telos-atelos   18

Science - Wikipedia
In Northern Europe, the new technology of the printing press was widely used to publish many arguments, including some that disagreed widely with contemporary ideas of nature. René Descartes and Francis Bacon published philosophical arguments in favor of a new type of non-Aristotelian science. Descartes emphasized individual thought and argued that mathematics rather than geometry should be used in order to study nature. Bacon emphasized the importance of experiment over contemplation. Bacon further questioned the Aristotelian concepts of formal cause and final cause, and promoted the idea that science should study the laws of "simple" natures, such as heat, rather than assuming that there is any specific nature, or "formal cause," of each complex type of thing. This new modern science began to see itself as describing "laws of nature". This updated approach to studies in nature was seen as mechanistic. Bacon also argued that science should aim for the first time at practical inventions for the improvement of all human life.

Age of Enlightenment

...

During this time, the declared purpose and value of science became producing wealth and inventions that would improve human lives, in the materialistic sense of having more food, clothing, and other things. In Bacon's words, "the real and legitimate goal of sciences is the endowment of human life with new inventions and riches", and he discouraged scientists from pursuing intangible philosophical or spiritual ideas, which he believed contributed little to human happiness beyond "the fume of subtle, sublime, or pleasing speculation".[72]
article  wiki  reference  science  philosophy  letters  history  iron-age  mediterranean  the-classics  medieval  europe  the-great-west-whale  early-modern  ideology  telos-atelos  ends-means  new-religion  weird  enlightenment-renaissance-restoration-reformation  culture  the-devil  anglo  big-peeps  giants  religion  theos  tip-of-tongue  hmm  truth  dirty-hands  engineering  roots  values  formal-values  quotes  causation  forms-instances  technology  logos 
august 2018 by nhaliday
Reconsidering epistemological scepticism – Dividuals
I blogged before about how I consider an epistemological scepticism fully compatible with being conservative/reactionary. By epistemological scepticism I mean the worldview where concepts, categories, names, classes aren’t considered real, just useful ways to categorize phenomena, but entirely mental constructs, basically just tools. I think you can call this nominalism as well. The nominalism-realism debate was certainly about this. What follows is the pro-empirical worldview where logic and reasoning is considered highly fallible: hence you don’t think and don’t argue too much, you actually look and check things instead. You rely on experience, not reasoning.

...

Anyhow, the argument is that there are classes, which are indeed artificial, and there are kinds, which are products of natural forces, products of causality.

...

And the deeper – Darwinian – argument, unspoken but obvious, is that any being with a model of reality that does not conform to such real clumps, gets eaten by a grue.

This is impressive. It seems I have to extend my one-variable epistemology to a two-variable epistemology.

My former epistemology was that we generally categorize things according to their uses or dangers for us. So “chair” is – very roughly – defined as “anything we can sit on”. Similarly, we can categorize “predator” as “something that eats us or the animals that are useful for us”.

The unspoken argument against this is that the universe or the biosphere exists neither for us nor against us. A fox can eat your rabbits and a lion can eat you, but they don’t exist just for the sake of making your life difficult.

Hence, if you interpret phenomena only from the viewpoint of their uses or dangers for humans, you get only half the picture right. The other half is what it really is and where it came from.

Copying is everything: https://dividuals.wordpress.com/2015/12/14/copying-is-everything/
Philosophy professor Ruth Millikan’s insight that everything that gets copied from an ancestor has a proper function or teleofunction: it is whatever feature or function that made it and its ancestor selected for copying, in competition with all the other similar copiable things. This would mean Aristotelean teleology is correct within the field of copyable things, replicators, i.e. within biology, although in physics still obviously incorrect.

Darwinian Reactionary drew attention to it two years ago and I still don’t understand why didn’t it generate a bigger buzz. It is an extremely important insight.

I mean, this is what we were waiting for, a proper synthesis of science and philosophy, and a proper way to rescue Aristotelean teleology, which leads to so excellent common-sense predictions that intuitively it cannot be very wrong, yet modern philosophy always denied it.

The result from that is the briding of the fact-value gap and burying the naturalistic fallacy: we CAN derive values from facts: a thing is good if it is well suitable for its natural purpose, teleofunction or proper function, which is the purpose it was selected for and copied for, the purpose and the suitability for the purpose that made the ancestors of this thing selected for copying, instead of all the other potential, similar ancestors.

...

What was humankind selected for? I am afraid, the answer is kind of ugly.

Men were selected to compete between groups, the cooperate within groups largely for coordinating for the sake of this competition, and have a low-key competition inside the groups as well for status and leadership. I am afraid, intelligence is all about organizing elaborate tribal raids: “coalitionary arms races”. The most civilized case, least brutal but still expensive case is arms races in prestige status, not dominance status: when Ancient Athens buildt pretty buildings and modern France built the TGV and America sent a man to the Moon in order to gain “gloire” i.e. the prestige type respect and status amongst the nations, the larger groups of mankind. If you are the type who doesn’t like blood, you should probably focus on these kinds of civilized, prestige-project competitions.

Women were selected for bearing children, for having strong and intelligent sons therefore having these heritable traits themselves (HBD kind of contradicts the more radically anti-woman aspects of RedPillery: marry a weak and stupid but attractive silly-blondie type woman and your son’s won’t be that great either), for pleasuring men and in some rarer but existing cases, to be true companions and helpers of their husbands.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_causes
- Matter: a change or movement's material cause, is the aspect of the change or movement which is determined by the material that composes the moving or changing things. For a table, that might be wood; for a statue, that might be bronze or marble.
- Form: a change or movement's formal cause, is a change or movement caused by the arrangement, shape or appearance of the thing changing or moving. Aristotle says for example that the ratio 2:1, and number in general, is the cause of the octave.
- Agent: a change or movement's efficient or moving cause, consists of things apart from the thing being changed or moved, which interact so as to be an agency of the change or movement. For example, the efficient cause of a table is a carpenter, or a person working as one, and according to Aristotle the efficient cause of a boy is a father.
- End or purpose: a change or movement's final cause, is that for the sake of which a thing is what it is. For a seed, it might be an adult plant. For a sailboat, it might be sailing. For a ball at the top of a ramp, it might be coming to rest at the bottom.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proximate_and_ultimate_causation
A proximate cause is an event which is closest to, or immediately responsible for causing, some observed result. This exists in contrast to a higher-level ultimate cause (or distal cause) which is usually thought of as the "real" reason something occurred.

...

- Ultimate causation explains traits in terms of evolutionary forces acting on them.
- Proximate causation explains biological function in terms of immediate physiological or environmental factors.
gnon  philosophy  ideology  thinking  conceptual-vocab  forms-instances  realness  analytical-holistic  bio  evolution  telos-atelos  distribution  nature  coarse-fine  epistemic  intricacy  is-ought  values  duplication  nihil  the-classics  big-peeps  darwinian  deep-materialism  selection  equilibrium  subjective-objective  models  classification  smoothness  discrete  schelling  optimization  approximation  comparison  multi  peace-violence  war  coalitions  status  s-factor  fashun  reputation  civilization  intelligence  competition  leadership  cooperate-defect  within-without  within-group  group-level  homo-hetero  new-religion  causation  direct-indirect  ends-means  metabuch  physics  axioms  skeleton  wiki  reference  concept  being-becoming  essence-existence  logos 
july 2018 by nhaliday
Scientia potentia est - Wikipedia
The phrase "scientia potentia est" (or "scientia est potentia" or also "scientia potestas est") is a Latin aphorism meaning "knowledge is power". It is commonly attributed to Sir Francis Bacon, although there is no known occurrence of this precise phrase in Bacon's English or Latin writings. However, the expression "ipsa scientia potestas est" ('knowledge itself is power') occurs in Bacon's Meditationes Sacrae (1597). The exact phrase "scientia potentia est" was written for the first time in the 1668 version of the work Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes, who was secretary to Bacon as a young man.

The related phrase "sapientia est potentia" is often translated as "wisdom is power".[1]
foreign-lang  mediterranean  jargon  aphorism  wiki  reference  big-peeps  history  early-modern  britain  anglosphere  optimate  enlightenment-renaissance-restoration-reformation  science  knowledge  truth  realness  impetus  power  nietzschean  new-religion  philosophy  is-ought  telos-atelos  direct-indirect  ends-means  lexical 
february 2018 by nhaliday
Read History Of Philosophy Backwards | Slate Star Codex
https://twitter.com/robinhanson/status/810281385852276736
Philosophy is mainly useful in inoculating you against other philosophy. Else you'll be vulnerable to the first coherent philosophy you hear
ratty  yvain  ssc  rhetoric  contrarianism  prioritizing  info-foraging  learning  philosophy  multi  twitter  social  discussion  hanson  impetus  reason  truth  cynicism-idealism  telos-atelos  meaningness 
june 2017 by nhaliday

related tags

absolute-relative  academia  adversarial  aging  ai-control  ai  alignment  altruism  analysis  analytical-holistic  anglo  anglosphere  announcement  anthropology  aphorism  applicability-prereqs  applications  approximation  aristos  article  atoms  attention  authoritarianism  autism  average-case  axioms  barons  being-becoming  biases  big-peeps  big-picture  bio  britain  canon  causation  characterization  charity  christianity  civilization  classic  classification  coalitions  coarse-fine  cocktail  commentary  comparison  competition  complement-substitute  complex-systems  concept  conceptual-vocab  contrarianism  cooperate-defect  coordination  corporation  cost-benefit  counterexample  cultural-dynamics  culture-war  culture  curiosity  cynicism-idealism  darwinian  decision-theory  deep-learning  deep-materialism  deepgoog  degrees-of-freedom  dennett  descriptive  dignity  dimensionality  direct-indirect  dirty-hands  discipline  discovery  discrete  discussion  disease  distribution  diversity  duality  duplication  duty  early-modern  economics  eden-heaven  eden  eea  egalitarianism-hierarchy  embodied  emergent  empirical  ems  ends-means  engineering  enlightenment-renaissance-restoration-reformation  epistemic  equilibrium  essence-existence  ethics  europe  events  evolution  evopsych  examples  exegesis-hermeneutics  expert-experience  explanans  exploratory  explore-exploit  extra-introversion  facebook  farmers-and-foragers  fashun  fiction  film  fluid  flux-stasis  food  foreign-lang  formal-values  forms-instances  futurism  giants  gnon  god-man-beast-victim  good-evil  google  government  gradient-descent  group-level  gwern  hanson  heuristic  hi-order-bits  hidden-motives  high-dimension  history  hmm  hn  homo-hetero  honor  humanity  hypocrisy  ideas  identity-politics  ideology  illusion  impetus  incentives  increase-decrease  info-foraging  intel  intelligence  interdisciplinary  interests  interview  intricacy  iron-age  is-ought  iteration-recursion  janus  jargon  justice  knowledge  language  leadership  learning  left-wing  len:long  len:short  lens  lesswrong  letters  lexical  links  local-global  logos  longevity  machine-learning  malthus  manifolds  meaningness  measure  medicine  medieval  mediterranean  metabuch  miri-cfar  model-class  model-organism  models  modernity  moloch  morality  multi  mystic  myth  nationalism-globalism  nature  neuro  new-religion  news  nietzschean  nihil  occident  open-closed  optimate  optimism  optimization  order-disorder  org:mag  org:nat  pdf  peace-violence  people  performance  personality  pessimism  philosophy  physics  pinker  piracy  play  polarization  politics  poll  popsci  power  prediction  presentation  prioritizing  profile  protestant-catholic  psych-architecture  psychology  q-n-a  questions  quotes  rationality  ratty  realness  reason  reduction  reference  reflection  regression-to-mean  reinforcement  religion  reputation  research  responsibility  retention  revolution  rhetoric  risk  ritual  robust  roots  s-factor  saas  sanctity-degradation  sapiens  schelling  science  selection  self-control  self-interest  sequential  shift  signaling  singularity  skeleton  slides  smoothness  social-norms  social-psych  social-science  social  society  speculation  ssc  status  stress  study  stylized-facts  subculture  subjective-objective  summary  survey  systems  technology  temperature  the-classics  the-devil  the-great-west-whale  the-self  theory-of-mind  theos  things  thinking  threat-modeling  time  tip-of-tongue  todo  tradition  trends  tribalism  trivia  trust  truth  turing  twitter  unintended-consequences  universalism-particularism  unsupervised  us-them  utopia-dystopia  values  video  virtu  volo-avolo  war  wealth  weird  wiki  within-group  within-without  workshop  x-not-about-y  yvain  zeitgeist  🌞  👽 

Copy this bookmark:



description:


tags: