socjalizm   12

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Ostatni samochód kupiłem raptem 3 miesiące temu, teraz co i raz spoglądam na rynek używanych samochodów, bo co chwilę w rodzinie pojawia się pomysł zakupienia drugiego auta. Za każdym razem, gdy mam styczność ze sprzedającymi i kupującymi auta używane zastanawiam się poważnie nad stanem ducha, w jaki wpada człowiek, gdy ...
socjalizm  wozik  życie_w_Wołominie  from google
april 2010 by Mekk
The Public Goods Game
The Misconception: We could create a system with no regulations where everyone will contribute to the good of society, everyone will benefit, and everyone will be happy.

The Truth: Without some form of regulation, slackers and cheaters will crash economic systems because people don’t want to feel like suckers.

Before you hear about the public goods game, you need to understand the tragedy of the commons – an argument which suggests you aren’t very good at sharing.

Imagine a giant lake filled with fish. You and three others are the only people who know about it. You all agree to take just as many fish from the lake as you need to eat.

One day, you happen to notice one of the others has started taking more than they need and is selling the extra fish. Eventually they have a better fishing rod than you.

What do you do? If you start overfishing too, you will also be able to get a better rod, maybe even a boat. Maybe you could partner up against the cheater. Maybe everyone will just start taking as many fish as they want. Maybe you could just tell the world about the lake. All of these scenarios will probably lead to the ruin of the common good.

If you do nothing, the lake will still be able to support you and the other two, but the cheater wins.

Unfortunately, research into human behavior shows you are not so smart when it comes to contributing to the public good.

The public goods game works like this:

A group of people sit around a table and are given a few dollars. They are told they can put as much money as they want in the community pot. The pot is doubled, and everyone then gets an equal portion back.

If it’s 10 people and everyone gets $2, and everyone puts in their money, the pot would be $20. It gets doubled to $40 and divided by 10. Everyone gets back $4.

The game proceeds in rounds, and you would think everyone would just put the maximum amount in the pot each time – but they don’t.

Someone usually gets the gist of the game and realizes they can put in very little, or nothing at all, and they will start making more money than everyone else.

If  everyone but you puts in $2, the pot would be $18. Everyone gets back $3.60 – including you, the one who put nothing in at all.

If this game is played so everyone can see who puts in their fair share, then the pot tends to grow for while, and then it starts to shrink as people test the water by withholding funds. The behavior spreads, because no one wants to be a chump, and eventually the economy grinds to a halt.

But, if people are allowed the choice of punishing another player, often by keeping the cheater from getting paid by sacrificing their own earning for round, the cheating stops, and everyone wins.

If instead of punishment, people are given the choice to reward good players, the economy will again crash after a few rounds.

The crazy thing about this game is how illogical it is to stop contributing just because someone in the group is free riding. If everyone else is still being a good citizen of the game, everyone will still win.

But you are not so smart, and it only takes one cheater to make the economy sputter out. You would rather lose than help someone who isn’t helping you.

Yes, a free market based on supply, demand and no friction would be the ideal if we were truly rational. Yet when we are not rational but irrational, policies should take this important factor into account.

- Dan Ariely, “Predictably Irrational”

This game is supposed to illustrate how regulation is necessary to keep any sort of non-profit public good alive. Street lights would never get put along dark roads and bridges would collapse if people weren’t forced to pay taxes.

The tragedy of the commons makes a case for private property in order to encourage you to take care of your piece of the world, but not everyone is going to buy a fuel-efficient car and recycle plastic. Why should you?

The public goods game suggests regulation through punishment discourages slackers.

It isn’t you don’t want to help, you just don’t want to help a cheater, or do more work than a slacker, even if it leads to ruining the game for you and everyone else.



Link: Game Inventor’s Web Site

Link: Game Theory
Economics  Game_Theory  Social_Psychology  capitalism  communism  libertarian  marxism  nash_equilibrium  public_goods_game  socialism  tragedy_of_the_commons  common-good  dobro-wspólne  socjalizm  psychology  from google
october 2009 by Mekk

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