territory   402

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Echelon Defense: The Role of Sea Power in Chinese Maritime Dispute Strategy
Feb 2018 Naval War College report
Front line is the Chinese Coast Guard. Behind it stands the Chinese naval fleet.
naval_war_college  china  maritime  territory 
11 days ago by strohps
This App Can Tell You the Indigenous History of the Land You Live On by Chelsey Luger — YES! Magazine
Whose land are you on? Start with a visit to native-land.ca. Native Land is both a website and an app that seeks to map Indigenous languages, treaties, and territories across Turtle Island. You might type in New York, New York, for example, and find that the five boroughs are actually traditional Lenape and Haudenosaunee territory.

On the website and in the app, you can enter the ZIP code or Canadian or American name for any town. The interactive map will zoom in on your inquiry, color-code it, and pull up data on the area’s Indigenous history, original language, and tribal ties.

The project is run by Victor Temprano out of British Columbia, Canada. A self-described “settler,” he said that the idea came to him while driving near his home—traditional Squamish territory. He saw many signs in the English language with the Squamish original place names indicated in parentheses underneath. He thought to himself, “Why isn’t the English in brackets?”
Native_American  Indian  map  language  territory  history 
5 weeks ago by Quercki
Agloe, New York - Wikipedia
"Agloe is a fictional hamlet in Colchester, Delaware County, New York, that became an actual landmark after mapmakers made up the community as a "copyright trap", similar to a trap street. (..) In the 1930s, General Drafting founder Otto G. Lindberg and an assistant, Ernest Alpers, assigned an anagram of their initials to a dirt-road intersection in the Catskill Mountains: NY 206 and Morton Hill Road, north of Roscoe, New York. The town was designed as a "copyright trap" to be able to catch others who might copy their maps.

In the 1950s, a general store was built at the intersection on the map, and was given the name Agloe General Store because the name was on the Esso maps. Later, Agloe appeared on a Rand McNally map after the mapmaker got the name of the "hamlet" from the Delaware County administration. When Esso threatened to sue Rand McNally for the assumed copyright infringement which the "trap" had revealed, the latter pointed out that the place had now become real and therefore no infringement could be established."
map  territory  copyright  trap  newyork  agloe  transmediale  transmediale18 
february 2018 by gohai
Mapp: “In the Virgin Islands, we’ve long had universal healthcare”
The governor discussed healthcare, the social status of other US territories, & their relationship with the United States with The Atlantic.
VI  state  of  the  territory 
january 2018 by BiteSize77
Territory is a literary project about territories and the maps that will always fail to capture them. It’s about the naive dream of objectivity, and how we use the act of representation to both hide and broadcast our subjectivities.
maps  territory  literature  litreview  art  via:mohitgupta  onexactitudeinscience 
november 2017 by npdoty
Patrick Cockburn · Underground in Raqqa · LRB 19 October 2017
KRG leaders wrongly believed that Turkey and Iran wouldn’t want to jeopardise their sizeable economic interests in Iraqi Kurdistan by objecting to the vote. But neither Turkey nor Iran can countenance the prospect of independence for Iraqi Kurds since it would inflame their own Kurdish minorities. Turkey’s reaction was especially hostile: the Kurds, Erdoğan said, ‘are not forming an independent state, they are opening a wound in the region to twist a knife in’. Barzani had cultivated good relations with Erdoğan, who now says that the relationship is finished: the KRG, ‘to which we provided all support, took steps against us, it will pay the price’. In future, he says, Turkey will deal only with the Iraqi government. Iraqi Kurds are hoping the US will once again come to their rescue by mediating between them and their opponents: they say the roads into Kurdistan are still open and that nothing has yet changed on the ground. The KRG may survive its present isolation but the risk is growing that the Kurdish quasi-states will go the same way as the caliphate.
ISIS  IslamicState  Syria  Iraq  Raqqa  tunnels  civilWar  Kurds  Erbil  Kobani  Turkey  Peshmerga  YPG  KRG  Rojava  territory  referendum  BarzaniMasoud  Erdogan  independence  politics  dctagged  dc:creator=CockburnPatrick 
october 2017 by petej
A Balanced Threat Assessment of China’s South China Sea Policy
Aug 2017 Cato policy analysis
U.S. lawmakers and analysts see China’s efforts to control much of the South China Sea as a serious threat, endangering regional security, freedom of navigation, and the liberal world order. This paper finds that political leaders and experts exaggerate the dangers of China’s South China Sea policy.

As the world’s largest trading nation, China has a deep vested interest in ensuring that trade routes in the South China Sea remain open, and Beijing has no interest in military conflict with regional powers. Although China’s South China Sea policy is inconsistent with some of the norms and institutions of the rules-based liberal world order, Beijing does not seek to undermine this order as a whole and remains supportive of key elements of the international system.
cato  china  south_china_sea  territory 
september 2017 by strohps
Outlawing War? It Actually Worked - The New York Times
Though the pact may not have ended all war, it was highly effective in ending the main reason countries had gone to war: conquest. This claim is supported by an empirical analysis we recently conducted of all the known cases of territorial acquisition during military conflict from 1816 to the present.

First, some context. Before 1928, countries had the legal right to wage war. If one state claimed to be victimized by another, international law permitted it to use force to right the wrong. International law also gave countries the right of conquest, meaning they could benefit from war by keeping its spoils, territory and, in some cases, people.....

Since World War II, conquest has almost come to a full stop. The average number of conquests per year fell drastically — to 0.26 per year, or one every four years. The average size of the territory taken declined to a mere 5,772 square miles per year. And the likelihood that any individual state would suffer a conquest in an average year plummeted — from 1.33 percent to 0.17 percent, or once or twice a millennium....

Conquest didn’t stop during this period. But those conquests were almost all reversed. Huge amounts of land that had been seized before 1948 were returned to the countries that had originally held them.
war  conquest  conclusion07  territory 
september 2017 by berendes
Here Be Dragons | VQR Online
A naval architect turned explorer, Siggi navigates by scanning aerial photos and uploading them into a plotter, the ship’s electronic navigation system. Sometimes he uses satellite images, sometimes shots taken by Danish geologists from an open-cockpit plane in the 1930s, on one of the only comprehensive surveys of the coast. Siggi sails by comparing what he sees on the shore to these rough outlines. “Of course, then you don’t have any soundings,” he says, referring to charts of ocean depths that sailors normally rely on to navigate and avoid running aground. “I’ve had some close calls.” Over the years, he’s gotten better at reading the landscape to look for clues: He looks for river mouths, for example, where silt deposits might create shallow places to anchor, so that icebergs will go to ground before they crush the boat. In the age of GPS and Google Maps, it’s rare to meet someone who still entrusts his life to such analog navigation. 

Even when Siggi’s retracing his own steps, the landscape of the Forbidden Coast is constantly changing. “Where the glaciers have disappeared,” he explains, pointing at washes of green on a creased, hand-drawn chart, “a peninsula turns out to be an island. It was actually sea where you thought there was land.” To account for this, he often trades notes with local hunters, who are similarly adept at reading the coast. “Their language is very descriptive,” Siggi explains. “So all the names of places mean something.” Although locations may have official Danish names, they’re often ignored. An island technically called Kraemer, for instance, in East Greenlandic means “the place that looks like the harness for a dog’s snout."

Until a century ago, Greenlandic hunters would cut maps out of driftwood. “The wooden part would be the fjord, so it would be a mirror image,” Siggi says. “Holes would be islands. Compared to a paper map, it was actually quite accurate.” These driftwood sculptures were first recorded by a Danish expedition in the 1880s, along with bas-relief versions of fjords, carefully grooved and beveled to represent headland depths. A Danish ethnologist, Gustav Holm, noted that notched into the wood, “the map likewise indicates where a kayak can be carried” when the path between fjords is blocked by ice. Unlike drawings, the contoured wood could be felt, useful in a region where the sun disappears for months at a time. ...

Explorers have long filled in our understanding of the world, using and then discarding the sexton, the compass, MapQuest. “The project of mapping the Earth properly is to some extent complete,” Hessler says. But while there are no longer dragons fleshing out far-flung places, a surprising number of spaces are still uncharted—and the locations we’ve discovered to explore have only expanded. “Where we were just trying to accurately map terrestrial space,” Hessler says, we’ve moved into a “metaphor for how we live. We’re mapping things that don’t have a physical existence, like internet data and the neural connections in our heads.” ...

The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station sits on the Earth’s axis, at an altitude just above 9,000 feet, smack in the world’s largest, coldest desert, where a small settlement of metal shipping containers takes shape in rows on a windblown sheet of continental ice. Heavy equipment beeps in the polar air. In these harsh conditions, Naoko Kurahashi Neilson has been trying to map black holes. ...

As part of her job researching neutrinos, she needed to upgrade the computers: When neutrinos are detected, the information is reported back to a massive collection center that scientists around the world can access. However, there is no easy way for scientists in, say, Wisconsin, to communicate with the computers at the South Pole; the internet for the South Pole Station comes from satellites, which, in polar regions, often orbit below the horizon. “Most of the day, you can’t connect from the South Pole to the outside world,” says Kurahashi Neilson. “So even if it’s a simple algorithm update, you have to go do it yourself.” ...

**“The only way to study something you can’t go to or touch is to look at it in many different ways,” Kurahashi Neilson says. “The funny thing is, if you map the universe in optical light—what humans see—or gamma rays, or radio rays, our universe doesn’t look the same. That’s the beauty of this. You create a map of the same thing in different light, and when you compare them, you understand the universe better.” **...

In astronomy, you can’t conduct experiments. “We can’t build new stars,” Becker explains. “So we do survey maps.” The goal is to create a catalog of the sky, which is essentially a record of all the ongoing experiments in space. “In an infinite universe, all things that can happen will happen,” Becker says, paraphrasing The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. ....

In much the same way that early explorers stretched the human imagination, astronomy continues to push the limits of our understanding of creation itself, requiring a kind of faith. As Becker notes, more data usually just gives rise to even more questions. “In the outer reaches of even our own universe,” Becker says, “dragons are still there.” ...

If you could somehow drain the seas, scientists predict you’d see not sea monsters but a few volcanoes sprouting from an immense, flat floor, which is hundreds of thousands of hills covered by millennia of falling sediment. Because of these cloaking deposits, developing a better map of the ocean could shed light on the distant past. “It’s one of the most complete records of history on Earth,” says Alan Mix, an oceanographer at Oregon State University. “All of history accumulates in layers on the ocean floor.” The problem is that this wealth of information lies submerged just out of reach. Because satellites cannot read through water, mapping the sea has been much more difficult than mapping land. ...

But the ocean is huge, and submersibles can only travel so far. Even today, only about 17 percent of the ocean has been mapped with sonar, meaning that a ship or submersible has physically driven back and forth over the ocean floor in a grid, like mowing a lawn....

Under the Law of the Sea treaty, Mayer explains, “you’re allowed to establish sovereign rights 200 nautical miles into the sea.” But if the seafloor has certain morphological characteristics, the country’s territory can be extended beyond that 200 nautical-mile limit, into an area called the extended continental shelf. As the rush to claim the Arctic begins—Russia has symbolically staked its claim to recently discovered oil reserves by planting a titanium flag in the bottom of the Arctic Ocean—maps like this will be a crucial part of the maneuvering....

Mapping a round thing in two dimensions is difficult: Imagine flattening the unbroken peel of an orange and trying to connect the edges. “In order to make a map, you have to give something up,” says John Hessler. The decision of which variable to hold true—distance or area or shape or scale—is called a projection, and every one of them distorts the surface of the Earth in some capacity. The world maps you likely remember from high school are Mercator projections, where Greenland appears larger than Africa—a continent fourteen times the island’s size—in order to preserve the accuracy of angles. In the 1960s, Arno Peter created a map that looks strangely elongated in comparison, preserving a more accurate sense of scale. Now called the Peters projection, “he thought [it] had a better sense of equality for third world countries,” Hessler explains. Since then, the number of potential projections has only expanded. Which distortion of the world works best depends on what you think is important....

Since travelers are no longer sailing off the edge of the known world, it can be tempting to look at maps as static. But even on a small island, change is constant. Geodesists from the National Land Survey of Iceland spent this year’s short summer in the mountain highlands, mapping the island’s movement on the Atlantic Ridge. They set up GPS receivers using a level and an infrared device, and then left them for a few days, periodically checking to see if a horse had run into them or if the wind had knocked them over....

Not only is the world constantly changing, our ability to record it is too. “In terms of technology, I view it as standing on the bank of a river and watching it go by,” says Jim Herries, a geographer at Esri, one of the dominant geographic information system (GIS) software companies. This makes it difficult to build modern maps that aren’t obsolete by the time they’re finished. But that rapid development has also expanded who uses cartography; the bulk of Esri’s clients are now businesses, not academics. Although it can take some explaining, mapping is now useful for more people than ever before. At a massive agriculture company, for instance, Herries had to show a prospective client how they could map where every single seed was planted, and the temperature and humidity at each location, before something clicked. “All of a sudden mapping becomes relevant to their world.”....

“Mapping is often romanticized,” she says. “When in reality, now it’s mostly another desk job.” Cartography, she says, is 90 percent dealing with data, “and it’s usually crappy data.” Uber is just one of many smartphone apps that rely on mapmaking, adding to the vast catalog of cartography that many people use on a daily basis without thinking about it....

For centuries, maps defined dominion as well as provided access to new possibility. To name something is often to own it. Until recently, the very ability to make a map was proprietary. Esri was the best—and most expensive—source of cartographic software, but in the last ten years, the quality of … [more]
geography  cartography  indigenous  mapping  epistemology  territory  projection  cognitive_mapping 
august 2017 by shannon_mattern
Aerial Imperialism: Syrian Ruinscapes and Vertical Media — Failed Architecture
Since the 2011 social uprisings in Syria we are once again hooked onto the spectacle of bombed ruins, this time through drone cameras, laptops, apps and smartphones in addition to TV screens.
additivism  architecture  buffer  city  design  drones  failure  forensic  images  insta  machine  vision  perspective  photography  politics  syria  teaching  territory  theatre  urban  vi 
august 2017 by therourke
Territorial Evolution from 1867 to 2017 (Canada)
This map presents the history of the political boundaries in Canada, from Confederation in 1867 to 2017. Canada’s boundaries are dynamic political structures that reflect the changing political, economic, and cultural conditions of the country through time. Canada’s long and diversified settlement history is reflected in the two distinct patterns of boundaries that differentiate eastern and western Canada. In the east, the evolution of the Atlantic provinces’ boundaries are the outcome of 200 years of colonial competition for both land and resources. Similarly, Quebec and Ontario grew from frontier settlements to industrialized economies between 1760 and the early 1900s. As well, in the boundaries of eastern Canada closely conform to natural features such as drainage basins. In contrast, the boundaries of western and northern Canada reflect the administrative organization of these lands by, first, the Hudson’s Bay Company and, later, the Government of Canada. Here, geometric lines radiate northward from the 49th parallel, creating boundaries that often divide communities and regions into two different provincial jurisdictions. Each of the western provinces has a unique history and rationale for their boundaries. Manitoba evolved from the first Riel Rebellion as a "postage stamp" province, and only later achieved its present-day boundaries. Alberta and Saskatchewan earned provincial status with an eye to creating equal land areas. On the Pacific coast, the British colonies had to act quickly in response to the explosive gold mining frontier to organize and solidify their territorial claims to present-day British Columbia, and later to help establish the Yukon Territory in response to American encroachment. In the North, the boundaries of the existing Territories were redrawn in 1999 to create Nunavut. The boundaries of this new territory respect the traditional Aboriginal concept of territoriality. This online interactive map relies on the emerging "MapML" standard co-developed by Natural Resources Canada. The objective of this evolving standard is to make it simple for beginners and experts alike to create maps in Web pages that use open data and map services.
maps  Canada  open-data  datasets  OHQ  Indigenous  territory 
july 2017 by Psammead
Experience the songlines of Uluru with Google Maps Street View and Story Spheres
Uluru has been added to Google Maps Street View. It has also been added to Story Sphere, a platform which allows for content to be placed within the three dimensional within Street View, in this case audio recorded with Uluru-Kata Tjuta Board of Management Member Sammy Wilson and Anangu Elder Reggie Uluru. The project was created by Google in collaboration with the Anangu people, Parks Australia, Northern Territory Government and Northern Territory Tourism.
360  panoramas  360  photography  @Google  Anangu  people  Australia  Google  Australia  Google  Australia  Blog  Google  Maps  Google  Maps  Street  View  Indigenous  Australians  Indigenous  knowledge  Northern  Territory  Northern  Territory  Government  Northern  Territory  Tourism  Parks  Australia  Reggie  Uluru  (Indigenous  Elder)  Sammy  Wilson  Story  Spheres  UNESCO  World  Heritage  sites  Uluru  Uluru-Kata  Tjuta  National  Park  preservation  technology 
june 2017 by elliottbledsoe

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