basilisk  the-bones  the-classics  the-great-west-whale  the-trenches  the-watchers  the-west  the-world-is-just-atoms  theos  thermo  things  thinking  threat-modeling  thucydides  time-preference  time-series  time-use  time  tools  toxoplasmosis  track-record  trade  tradecraft  tradeoffs  tradition  transportation  travel  trends  tribalism  tricks  trivia  trust  truth  turchin  tutorial  tutoring  tv  twitter  unaffiliated  uncertainty  unintended-consequences  unit  universalism-particularism  urban-rural  urban  us-them  usa  utopia-dystopia  values  variance-components  virtu  virtualization  visualization  visuo  volo-avolo  vulgar  walter-scheidel  war  waves  wealth-of-nations  wealth  web  webapp  west-hunter  westminster  whiggish-hegelian  white-paper  wiki  wild-ideas  wire-guided  wisdom  within-group  within-without  wonkish  working-stiff  world-war  world  writing  yak-shaving  zeitgeist  🎓  🎩  🔬  🖥  🦉 

Copy this bookmark: