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Netflix, Microsoft, and Google just quietly changed how the web works
This week the World Wide Web Consortium, the non-profit that debates and sets the standards that make all the web’s browsers and websites compatible, held its most contentious vote in history.
intellectualproperty  standards  EME  W3C  review  critique  TheOutline  2017 
9 hours ago by inspiral
SimFactory - e-flux Architecture - e-flux
Automation is a system of control dependent on standards. The introduction of automation to the workplace has created a need to fit the human body to its rigid mechanic rhythm. From ergonomic keyboards to time management sheets and Soylent liquid foods, corporeality has been adjusted to the industrial schedule. Imaging technology has played a major role in the process of establishing a body standard by providing tools to record, scrutinize, and rationalize the human figure. Paradoxically, as special effects unlocked the entertainment industry’s wildest image-desires, the same technology rendered corporeality transparent; a 3D scanner developed by the US Air Force to measure and average its personnel for instance, was subsequently used on the set of James Cameron’s Terminator II to liquefy the shapeshifting android T-1000. Standardization might evoke a calming image of normalcy against the backdrop of the bizarre everyday, yet it provides a rationale for discrimination by defining a norm and demanding individual transparency....

With the introduction of the moving assembly line for automotive production, Henry Ford arranged human and machine within an industrial choreography geared for maximum efficiency. Each worker was assigned one manufacturing step and instructed to perform it repeatedly for the duration of their shift. ... The Gilbreth’s employed image making methods that serve as a precursor to contemporary motion capture technology. Instead of the tight bodysuits garnered with white reflective markers of today, they attached small lights to workers’ hands and took long exposure photographs of single actions that were to be repeated on assembly lines. Jagged lines left behind by the lights tracing the hand’s path would point to unnecessary or inefficient movements to be eliminated. Suddenly there was a “right way” to mount a screw, bend a wire, or grab the next piece. With the Gilbreth’s method constraining motion and industrializing the body, human movement ceased to be free. ...

Pioneered by French police officer Alphonse Bertillon in the beginning of the nineteenth century for criminal identification, anthropometry is the measurement and quantification of the human body into recordable units. Bertillon believed rigorous body data collection would yield insight into the facial features of a criminal and be useful for predictive policing as well as identifying repeat offenders. Translating the human body into numbers is used and abused as an instrument of power and control, enforcing quantitative transparency against the foreign and unknown Other; it has served to rationalize racial, genetic, and body discrimination with horrific consequences. Anthropometry is complicit in some of the worst crimes against humanity, yet it is embedded in a wide array of applications today, such as forensic science, biomechanics, anthropology, ergonomics, computer graphics, architecture, and industrial design. ...

Before omnipresent personal devices were capable of such machine vision feats, body data was recorded by governmental entities conducting population statistics. In 1988, the US Army Anthropometric Survey (ANSUR) collected data of 158 individual body coordinates from around 6,000 men and women. The aim of the study was an updated body measurement database of the US Army’s contemporary personnel “to guide the design and sizing of clothing, personal protective equipment, work stations, and computer-generated human models.”...

The Sprint ad depicts omnipresent optical surveillance, one that would eventually amass a database of body data larger than any anthropometric study possibly could. Once the body data has been collected however, how does one get to a “computer-generated human model”? Generating and animating life-like humanoids on screen faced two main challenges: how to graphically produce a human figure and how to model it according to corporeal measurements. Since the mid 1980s a team lead by Dr. Norman Badler at the University of Pennsylvania’s Centre for Human Modelling and Simulation has been working on Jack, a research project into humanoid simulation software to provide “a computer graphics surrogate human” to engineers and designers to “augment their analysis of designed environments.”...

Automation is a complex system orchestrating individual interacting parts. For it to function, it relies on consistently established norms and standardization across all components. If automation was ever to have provided freedom of work, it has instead arrested the human body in standardization.
automation  simulation  labor  embodiment  biomedia  ergonomics  standards 
2 days ago by shannon_mattern
Learn About Section 508 Requirements and Responsibilities |
Review Section 508 law and other related laws, explore the associated Section 508 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) accessibility standards, and understand their implementation in Federal Acquisition Regulation. Learn about agency roles and responsibilities under Section 508, and review what federal agencies share on Section 508 implementation.
2017  ADA  accessibility  508  Federal  standards 
2 days ago by jmello
Boring, complex and important: a recipe for the web's dire future
The Electronic Frontier Foundation has resigned from the W3C, the body responsible for governance of web standards. Cory Doctorow explains why.
standards  internet  articles  drm 
2 days ago by mikael
Netflix, Microsoft, and Google just quietly changed how the web works
The organization that sets standards for the web just failed to beat back a stupid, greedy technology.
drm  standards  internet  copyright  articles 
3 days ago by mikael

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