social_psychology   273

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Changing climates of conflict: A social network experiment in 56 schools | PNAS
Theories of human behavior suggest that individuals attend to the behavior of certain people in their community to understand what is socially normative and adjust their own behavior in response. An experiment tested these theories by randomizing an anticonflict intervention across 56 schools with 24,191 students. After comprehensively measuring every school’s social network, randomly selected seed groups of 20–32 students from randomly selected schools were assigned to an intervention that encouraged their public stance against conflict at school. Compared with control schools, disciplinary reports of student conflict at treatment schools were reduced by 30% over 1 year. The effect was stronger when the seed group contained more “social referent” students who, as network measures reveal, attract more student attention. Network analyses of peer-to-peer influence show that social referents spread perceptions of conflict as less socially normative.
social_influence  social_networks  social_psychology  norms  intervention  causal_inference 
august 2018 by rvenkat
Wrongology 101 | Otium
> Puzhong is noticing that American elite businesspeople appear to be colluding rather than competing. They’re not racing each other for profits, they’re signaling that they’re cozy insiders who will play nice and share the spoils with others who know the right buzzwords. Cartel behavior, in other words.
sarah_constantin  mba  social_psychology  lies 
april 2018 by porejide
Investigator Characteristics and Respondent Behavior in Online Surveys | Journal of Experimental Political Science | Cambridge Core
Prior research demonstrates that responses to surveys can vary depending on the race, gender, or ethnicity of the investigator asking the question. We build upon this research by empirically testing how information about researcher identity in online surveys affects subject responses. We do so by conducting an experiment on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk in which we vary the name of the researcher in the advertisement for the experiment and on the informed consent page in order to cue different racial and gender identities. We fail to reject the null hypothesis that there is no difference in how respondents answer questions when assigned to a putatively black/white or male/female researcher.
online_experiments  amazon_turk  survey  race  gender  bias  sociology_of_science  social_psychology  via:nyhan 
march 2018 by rvenkat
Why French Kids Don't Have ADHD | Psychology Today
In the United States, at least 9 percent of school-aged children have been diagnosed with ADHD, and are taking pharmaceutical medications. In France, the percentage of kids diagnosed and medicated for ADHD is less than .5 percent. How has the epidemic of ADHD—firmly established in the U.S.—almost completely passed over children in France?

-- where did they get this number from?
-- also interesting is the fact that France has its version of DSM
-- The rest of the article is pretty preachy and redundant
social_psychology  DSM  comparative  evolutionary_psychology  ?  via:?  track_down_references 
march 2018 by rvenkat
Explaining Preferences from Behavior: A Cognitive Dissonance Approach | The Journal of Politics: Ahead of Print
The standard approach in positive political theory posits that action choices are the consequences of preferences. Social psychology—in particular, cognitive dissonance theory—suggests the opposite: preferences may themselves be affected by action choices. We present a framework that applies this idea to three models of political choice: (1) one in which partisanship emerges naturally in a two-party system despite policy being multidimensional, (2) one in which interactions with people who express different views can lead to empathetic changes in political positions, and (3) one in which ethnic or racial hostility increases after acts of violence. These examples demonstrate how incorporating the insights of social psychology can expand the scope of formalization in political science.

--It is still only a model. Yes, one that systematically corrects and improves on rational choice models but some studies testing their claims would be nice.
political_psychology  social_psychology  behavioral_economics  rational_choice  critique  maya.sen  via:nyhan 
march 2018 by rvenkat
When the Revolution Came for Amy Cuddy - The New York Times
Morals under the "to teach" tag:
1. Don't do science like this.
2. Don't be a jerk when criticizing others for doing bad science.
(I realize that I am one to talk about #2.)
have_read  social_science_methodology  social_psychology  psychology  replication_crisis  gelman.andrew  popular_social_science  data_analysis  to_teach:undergrad-research 
january 2018 by cshalizi
Collision with Reality: What Depth Psychology Can Tell us About Victimhood Culture - Quillette
-- I would prefer avoiding Jungian psychology and rephrase it differently. Material affluence affords us *more* agency than in the past. So, to give up on the idea of having agency and attribute all agency to the environment is wrong and harmful. The debate is about whether one can definitely claim that individual affordance in present day is more that it ever was. While what if as *critical* scholars say, there was *epistemic injustice* and their oppression was not even known or acknowledged in the past or in the present.
At the end of the day, it is probably about the efficacy of using political concepts in apolitical settings but it is tough if one starts with *everything is political* approach to everything.
cultural_market  cultural_psychology  moral_psychology  social_psychology  contemporary_culture  critique  via:sommers 
december 2017 by rvenkat
Why men sexually harass women - The Washington Post
-- So it has begun... genre of science journalism dedicated to the topic

-- propensity for sexual harassment test will become mandatory soon
social_behavior  gender  discrimination  violence  feminism  social_psychology  pop_science  bullshit  WaPo  dmce  teaching 
december 2017 by rvenkat
The reliability paradox: Why robust cognitive tasks do not produce reliable individual differences | SpringerLink
Individual differences in cognitive paradigms are increasingly employed to relate cognition to brain structure, chemistry, and function. However, such efforts are often unfruitful, even with the most well established tasks. Here we offer an explanation for failures in the application of robust cognitive paradigms to the study of individual differences. Experimental effects become well established – and thus those tasks become popular – when between-subject variability is low. However, low between-subject variability causes low reliability for individual differences, destroying replicable correlations with other factors and potentially undermining published conclusions drawn from correlational relationships. Though these statistical issues have a long history in psychology, they are widely overlooked in cognitive psychology and neuroscience today. In three studies, we assessed test-retest reliability of seven classic tasks: Eriksen Flanker, Stroop, stop-signal, go/no-go, Posner cueing, Navon, and Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Code (SNARC). Reliabilities ranged from 0 to .82, being surprisingly low for most tasks given their common use. As we predicted, this emerged from low variance between individuals rather than high measurement variance. In other words, the very reason such tasks produce robust and easily replicable experimental effects – low between-participant variability – makes their use as correlational tools problematic. We demonstrate that taking such reliability estimates into account has the potential to qualitatively change theoretical conclusions. The implications of our findings are that well-established approaches in experimental psychology and neuropsychology may not directly translate to the study of individual differences in brain structure, chemistry, and function, and alternative metrics may be required.
psychology  cognitive_science  measurement  social_psychology  critique  via:? 
december 2017 by rvenkat
Psychological targeting as an effective approach to digital mass persuasion
People are exposed to persuasive communication across many different contexts: Governments, companies, and political parties use persuasive appeals to encourage people to eat healthier, purchase a particular product, or vote for a specific candidate. Laboratory studies show that such persuasive appeals are more effective in influencing behavior when they are tailored to individuals’ unique psychological characteristics. However, the investigation of large-scale psychological persuasion in the real world has been hindered by the questionnaire-based nature of psychological assessment. Recent research, however, shows that people’s psychological characteristics can be accurately predicted from their digital footprints, such as their Facebook Likes or Tweets. Capitalizing on this form of psychological assessment from digital footprints, we test the effects of psychological persuasion on people’s actual behavior in an ecologically valid setting. In three field experiments that reached over 3.5 million individuals with psychologically tailored advertising, we find that matching the content of persuasive appeals to individuals’ psychological characteristics significantly altered their behavior as measured by clicks and purchases. Persuasive appeals that were matched to people’s extraversion or openness-to-experience level resulted in up to 40% more clicks and up to 50% more purchases than their mismatching or unpersonalized counterparts. Our findings suggest that the application of psychological targeting makes it possible to influence the behavior of large groups of people by tailoring persuasive appeals to the psychological needs of the target audiences. We discuss both the potential benefits of this method for helping individuals make better decisions and the potential pitfalls related to manipulation and privacy.

--meta-studies of political canvasing and prejudice reduction all suggest otherwise; so has replications of priming studies. Unless there are other mechanisms at work, these results seem untrustworthy.
big_five  intervention  social_media  influence  social_psychology  i_remain_skeptical  via:nyhan 
november 2017 by rvenkat
Misinformation and Mass Audiences Edited by Brian G. Southwell, Emily A. Thorson, and Laura Sheble
Lies and inaccurate information are as old as humanity, but never before have they been so easy to spread. Each moment of every day, the Internet and broadcast media purvey misinformation, either deliberately or accidentally, to a mass audience on subjects ranging from politics to consumer goods to science and medicine, among many others. Because misinformation now has the potential to affect behavior on a massive scale, it is urgently important to understand how it works and what can be done to mitigate its harmful effects.

Misinformation and Mass Audiences brings together evidence and ideas from communication research, public health, psychology, political science, environmental studies, and information science to investigate what constitutes misinformation, how it spreads, and how best to counter it. The expert contributors cover such topics as whether and to what extent audiences consciously notice misinformation, the possibilities for audience deception, the ethics of satire in journalism and public affairs programming, the diffusion of rumors, the role of Internet search behavior, and the evolving efforts to counteract misinformation, such as fact-checking programs. The first comprehensive social science volume exploring the prevalence and consequences of, and remedies for, misinformation as a mass communication phenomenon, Misinformation and Mass Audiences will be a crucial resource for students and faculty researching misinformation, policymakers grappling with questions of regulation and prevention, and anyone concerned about this troubling, yet perhaps unavoidable, dimension of current media systems.
book  misinformation  disinformation  media_studies  public_sphere  contagion  social_psychology  journalism  dmce  networks  teaching 
november 2017 by rvenkat
Now out of Never: The Element of Surprise in the East European Revolution of 1989 | World Politics | Cambridge Core
Like many major revolutions in history, the East European Revolution of 1989 caught its leaders, participants, victims, and observers by surprise. This paper offers an explanation whose crucial feature is a distinction between private and public preferences. By suppressing their antipathies to the political status quo, the East Europeans misled everyone, including themselves, as to the possibility of a successful uprising. In effect, they conferred on their privately despised governments an aura of invincibility. Under the circumstances, public opposition was poised to grow explosively if ever enough people lost their fear of exposing their private preferences. The currently popular theories of revolution do not make clear why uprisings easily explained in retrospect may not have been anticipated. The theory developed here fills this void. Among its predictions is that political revolutions will inevitably continue to catch the world by surprise.
european_politics  revolutions  20th_century  social_behavior  contagion  homophily  ?  social_psychology  institutions  norms  collective_dynamics  judgment_decision-making  dmce  teaching  timur.kuran 
october 2017 by rvenkat

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