tocqueville   102

« earlier    

Non to Tocqueville! - The American Interest
The Tocqueville who shaped French history is not the famous writer, but a member of parliament from 1839 to 1851, a man who when he was briefly French Foreign Minister in 1849 appointed his friend Arthur de Gobineau (the author of Essay on The Inequality of The Human Races, the source of Aryan race theory) as his Chef de Cabinet. This is the Tocqueville who was the rapporteur on the notorious 1847 Report on Algeria.
tocqueville  racism  politics  algeria  reactionary  raymondaron 
april 2018 by yorksranter
The Western Elite from a Chinese Perspective - American Affairs Journal
I don’t claim to be a modern-day Alexis de Tocqueville, nor do I have much in common with this famous observer of American life. He grew up in Paris, a city renowned for its culture and architecture. I grew up in Shijiazhuang, a city renowned for being the headquarters of the company that produced toxic infant formula. He was a child of aristocrats; I am the child of modest workers.

Nevertheless, I hope my candid observations can provide some insights into the elite institutions of the West. Certain beliefs are as ubiquitous among the people I went to school with as smog was in Shijiazhuang. The doctrines that shape the worldviews and cultural assumptions at elite Western institutions like Cambridge, Stanford, and Goldman Sachs have become almost religious. Nevertheless, I hope that the perspective of a candid Chinese atheist can be of some instruction to them.


So I came to the UK in 2001, when I was 16 years old. Much to my surprise, I found the UK’s exam-focused educational system very similar to the one in China. What is more, in both countries, going to the “right schools” and getting the “right job” are seen as very important by a large group of eager parents. As a result, scoring well on exams and doing well in school interviews—or even the play session for the nursery or pre-prep school—become the most important things in the world. Even at the university level, the undergraduate degree from the University of Cambridge depends on nothing else but an exam at the end of the last year.

On the other hand, although the UK’s university system is considered superior to China’s, with a population that is only one-twentieth the size of my native country, competition, while tough, is less intimidating. For example, about one in ten applicants gets into Oxbridge in the UK, and Stanford and Harvard accept about one in twenty-five applicants. But in Hebei province in China, where I am from, only one in fifteen hundred applicants gets into Peking or Qinghua University.

Still, I found it hard to believe how much easier everything became. I scored first nationwide in the GCSE (high school) math exam, and my photo was printed in a national newspaper. I was admitted into Trinity College, University of Cambridge, once the home of Sir Isaac Newton, Francis Bacon, and Prince Charles.

I studied economics at Cambridge, a field which has become more and more mathematical since the 1970s. The goal is always to use a mathematical model to find a closed-form solution to a real-world problem. Looking back, I’m not sure why my professors were so focused on these models. I have since found that the mistake of blindly relying on models is quite widespread in both trading and investing—often with disastrous results, such as the infamous collapse of the hedge fund Long-Term Capital Management. Years later, I discovered the teaching of Warren Buffett: it is better to be approximately right than precisely wrong. But our professors taught us to think of the real world as a math problem.

The culture of Cambridge followed the dogmas of the classroom: a fervent adherence to rules and models established by tradition. For example, at Cambridge, students are forbidden to walk on grass. This right is reserved for professors only. The only exception is for those who achieve first class honors in exams; they are allowed to walk on one area of grass on one day of the year.

The behavior of my British classmates demonstrated an even greater herd mentality than what is often mocked in American MBAs. For example, out of the thirteen economists in my year at Trinity, twelve would go on to join investment banks, and five of us went to work for Goldman Sachs.


To me, Costco represents the best of American capitalism. It is a corporation known for having its customers and employees in mind, while at the same time it has compensated its shareholders handsomely over the years. To the customers, it offers the best combination of quality and low cost. Whenever it manages to reduce costs, it passes the savings on to customers immediately. Achieving a 10 percent gross margin with prices below Amazon’s is truly incredible. After I had been there once, I found it hard to shop elsewhere.

Meanwhile, its salaries are much higher than similar retail jobs. When the recession hit in 2008, the company increased salaries to help employees cope with the difficult environment. From the name tags the staff wear, I have seen that frontline employees work there for decades, something hard to imagine elsewhere.

Stanford was for me a distant second to Costco in terms of the American capitalist experience. Overall, I enjoyed the curriculum at the GSB. Inevitably I found some classes less interesting, but the professors all seemed to be quite understanding, even when they saw me reading my kindle during class.

One class was about strategy. It focused on how corporate mottos and logos could inspire employees. Many of the students had worked for nonprofits or health care or tech companies, all of which had mottos about changing the world, saving lives, saving the planet, etc. The professor seemed to like these mottos. I told him that at Goldman our motto was “be long-term greedy.” The professor couldn’t understand this motto or why it was inspiring. I explained to him that everyone else in the market was short-term greedy and, as a result, we took all their money. Since traders like money, this was inspiring. He asked if perhaps there was another motto or logo that my other classmates might connect with. I told him about the black swan I kept on my desk as a reminder that low probability events happen with high frequency. He didn’t like that motto either and decided to call on another student, who had worked at Pfizer. Their motto was “all people deserve to live healthy lives.” The professor thought this was much better. I didn’t understand how it would motivate employees, but this was exactly why I had come to Stanford: to learn the key lessons of interpersonal communication and leadership.

On the communication and leadership front, I came to the GSB knowing I was not good and hoped to get better. My favorite class was called “Interpersonal Dynamics” or, as students referred to it, “Touchy Feely.” In “Touchy Feely,” students get very candid feedback on how their words and actions affect others in a small group that meets several hours per week for a whole quarter.

We talked about microaggressions and feelings and empathy and listening. Sometimes in class the professor would say things to me like “Puzhong, when Mary said that, I could see you were really feeling something,” or “Puzhong, I could see in your eyes that Peter’s story affected you.” And I would tell them I didn’t feel anything. I was quite confused.

One of the papers we studied mentioned that subjects are often not conscious of their own feelings when fully immersed in a situation. But body indicators such as heart rate would show whether the person is experiencing strong emotions. I thought that I generally didn’t have a lot of emotions and decided that this might be a good way for me to discover my hidden emotions that the professor kept asking about.

So I bought a heart rate monitor and checked my resting heart rate. Right around 78. And when the professor said to me in class “Puzhong, I can see that story brought up some emotions in you,” I rolled up my sleeve and checked my heart rate. It was about 77. And so I said, “nope, no emotion.” The experiment seemed to confirm my prior belief: my heart rate hardly moved, even when I was criticized, though it did jump when I became excited or laughed.

This didn’t land well on some of my classmates. They felt I was not treating these matters with the seriousness that they deserved. The professor was very angry. My takeaway was that my interpersonal skills were so bad that I could easily offend people unintentionally, so I concluded that after graduation I should do something that involved as little human interaction as possible.

Therefore, I decided I needed to return to work in financial markets rather than attempting something else. I went to the career service office and told them that my primary goal after the MBA was to make money. I told them that $500,000 sounded like a good number. They were very confused, though, as they said their goal was to help me find my passion and my calling. I told them that my calling was to make money for my family. They were trying to be helpful, but in my case, their advice didn’t turn out to be very helpful.

Eventually I was able to meet the chief financial officer of my favorite company, Costco. He told me that they don’t hire any MBAs. Everyone starts by pushing trolleys. (I have seriously thought about doing just that. But my wife is strongly against it.) Maybe, I thought, that is why the company is so successful—no MBAs!


Warren Buffett has said that the moment one was born in the United States or another Western country, that person has essentially won a lottery. If someone is born a U.S. citizen, he or she enjoys a huge advantage in almost every aspect of life, including expected wealth, education, health care, environment, safety, etc., when compared to someone born in developing countries. For someone foreign to “purchase” these privileges, the price tag at the moment is $1 million dollars (the rough value of the EB-5 investment visa). Even at this price level, the demand from certain countries routinely exceeds the annual allocated quota, resulting in long waiting times. In that sense, American citizens were born millionaires!

Yet one wonders how long such luck will last. This brings me back to the title of Rubin’s book, his “uncertain world.” In such a world, the vast majority things are outside our control, determined by God or luck. After we have given our best and once the final card is drawn, we should neither become too excited by what we have achieved nor too depressed by what we failed to … [more]
news  org:mag  org:popup  letters  lol  :/  china  asia  sinosphere  orient  usa  the-great-west-whale  occident  rot  zeitgeist  tocqueville  culture  comparison  malaise  aphorism  random  realness  hypocrisy  emotion  success  counter-revolution  nascent-state  communism  capitalism  education  higher-ed  britain  anglosphere  competition  oxbridge  tradition  flux-stasis  finance  innovation  autism  👽  near-far  within-without  business  gnon  🐸  twitter  social  commentary  discussion  backup  mena4  futurism  trends  elite  institutions  religion  christianity  theos  truth  scale  population  courage  vitality  models  map-territory  long-short-run  time-preference  patience  temperance  virtu  cultural-dynamics  input-output  impact  investing  monetary-fiscal  is-ought  pic  unaffiliated  right-wing  analytical-holistic  systematic-ad-hoc  stanford  n-factor  civilization  management  industrial-org  people  stream  alien-character  pro-rata  tails  gnosis-logos  signal-noise 
january 2018 by nhaliday
Without belief in a god, but never without belief in a devil. – sam[ ]zdat
The nature of mass movements. The beats and the John Birchers. The taxonomy of the frustrated. Horseshoe theory. The frustrated cannot derive satisfaction from action, something else has to fill the void Poverty, work and meaning. Mass movements need to sow resentment. Hatred is the strongest unifier. Modernity inevitably causes justified resentment. Tocqueville, Polyanai, Hoffer and Scott's theories. Helpful and unhelpful responses.
ratty  postrat  ssc  essay  insight  modernity  hate  coordination  tribalism  cohesion  incentives  ideology  polisci  anthropology  tocqueville  emotion  counter-revolution  polanyi-marx  prejudice  organizing  us-them  love-hate 
july 2017 by nhaliday
When the world was managed by a few rich and powerful individuals, these persons loved to entertain a lofty idea of the duties of man. They were fond of professing that it is praiseworthy to forget oneself and that good should be done without hope of reward, as it is by the Deity himself. Such were the standard opinions of that time in morals.
history  early-modern  usa  civic  polisci  culture  society  individualism-collectivism  classic  quotes  wonkish  virtu  big-peeps  values  anthropology  justice  trust  social-capital  social-norms  madisonian  aristos  envy  old-anglo  statesmen  prudence  pre-ww2  canon  tocqueville  self-interest  microfoundations  alien-character  n-factor  nascent-state  interests  wisdom  the-founding 
february 2017 by nhaliday
Tocqueville on Mexico | Marginal Restoration
The Constitution of the United States resembles those beautiful creations of human industry which insure wealth and renown to their inventors, but which are profitless in other hands. This truth is exemplified by the condition of Mexico at the present time. The Mexicans were desirous of establishing a federal system, and they took the Federal Constitution of their neighbors, the Anglo-Americans, as their model, and copied it entirely. But although they had borrowed the letter of the law, they could not introduce the spirit and the sense which give it life. They were involved in ceaseless embarrassments by the mechanism of their double government; the sovereignty of the States and that of the Union perpetually exceeded their respective privileges, and came into collision; and to the present day Mexico is alternately the victim of anarchy and the slave of military despotism. … To the south, the Union has a point of contact with the empire of Mexico; and it is thence that serious hostilities may one day be expected to arise. But for a long while to come, the uncivilized state of the Mexican people, the depravity of their morals, and their extreme poverty, will prevent that country from ranking high amongst nations.

Influences from the United States on the Mexican Constitution of 1824:

Beyond the indirect influence of Americans on the shaping of the Mexican constitution was the fact that its draftsmen made extensive adaptations from the American instrument of 1787. In some parts theConstitution of 1824 was almost a transcript of its Philadelphia prototype, but viewed in the whole it was not a slavish copy. Much substance and many particular provisions were taken from the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812.37 Although the Mexican lawmakers may have reposed a naive faith in the American system, they certainly altered the borrowed provisions to fit the peculiar situation in their own country. A comparison of the two documents will demonstrate this.

In certain broad aspects the two constitutions were strikingly similar.38 The basic principle of a confederation of semi-sovereign states into a single political entity - with a balance of power between executive, legislative, and judicial departments - was the same in both Moreover, each charter expressed the same general aspirations toward liberalism in providing for the advancement of education and science the establishment of patents and copyrights, the freedom of the press, and the abolition of such abuses in the administration of justice as torture, confiscation of property, ex post facto laws, search and seizure without a warrant, conviction without proper legal procedure, and imprisonment on mere suspicion. The Mexican constitution, however, did not guarantee the peculiarly Anglo-American institution of trial by jury.
Mar 6, 1882, Sen James George:

If it were true (which I deny) that this bill is in conflict with the logic of the political theories in regard to the rights of mankind, which have heretofore prevailed in this country, that is no insuperable objection to its passage. I do not deny that every measure should be weighed and considered in the light of accepted and recognized principles, but I do deny that every measure, however necessary to the welfare and the happiness of the people of the United States, however accordant to the teachings of experience and history, should be condemned because it conflicts with the theories of a speculative and Utopian scheme for the administration of the affairs of this world.

Our Government has attained its present astonishing grandeur and vigor because it is the result of the growth and development of Anglo-Saxon ideas, put into practical operation by Anglo-Saxon common sense. It has not grown according to a rule prescribed by an inexorable logic, reasoning from premises which assumed an ideal perfection in human nature and attainable in human institutions. Our Constitution is the work of men, intended for the government of men, not of angels or demi-gods. It recognizes human frailties and human passions, and seeks no unattainable perfection. It was made by the American people for themselves and their posterity, not for the human race. It was ordained by the American people for their own happiness and their own welfare, and the welfare of such others as they should choose of their own free will to admit to American citizenship. That our institutions are stable; that they attain the ends of good government-security to life, liberty, and property, the progress and happiness of the American people; that they can stand any strain, however great, occasioned by unlocked-for and calamitous emergencies, is because they were evolved and were modified as circumstances demanded, and were not the result of the a priori reasonings of political theorists."

But even more striking than the similarities were the differences. The most significant of these were in the provisions that defined church-state relations, and in those that outlined the powers of the president. A foundation-stone of the American system was the guarantee of freedom of religious thought and worship. Although the United States Constitution contained no expression of this principle, the First Amendment in 1 79 1 specified that Congress could make no law respecting "the establishment of religion" or the prohibition of worship. In direct contrast was Article III of the Mexican Constitution, which read: "The religion of the Mexican Nation is, and shall be perpetually, the Apostolic Roman Catholic. The Nation protects it by wise and just laws, and prohibits the exercise of any other." Purity of religion had been one of the tenets of the Plan of Iguala in 1821, and this fact rendered it difficult if not impossible to omit such a provision in the Constitution of 1824.

Because they had experienced the evils of a weak central authority under the Articles of Confederation, the founding fathers of 1787 invested the office of president with strong powers. Exactly the reverse was true in Mexico in 1824. The Mexican framers had before them the example of the dictatorial rule of Iturbide, and consequently they hedged the executive office with restrictions so that the incumbent could not legally exercise extreme power. As in the American system, the Mexican president would serve four years; but unlike his northern counterpart he could neither succeed himself nor again hold the office until four years had elapsed. He was designated commander-in-chief of the national forces, but could not command in person without the consent of the federal legislature. His "regulations, decrees, and orders" were not effective until signed by the secretary of the department to be governed by them, and he had no appointive power over the courts. The judges of the Supreme Court of Mexico were to be elected by the majority vote of the state legislatures.

(Greg mentioned common law in one interview)
it's not even a hypothetical: newly independent Latin Americans in the 19th century copied the US constitution, sometimes word for word. didn't work, obviously

The word "Institutions" has become a form of stopthink.
quotes  developing-world  polisci  anglosphere  wonkish  latin-america  early-modern  big-peeps  hive-mind  unaffiliated  universalism-particularism  right-wing  madisonian  aristos  gnon  wealth-of-nations  antidemos  old-anglo  statesmen  pre-ww2  tocqueville  civilization  microfoundations  axioms  alien-character  nascent-state  multi  twitter  social  commentary  migration  usa  us-them  tribalism  prudence  prejudice  institutions  law  wiki  pdf  piracy  study  article  history  letters  revolution  roots  attaq  democracy  comparison  pragmatic  systematic-ad-hoc  discussion  backup  econotariat  garett-jones  spearhead  acemoglu  orwellian  culture  meta:rhetoric  debate  natural-experiment  the-founding  flexibility 
december 2016 by nhaliday
Openings in Our Fractured Republic | Comment Magazine
I don't think this is the beginning of a new phase in our politics, but I do think it's something like the end of an old phase. This is really the cratering of baby-boomer politics in America. Just think about the debates in the fall: two seventy-year-olds yelling at each other basically about how to go backward. That is where this ends. Maybe finally after them there will be a generation of leaders whose default is a little different, a little more modern. It seems to me that this is the cratering of our nostalgic politics. This is what it looks like. And it's very, very depressing.


Tocqueville saw this very clearly. There's a way of reading Democracy in America that says the Americans are going to end up in the state of nature because they believe that the only legitimate things are those that would have been legitimate in a kind of Lockean space. They're just going to transform their actual society into this simpleminded, ugly state of nature, breaking up every association. Breaking up the family. Breaking up connections that aren't chosen. Only choice is legitimate, and if you have only chosen obligations . . . there goes society. There's a way in which that actually is happening right in front of us, everywhere.
But the reason it's not that simple is that we are actually human beings. We don't just live out theories. When we prioritize— what do I love in my life? what is good? what is right?—we put aside a lot of that kind of philosophy. We do look at family. We do look at church. We do look at community. The problem is that if we don't have a theory that articulates why that's legitimate, then we start to feel like we're doing illegitimate things when we're actually doing the most legitimate things of all. There's a degree to which that's happening in our society. Those institutions where we form the citizens that a free society requires—the family, the church, the school—those are the very institutions that we increasingly think are illegitimate.
america  james-k-a-smith  politics  tocqueville  yuval-levin 
november 2016 by cccinkc

« earlier    

related tags

17thc  1812  18thc  19thc  2009  2010s  2014  2018  20thc  21stc  21stcentury  :/  abstraction  acemoglu  acton  adam  adamcohen  adamcurtis  agency-structure  agency  alexis  alexisdetocqueville  algeria  alien-character  amazon  america  analysis  analytical-holistic  anglo  anglosphere  anthropology  antidemos  aphorism  aristos  aristotle  arroja  arthurgoldhammer  article  asia  attaq  attention  audible  audience  autism  axioms  ayn-rand  backup  bastiat  beauty  behavioral-econ  ben_judah  benjamin-constant  bentham  bernard-henri  bernard-henrilevy  biases  bibliography  big-government  big-peeps  bonapartism  book_review  books  bourgeoisie  bowling  brasil  britain  british_history  broad-econ  buchanan  bumiller  burke  bush  business  caen  canon  capitalism  cath-vs-prot  catholicism  catholics-and-politics  causation-social  charity  chesterton  china  christian_right  christianity-islam_conflict  christianity  civic  civic_humanism  civics  civil-liberty  civil.society  civil_liberties  civil_society  civility  civilization  class-warfare  class  class_conflict  classic  classical-liberalism  cocktail  code  cohen  cohesion  cold-war  collaboration  coming-apart  comment  commentary  comments  communication  communism  communitarian  community  comparative_history  comparison  competition  comunism  conservation  conservatism  constant  constructivism  consumerism  contrarianism  conversation  cook  coordination  correlation  corruption  cosmopolitanism  counter-revolution  courage  course  critic  critique  cultural-dynamics  cultural_critique  culture  culture_wars  daniel_little  darwin  data  de  de_staël  debate  decay  democracy  detocqueville  developing-world  digitalnatives  discarded  discipline  discussion  diversity  douthatish  downloaded  durkheim  early-modern  eastern-europe  ebooks  ecologicjustice  econ-metrics  economics  econotariat  education  ef-add  egalitarianism-hierarchy  elite  elite_culture  elster  emotion  enlightenment-renaissance-restoration-reformation  enlightenment  envy  equality  espada  essay  etexts  ethics  eu  europe  evangelical  evolution  fairness  faith  federalist  finance  flexibility  flux-stasis  foss  foucault  france  free-market  free  freedom-of-speech  freedom  freedom_of_conscience  french-revolution  french  french_moralists  french_revolution-impact  friedman  future  futurism  gallic  games  garett-jones  gay  gender  global  glocal  gnon  gnosis-logos  government  gratitude  grotius  growth-econ  guizot  hansulrichobrist  happy-sad  hate  hayek  hegel  heterodox  higher-ed  historical_change  historical_sociology  historicism  historiography-19thc  historiography-postwwii  history  hive-mind  hobbes  human_nature  humanism  hume-ethics  hume-politics  hypocrisy  identity-politics  ideology  iii-republica  impact  importado  incentives  individualism-collectivism  individualism-methodology  individualism  industrial-org  industrial_revolution  info-foraging  innovation  input-output  insight  institutions  intellectual_history  interests  internet  interviews  investing  ir_theory  irresponsabilidade  is-ought  james-k-a-smith  james-poulos  james  jon_elster  journos-pundits  jstor  julianassange  justice-retributive  justice  kindle-available  knowledge  labor  laissez-faire  language  lateral  latin-america  law  lecture  left-wing  legal_system  legitimacy  lehavre500ans  letters  levy  lexical  liberalarts  liberaleducation  liberalism-19thc  liberalism-public_reason  liberalism-republicanism_debates  liberalism  liberalismo  liberalismus  libertarianism  liberty-negative  liberty  limited-government  linux  literature  local  locke-2_treatises  locke  lol  long-short-run  love-hate  love  machiavelli  madisonian  malaise  management  managerial-state  map-territory  marriage  marx  mass_culture  mccloskey  mckenzie  meaningness  medieval  mena4  meta:rhetoric  micheldemontaigne  michelet  michelserres  microfoundations  migration  mises  mobile  models  modernity  monarchy  monetary-fiscal  montaigne  montesquieu  moral_philosophy  morality  multi  myth  n-factor  narrative-contested  narrative  nascent-state  nation-state  nationalism  natural-experiment  natural_law  natural_rights  near-far  neo-liberalism  neo-republicanism  news  newspapers  newyork  newyorktimes  nietzsche  normandie  nyt  nytimes  objects  occident  old-anglo  oped  open  opensource  optimate  optimism  org:data  org:mag  org:ngo  org:popup  org:theos  organizing  orient  orwellian  oscarniemeyer  outcome-risk  outliers  oxbridge  papacy  patience  pdf  people  persecution  person  petitpoucette  phalanges  philosophes  philosophy  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  phones  pic  picnic10  piracy  piraten  plato  polanyi-marx  polisci  political-econ  political  political_culture  political_economy  political_history  political_philosophy  political_science  politics-and-religion  politics  politik  poll  popper  population  portugal  positivism  postmodern  postrat  pragmatic  pre-ww2  prejudice  pro-bush  pro-rata  programming  property  property_rights  proprietary  protestants  prudence  ps  psd  pseudoe  public_choice  public_opinion  public_policy  public_sphere  putnam-like  quasi-objects  quote  quotes  race  racism  random  randy-ayndy  rational_choice  rationality-economics  ratty  raymondaron  reactionary  reading  realness  reason  recommendations  redistribution  regional-scatter-plots  regulation  religion  religious_culture  religious_right  representation  representative_institutions  republicanism  resistance  responsability  responsibility  review  reviews  revolution  revolutions  rhetoric-political  rhetoric-writing  rhetoric  right-wing  right  ritual  road-to-serfdom  roots  rot  rothbard  rousseau  russia  sabbath  scale  scepticism-academic  scepticism  science-and-politics  science-public  scribd  secularism  secularization  self-control  self-government  self-interest-cultural_basis  self-interest  sex  sexuality  signal-noise  signaling  similarity  sinosphere  slippery-slope  slow  small  social-capital  social-norms  social  social_contract  social_order  social_process  social_sciences-post-wwii  social_sciences  social_theory  socialcapital  socialism  society  sociologist  sociology  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  software  solzhenitsyn  spearhead  speech  ssc  stanford  state-vs-society  state  statesmen  statism  stewardship  stream  structuralist  study  success  sunday  sustainability  systematic-ad-hoc  tails  technocracy  technology  temperance  terror  the-classics  the-founding  the-great-west-whale  theory  theos  things  thinker  tiananmen  time-preference  times  tinderboxed  toread  totalitarianism  track-record  tradition  traits  translation  trends  tribalism  trivia  trump  trust  truth  twitter  tyranny  uk  unaffiliated  unintended-consequences  uniqueness  universalism-particularism  universalism  us-them  us  us_history  us_politics  us_society  usa  utilitarianism  utopia-dystopia  values  vatican_ii  video  violence  virtu  virtue_ethics  vitality  war  warof1812  wealth-of-nations  wealth  weber  weekend  welfare-state  whiggish-hegelian  wiki  wikileaks  wikipedia  wisdom  within-without  wonkish  wood  world  writer  yuval-levin  zeitgeist  🐸  👽 

Copy this bookmark: