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François Poullain de la Barre - Wikipedia
"(...) Initially studying theology, Poullain de la Barre adopted the philosophy of Descartes. He became a priest in the Champagne area before converting to Protestantism. After the Edict of Fontainebleau revoked the Edict of Nantes, he was exiled in the Republic of Geneva, where he obtained the citizenship (bourgeoisie) in 1716.[1]

He applied Cartesian principles to the question of women and wrote many texts of social philosophy which denounced injustice against woman and by the inequality of the female condition. Opposing the discrimination they experienced and as one of the champions of social equality between women and men, he is a precursor of the feminists.

In 1673, he published "On the equality of the two sexes: a physical and moral discourse in which is seen the importance of undoing prejudice in oneself," the first of three feminist works. He argues that the inequality in the treatment that women experience does not have a natural basis, but proceeds from cultural prejudice. He recommends that women receive a true education and also says all careers should be open to them, including scientific careers. (...)"
women  philosophy  social  study  france  history  gender  equality 
2 hours ago by eric.brechemier
A study aid using Python and PyQt | Opensource.com
This image-recognition tool can be adapted for many subjects.
python  pyqt  study  aid  image  recognition 
yesterday by gdw
The False Promise of Meritocracy - The Atlantic
When a company’s core values emphasized meritocratic values, those in managerial positions awarded a larger monetary reward to the male employee than to an equally performing female employee. Castilla and Bernard termed their counter intuitive result “the paradox of meritocracy.”

The paradox of meritocracy builds on other research showing that those who think they are the most objective can actually exhibit the most bias in their evaluations. When people think they are objective and unbiased then they don’t monitor and scrutinize their own behavior. They just assume that they are right and that their assessments are accurate. Yet, studies repeatedly show that stereotypes of all kinds (gender, ethnicity, age, disability etc.) are filters through which we evaluate others, often in ways that advantage dominant groups and disadvantage lower-status groups. For example, studies repeatedly find that the resumes of whites and men are evaluated more positively than are the identical resumes of minorities and women.

This dynamic is precisely why meritocracy can exacerbate inequality—because being committed to meritocratic principles makes people think that they actually are making correct evaluations and behaving fairly. Organizations that emphasize meritocratic ideals serve to reinforce an employee’s belief that they are impartial, which creates the exact conditions under which implicit and explicit biases are unleashed.
meritocracy  study  mythopsychology 
5 days ago by bdwc
Literacy Study Shows Growing Up With Books Is Good For You
All bibliophiles know that nothing beats a well-stocked home library. And, according to recent research, being surrounded by books isn’t just personally pleasing—it’s good for you, too!
book  library  reading  study 
7 days ago by kogakure
(PDF) Usability and user Authentication: Pictorial passwords vs. PIN
This paper presents the design and evaluation of the Visual Identification Protocol (VIP) an innovative solution to user authentication based on pictures and visual memory. Three authentication systems were prototyped and compared with the PIN approach in a longitudinal evaluation (N=61). The study revealed important knowledge about attitudes towards and behaviour with different authentication approaches. VIP was found to be easier to remember and preferred by users, but its usability can be easily disrupted by an inappropriate solution. A detailed error analysis is presented to help understand the limits and constraints of visual memory. This knowledge is instrumental in designing innovative authentication system.
emoji  passwords  pin  pie  study 
8 days ago by garcon
VIP: a visual approach to user authentication
This paper addresses knowledge-based authentication systems in self-service technology, presenting the design and evaluation of the Visual Identification Protocol (VIP). The basic idea behind it is to use pictures instead of numbers as a means for user authentication. Three different authentication systems based on images and visual memory were designed and compared with the traditional Personal Identification Number (PIN) approach in a longitudinal study involving 61 users. The experiment addressed performance criteria and subjective evaluation. The study and associated design exploration revealed important knowledge about users, their attitudes towards and behaviour with novel authentication approaches using images. VIP was found to provide a promising and easy- to-use alternative to the PIN. The visual code is easier to remember, preferred by users and potentially more secure than the numeric code. Results also provided guidelines to help designers make the best use of the natural power of visual memory in security solutions.
emoji  passwords  pin  pie  study 
8 days ago by garcon
Authenticating users using a combination of sound and images
Passwords and pin numbers are ubiquitous even though they are basically flawed and cause problems for users due to memory workload. There is a need for other mechanisms to be investigated. This paper explores a mechanism for web-based authentication which does not require any expensive hardware or extra software. Two evaluations were conducted using a combination of sound and images to authenticate web site users – exploiting users’ associative memory strengths. The results and findings are presented, and conclusions drawn.
emoji  passwords  pin  pie  study 
8 days ago by garcon

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