stackex   180

« earlier    

ellipsis - Why is the subject omitted in sentences like "Thought you'd never ask"? - English Language & Usage Stack Exchange
This is due to a phenomenon that occurs in intimate conversational spoken English called "Conversational Deletion". It was discussed and exemplified quite thoroughly in a 1974 PhD dissertation in linguistics at the University of Michigan that I had the honor of directing.

Thrasher, Randolph H. Jr. 1974. Shouldn't Ignore These Strings: A Study of Conversational Deletion, Ph.D. Dissertation, Linguistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor


"The phenomenon can be viewed as erosion of the beginning of sentences, deleting (some, but not all) articles, dummies, auxiliaries, possessives, conditional if, and [most relevantly for this discussion -jl] subject pronouns. But it only erodes up to a point, and only in some cases.

"Whatever is exposed (in sentence initial position) can be swept away. If erosion of the first element exposes another vulnerable element, this too may be eroded. The process continues until a hard (non-vulnerable) element is encountered." [ibidem p.9]
q-n-a  stackex  anglo  language  writing  speaking  linguistics  thesis 
21 days ago by nhaliday
Applications of computational learning theory in the cognitive sciences - Psychology & Neuroscience Stack Exchange
1. Gold's theorem on the unlearnability in the limit of certain sets of languages, among them context-free ones.

2. Ronald de Wolf's master's thesis on the impossibility to PAC-learn context-free languages.

The first made quiet a stir in the poverty-of-the-stimulus debate, and the second has been unnoticed by cognitive science.
q-n-a  stackex  psychology  cog-psych  learning  learning-theory  machine-learning  PAC  lower-bounds  no-go  language  linguistics  models  fall-2015 
25 days ago by nhaliday
etymology - What does "no love lost" mean and where does it come from? - English Language & Usage Stack Exchange
Searching Google books, I find that what the phrase originally meant in the 17th and 18th centuries was that "A loves B just as much as B loves A"; the amount of love is balanced, so there is no love lost. In other words, unrequited love was considered to be "lost". This could be used to say they both love each other equally, or they both hate each other equally. The idiom has now come to mean only the second possibility.


If two people love each other, then fall out (because of an argument or other reason), then there was love lost between them. But if two people don't care much for each other, then have a falling out, then there really was no love lost between them.

Interestingly, when it was originated in the 1500s, until about 1800, it could indicate either extreme love or extreme hate.
q-n-a  stackex  anglo  language  aphorism  jargon  emotion  sociality  janus  love-hate  literature  history  early-modern  quotes  roots  intricacy  britain  poetry  writing  europe  the-great-west-whale  paradox  parallax  duty  lexical 
april 2018 by nhaliday
"Really six people present": origin of phrase commonly attributed to William James - English Language & Usage Stack Exchange
Whenever two people meet, there are really six people present. There is each man as he sees himself, each man as the other person sees him, and each man as he really is.


Here's a graph of the number of references of the phrase "really six people present" Click on the first range (1800-1017) and you'll see this, which attributes this statement to Oliver Wendell Holmes. What's perhaps relevant is the reference to "John and James"--I'm guessing two placeholder names.
q-n-a  stackex  quotes  aphorism  law  big-peeps  old-anglo  illusion  truth  anthropology  psychology  cog-psych  social-psych  realness  dennett  biases  neurons  rationality  within-without  theory-of-mind  subjective-objective  forms-instances  parallax  the-self 
march 2018 by nhaliday
microeconomics - Partial vs. general equilibrium - Economics Stack Exchange
The main difference between partial and general equilibrium models is, that partial equilibrium models assume that what happens on the market one wants to analyze has no effect on other markets.
q-n-a  stackex  explanation  jargon  comparison  concept  models  economics  micro  macro  equilibrium  supply-demand  markets  methodology  competition 
november 2017 by nhaliday
parsing - lexers vs parsers - Stack Overflow
Yes, they are very different in theory, and in implementation.

Lexers are used to recognize "words" that make up language elements, because the structure of such words is generally simple. Regular expressions are extremely good at handling this simpler structure, and there are very high-performance regular-expression matching engines used to implement lexers.

Parsers are used to recognize "structure" of a language phrases. Such structure is generally far beyond what "regular expressions" can recognize, so one needs "context sensitive" parsers to extract such structure. Context-sensitive parsers are hard to build, so the engineering compromise is to use "context-free" grammars and add hacks to the parsers ("symbol tables", etc.) to handle the context-sensitive part.

Neither lexing nor parsing technology is likely to go away soon.

They may be unified by deciding to use "parsing" technology to recognize "words", as is currently explored by so-called scannerless GLR parsers. That has a runtime cost, as you are applying more general machinery to what is often a problem that doesn't need it, and usually you pay for that in overhead. Where you have lots of free cycles, that overhead may not matter. If you process a lot of text, then the overhead does matter and classical regular expression parsers will continue to be used.
q-n-a  stackex  programming  compilers  automata  explanation  comparison  jargon  strings 
november 2017 by nhaliday

« earlier    

related tags

academia  advice  afterlife  agriculture  allodium  analysis  anglo  anglosphere  anthropology  antidemos  antiquity  aphorism  apple  archaeology  arms  article  asia  authoritarianism  automata  automation  best-practices  biases  bible  big-peeps  big-picture  bio  bioinformatics  biophysical-econ  biotech  books  brands  britain  broad-econ  browser  build-packaging  c(pp)  cancer  career  cas  chart  cheatsheet  checklists  chemistry  china  christianity  civilization  cocktail  code-dive  coding-theory  cog-psych  communication  communism  community  comparison  competition  compilers  composition-decomposition  concept  conceptual-vocab  confusion  conquest-empire  cool  coordination  cost-benefit  counterfactual  crime  criminal-justice  culture  curiosity  data  database  dataviz  death  debugging  deep-materialism  degrees-of-freedom  democracy  demographics  dennett  desktop  devtools  diet  dimensionality  direct-indirect  direction  dirty-hands  discussion  disease  distribution  diy  documentation  duplication  duty  early-modern  earth  econ-productivity  economics  efficiency  electromag  elite  embodied  emotion  energy-resources  engineering  enhancement  equilibrium  eu  europe  exegesis-hermeneutics  explanans  explanation  exploratory  fall-2015  farmers-and-foragers  fermi  feudal  fiction  fighting  film  finance  fire  fluid  flux-stasis  food  foreign-lang  foreign-policy  forms-instances  forum  frontier  futurism  gavisti  gedanken  generalization  genetics  genomics  geoengineering  geography  germanic  git  google  gotchas  government  graphics  graphs  great-powers  ground-up  growth-econ  h2o  habit  heavy-industry  history  homo-hetero  housing  howto  huge-data-the-biggest  human-bean  ideas  ideology  ieee  illusion  india  industrial-revolution  inequality  info-dynamics  info-foraging  init  input-output  institutions  integration-extension  interdisciplinary  internet  intricacy  investing  iron-age  iteration-recursion  janus  japan  jargon  javascript  judaism  jvm  labor  language  latin-america  law  leadership  learning-theory  learning  let-me-see  letters  leviathan  lexical  libraries  lifestyle  linguistics  links  linux  list  literature  lived-experience  long-short-run  long-term  longevity  love-hate  low-hanging  lower-bounds  machine-learning  macro  madisonian  maker  malthus  management  maps  marginal  markets  measure  measurement  mechanics  medicine  medieval  mediterranean  mena  meta:war  metabolic  metabuch  methodology  metrics  micro  mobile  models  modernity  money  mostly-modern  multi  mutation  myth  nature  network-structure  networking  neurons  news  nibble  nihil  nitty-gritty  no-go  nuclear  objektbuch  occident  old-anglo  opsec  orders  orfe  org:junk  org:mag  org:nat  org:popup  osx  pac  paradox  parallax  parasites-microbiome  pdf  personal-finance  phase-transition  philosophy  phys-energy  physics  planning  pls  poetry  polisci  politics  poll  pop-structure  population-genetics  population  pragmatic  prediction  prepping  presentation  privacy  programming  protestant-catholic  psychology  publishing  python  q-n-a  qra  qtl  quantitative-qualitative  quixotic  quotes  random  ranking  rationality  realness  recommendations  reference  religion  retrofit  revolution  risk  robotics  robust  roots  russia  sapiens  scale  scaling-up  science  scifi-fantasy  search  security  short-circuit  signal-noise  sinosphere  sky  sleuthin  slides  social-psych  sociality  society  sociology  software  space  spatial  speaking  speculation  spreading  state  stories  strings  structure  study  studying  subjective-objective  supply-demand  syntax  systems  tactics  taxes  tech  technocracy  technology  techtariat  temperance  temperature  terminal  texas  the-classics  the-great-west-whale  the-self  the-south  the-trenches  the-world-is-just-atoms  theory-of-mind  theos  thermo  thesis  thinking  threat-modeling  time-preference  time-series  time  tip-of-tongue  tolkienesque  tools  top-n  traces  track-record  tradeoffs  trends  trivia  trust  truth  tutorial  unix  urban-rural  urban  usa  vampire-squid  vcs  visualization  volo-avolo  war  web  weird  wiki  within-without  workflow  working-stiff  world-war  world  writing  yak-shaving  🌞  🔬  🖥 

Copy this bookmark: