social-norms   576

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Enlightenments beyond the Enlightenment – Vividness
I care mostly about that last one. American Buddhism is at a turning point, and I want the people steering it to take what Gleig has to say seriously. This post is about why.

Because I’m extremely self-centered, I’ll also explain how her work relates to what I was trying to do with Vividness, and how it may influence what I may do with it later.
Buddhism  to-read  cultural-dynamics  social-norms 
27 days ago by Vaguery
Replacing hindsight with insight: toward better understanding of diagnostic failures. - Semantic Scholar
Reviews of malpractice claims have a morbid attraction that is similar to gazing at crash scenes. Both provide the observer with a vicarious, cathartic experience. These stories of tragedy, defeat, and loss seem almost as popular in general medicine and emergency medicine as tragedy was in Sophocles’s Athens. The reasons for their popularity are the same now as they were then. They support a perception of control that has important psychological, social, and political benefits by making a complex, chaotic, and irreducibly uncertain world appear to be simpler and more linear. Closed-claim reviews typically find fault with the thinking or behavior of individual physicians: they failed to order the right test, failed to do a “complete” physical examination, and so on. These assessments conveniently skirt the identification of other causes that have higher stakes. For example, finding flaws in the design of equipment or processes would lead to expensive and embarrassing shutdowns or retooling. Finding management failures would threaten those in charge. But finding that 1 or more workers had a “cognitive breakdown” preserves the status quo and provides a convenient, default conclusion when no other explanation is immediately apparent (or desired). It also allows follow-up actions to be limited to “. . . soporific injunctions about better training.” In this issue of Annals, Kachalia et al present a closed claim review of ED cases in which problems in diagnosis were thought to play a role in the adverse outcomes. Diagnostic failures have not received much attention in discussions of patient safety. This is strange, considering that they are said to be the second most common cause of adverse events and malpractice claims. Strange but understandable, though, because understanding diagnosis-related failures is difficult and progress in this area has been slow. Two reasons it has been slow are reliance on impoverished problem worlds and unrealistic models of human performance, and ignorance of the effects of hindsight bias. LESS
learning-in-public  communication  academic-publishing  pedagogy  what-a-paper-does  social-norms  negative-results  to-write-about  via:twitter 
7 weeks ago by Vaguery
The Internet’s Hidden Rules: An Empirical Study of Reddit Norm Violations at Micro, Meso, and Macro Scales
Norms are central to how online communities are governed. Yet, norms are also emergent, arise from interaction,
and can vary significantly between communities—making them challenging to study at scale. In this paper,
we study community norms on Reddit in a large-scale, empirical manner. Via 2.8M comments removed by
moderators of 100 top subreddits over 10 months, we use both computational and qualitative methods to
identify three types of norms: macro norms that are universal to most parts of Reddit; meso norms that
are shared across certain groups of subreddits; and micro norms that are specific to individual, relatively
unique subreddits. Given the size of Reddit’s user base—and the wide range of topics covered by different
subreddits—we argue this represents the first large-scale study of norms across disparate online communities.
In other words, these findings shed light on what Reddit values, and how widely-held those values are.
We conclude by discussing implications for the design of new and existing online communities.
sociology  reddit  machine-learning  moderation  social-norms 
10 weeks ago by grahammitchell
[1703.00045] Aggregated knowledge from a small number of debates outperforms the wisdom of large crowds
The aggregation of many independent estimates can outperform the most accurate individual judgment. This centenarian finding, popularly known as the wisdom of crowds, has been applied to problems ranging from the diagnosis of cancer to financial forecasting. It is widely believed that social influence undermines collective wisdom by reducing the diversity of opinions within the crowd. Here, we show that if a large crowd is structured in small independent groups, deliberation and social influence within groups improve the crowd's collective accuracy. We asked a live crowd (N=5180) to respond to general-knowledge questions (e.g., what is the height of the Eiffel Tower?). Participants first answered individually, then deliberated and made consensus decisions in groups of five, and finally provided revised individual estimates. We found that averaging consensus decisions was substantially more accurate than aggregating the initial independent opinions. Remarkably, combining as few as four consensus choices outperformed the wisdom of thousands of individuals.
collective-intelligence  wisdom-of-crowds  decision-making  aggregation  algorithms  to-write-about  metaheuristics  social-norms  social-engineering 
11 weeks ago by Vaguery
How blind reverence for science obscures real problems
In actual fact, “social justice” jargon wasn’t enough — as the hoaxers initially thought — to deceive, but sprinkling in fake data did the trick better than jargon or political pieties ever could. Like Ocasio-Cortez’s critics, who trust too easily in the appearance of scientific objectivity, the hoaxed journals were more likely to buy outrageous claims if they were backed by something that looked like scientific data. It’s not that the hoax was an utter failure, nor that we shouldn’t worry about the vulnerabilities it exposed. It’s that, ironically, scientism and misplaced scientific authority actually contribute to those vulnerabilities and undermine science in the process.
scientism  argumentation  politics  fascism  conservatism  social-norms  cultural-assumptions 
12 weeks ago by Vaguery
Archive of Hate: Ethics of Care in the Preservation of Ugly Histories — Lady Science
Perhaps the collection would only be accessed by using a public library computer or logging in with institutional credentials. Perhaps users would be required to register and electronically sign use policies. Perhaps content warnings would help users to determine if they want to proceed with viewing potentially traumatic materials. Without working closely with people of color, we don’t yet know what a caring digital platform looks like in the case of KKK newspapers, or even if one is possible.

As it stands now, however, the Hate in America collection fails to enact an ethic of care, so we call upon our readers to raise their voices to Reveal Digital. The online collection will not be made openly available until a funding threshold is reached, anticipated in 2019. Researchers and librarians, you can advocate for change to the access model before the collection becomes public. Libraries, you can withdraw or withhold commitment until Reveal Digital leaders engage librarians of color, race scholars, and anti-racist activists in dialogue about how to balance access and care.
digitization  hate-speech  history  archives  social-norms  social-responsibility  cultural-assumptions 
january 2019 by Vaguery
Unemployed Negativity: Its Competition All the Way Down: On the Spontaneous Anthropology of Contemporary Capitalism
The cooperative dimension of our social life is constantly faced with its own disappearance. It is eclipsed by the ideologies that tell us that we live brutal lives of competition and self interest, and by the technologies that make it so. Social media has made friendship itself quantitative and competitive. However, it does not totally go away, and it cannot. As Peter Fleming has argued, it is precisely this incalculable sociality that is at the basis of contemporary work. Social relations not only sustain the workplace, as our attempts to assist and amuse each other do more for morale than any imposed "team building workshop," but also outside of it as well, networks of care from carpooling to grandparents babysitting kids make possible the world of isolated and competitive workers. Every squeeze, every reduction of wages or increase in working times, may be addressed to us as competitive individuals, compelling us to increase our competitive leverage, but it material affects us as parts of networks of relations that exceed it. Every cut to social services, every reduction in wages, is very often absorbed by increased pressure on relations of cooperation that are invisible to a society that tells itself it functions in and through cooperation. Cooperation functions as the concealed support and buttress for an ideology of competition.

It is not a matter of not only refusing to believe in competition, but to turn the networks of pollination into something other than support for our continued exploitation.  Viewed from the outside and fairly superficially, the "gilet jaunes" in France would seem to be an example of what can happen when social relations contest capital rather than simply absorb its costs. It is necessary to go from worker bees to a swarm.
political-economy  metaphors-on-the-run  social-norms  collaboration  competition  to-write-about 
december 2018 by Vaguery
Democracy as an information system — Crooked Timber
Democracy is an information system.

That’s the starting place of our new paper: “Common-Knowledge Attacks on Democracy.” In it, we look at democracy through the lens of information security, trying to understand the current waves of Internet disinformation attacks. Specifically, we wanted to explain why the same disinformation campaigns that act as a stabilizing influence in Russia are destabilizing in the United States.

The answer revolves around the different ways autocracies and democracies work as information systems. We start by differentiating between two types of knowledge that societies use in their political systems. The first is common political knowledge, which is the body of information that people in a society broadly agree on. People agree on who the rulers are and what their claim to legitimacy is. People agree broadly on how their government works, even if they don’t like it. In a democracy, people agree about how elections work: how districts are created and defined, how candidates are chosen, and that their votes count­—even if only roughly and imperfectly.
social-norms  democracy  cultural-dynamics  propaganda  public-policy  political-economy  rather-interesting  epidemiology  feature-construction  discriminators  fascism  signaling 
december 2018 by Vaguery
No, it’s not The Incentives—it’s you – [citation needed]
A random bystander who happened to eavesdrop on a conversation between a group of scientists kvetching about The Incentives could be forgiven for thinking that maybe, just maybe, a bunch of very industrious people who generally pride themselves on their creativity, persistence, and intelligence could find some way to work around, or through, the problem. And I think they would be right. The fact that we collectively don’t see it as a colossal moral failing that we haven’t figured out a way to get our work done without having to routinely cut corners in the rush for fame and fortune is deeply troubling.

It’s also aggravating on an intellectual level, because the argument that we’re all being egregiously and continuously screwed over by The Incentives is just not that good. I think there are a lot of reasons why researchers should be very hesitant to invoke The Incentives as a justification for why any of us behave the way we do. I’ll give nine of them here, but I imagine there are probably others.
academic-culture  publishing  social-dynamics  social-norms  conservatism  attention-desert  ethics 
december 2018 by Vaguery
The evolution of antisocial punishment in optional public goods games | Nature Communications
It's possible to accidentally evolve norms which are detrimental to large efficient societies.

---

Cooperation, where one individual incurs a cost to help another, is a fundamental building block of the natural world and human society. It has been suggested that costly punishment can promote the evolution of cooperation, with the threat of punishment deterring free-riders. Recent experiments, however, have revealed the existence of 'antisocial' punishment, where non-cooperators punish cooperators. While various theoretical models find that punishment can promote the evolution of cooperation, these models a priori exclude the possibility of antisocial punishment. Here we extend the standard theory of optional public goods games to include the full set of punishment strategies. We find that punishment no longer increases cooperation, and that selection favours substantial levels of antisocial punishment for a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we conduct behavioural experiments, showing results consistent with our model predictions. As opposed to an altruistic act that promotes cooperation, punishment is mostly a self-interested tool for protecting oneself against potential competitors.
social-norms  secret-of-our-success 
december 2018 by num1
3 tools from sociocracy to use right away (plus magic phrases!)
Of course I myself am ego-driven and I have a ton of good ideas! But I also know that it only takes one person in the circle engaging in cross-talk and the good effects of rounds are lost. What do I do with all my brilliant ideas? I write them on a piece of paper. When it is my turn, I will often look at my piece of paper and realize that, after a few minutes of listening to others, about 90% of my ideas have either been named or, on second thought, they don’t seem all that great or urgent anymore. Humbled, I am often grateful for having been forced to weed through what I say. And when people pass on their turn saying “All I wanted to say has been said” I feel the urge to get up and hug them in gratitude for not putting the group through endless repetitions. Which also answers the last reservation I hear very often: aren’t rounds lenghty? Maybe. But both inconsiderate decisions, repetitive statements and emotional “clean-up” after disregard of team members takes a lot of time too. Your choice!
social-dynamics  social-norms  collaboration  organizational-behavior  teams  rather-interesting  to-write-about 
november 2018 by Vaguery
PsyArXiv Preprints | The rich are different: Unraveling the perceived and self-reported personality profiles of high net-worth individuals
Beyond money and possessions, how are the rich different from the general population? Drawing on a unique sample of high net-worth individuals from Germany (≥1 million Euro in financial assets; N = 130), nationally representative data (N = 22,981), and an additional online panel (N = 690), we provide the first direct investigation of the stereotypically-perceived and self-reported personality profiles of high net-worth individuals. Investigating the broad personality traits of the Big Five and the more specific traits of narcissism and locus of control, we find that stereotypes about wealthy people’s personality are accurate albeit somewhat exaggerated and that wealthy people can be characterized as stable, flexible, and agentic individuals who are focused more on themselves than on others.
psychology  wealth  capitalism  social-norms  cultural-norms  social-psychology  stereotypes  yup 
november 2018 by Vaguery
The Pinball Problem – Daniel Reynolds – Refractory: a Journal of Entertainment Media
In the forms that play and games have taken over time, from games of “imagination” to formalized sports to more materially mediated forms of gameplay such as boardgames, pinball, and video games, there has been an historical fluctuation in cultural consideration and engagement. Bagatelle, the predecessor to pinball, enjoyed massive popularity among the French aristocracy and subsequently the general populace of that country in the late 18th century. Video games are currently ascendant as a medium for gameplay, and their cultural acceptability as an adult activity has steadily increased in recent decades. Sports were of immense philosophical importance to the ancient Greeks; they have never since enjoyed the same high-cultural esteem, though they have rarely been regarded as wholly trivial, and they enjoy a special cultural status among games in many modern societis. There have been some notable exceptions, however. In 1457, golf was banned in Scotland, ostensibly because it was interfering with the more useful pursuit of archery. In 1491, according to the eleventh edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, the ban was extended to encompass “fute-ball, golfe, or uther sik unprofitibill sportis.” Profitability, it seems, has always come into consideration in the assessment of games; their less visible benefits tend to be ignored when legislation is involved.
social-norms  games  nanohistory  rather-interesting  the-ludic-in-law  to-write-about 
september 2018 by Vaguery
[1808.05875] Co-evolution of nodes and links: diversity driven coexistence in cyclic competition of three species
When three species compete cyclically in a well-mixed, stochastic system of N individuals, extinction is known to typically occur at times scaling as the system size N. This happens, for example, in rock-paper-scissors games or conserved Lotka-Volterra models in which every pair of individuals can interact on a complete graph. Here we show that if the competing individuals also have a "social temperament" to be either introverted or extroverted, leading them to cut or add links respectively, then long-living state in which all species coexist can occur when both introverts and extroverts are present. These states are non-equilibrium quasi-steady states, maintained by a subtle balance between species competition and network dynamcis. Remarkably, much of the phenomena is embodied in a mean-field description. However, an intuitive understanding of why diversity stabilizes the co-evolving node and link dynamics remains an open issue.
coevolution  theoretical-biology  rather-interesting  population-biology  social-norms  to-write-about  to-simulate  artificial-life  it's-more-complicated-than-you-think  complexology  agent-based 
august 2018 by Vaguery
Roman naming conventions - Wikipedia
The distinguishing feature of Roman nomenclature was the use of both personal names and regular surnames. Throughout Europe and the Mediterranean, other ancient civilizations distinguished individuals through the use of single personal names, usually dithematic in nature. Consisting of two distinct elements, or "themes", these names allowed for hundreds or even thousands of possible combinations. But a markedly different system of nomenclature arose in Italy, where the personal name was joined by a hereditary surname. Over time, this binomial system expanded to include additional names and designations.[1][2]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gens
In ancient Rome, a gens (/ˈɡɛns/ or /ˈdʒɛnz/), plural gentes, was a family consisting of all those individuals who shared the same nomen and claimed descent from a common ancestor. A branch of a gens was called a stirps (plural stirpes). The gens was an important social structure at Rome and throughout Italy during the period of the Roman Republic. Much of an individual's social standing depended on the gens to which he belonged. Certain gentes were considered patrician, others plebeian, while some had both patrician and plebeian branches. The importance of membership in a gens declined considerably in imperial times.[1][2]

...

The word gens is sometimes translated as "race" or "nation", meaning a people descended from a common ancestor (rather than sharing a common physical trait). It can also be translated as "clan" or "tribe", although the word tribus has a separate and distinct meaning in Roman culture. A gens could be as small as a single family, or could include hundreds of individuals. According to tradition, in 479 BC the gens Fabia alone were able to field a militia consisting of three hundred and six men of fighting age. The concept of the gens was not uniquely Roman, but was shared with communities throughout Italy, including those who spoke Italic languages such as Latin, Oscan, and Umbrian as well as the Etruscans. All of these peoples were eventually absorbed into the sphere of Roman culture.[1][2][3][4]

...

Persons could be adopted into a gens and acquire its nomen. A libertus, or "freedman", usually assumed the nomen (and sometimes also the praenomen) of the person who had manumitted him, and a naturalized citizen usually took the name of the patron who granted his citizenship. Freedmen and newly enfranchised citizens were not technically part of the gentes whose names they shared, but within a few generations it often became impossible to distinguish their descendants from the original members. In practice this meant that a gens could acquire new members and even new branches, either by design or by accident.[1][2][7]

Ancient Greek personal names: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greek_personal_names
Ancient Greeks usually had one name, but another element was often added in semi-official contexts or to aid identification: a father’s name (patronym) in the genitive case, or in some regions as an adjectival formulation. A third element might be added, indicating the individual’s membership in a particular kinship or other grouping, or city of origin (when the person in question was away from that city). Thus the orator Demosthenes, while proposing decrees in the Athenian assembly, was known as "Demosthenes, son of Demosthenes of Paiania"; Paiania was the deme or regional sub-unit of Attica to which he belonged by birth. If Americans used that system, Abraham Lincoln would have been called "Abraham, son of Thomas of Kentucky" (where he was born). In some rare occasions, if a person was illegitimate or fathered by a non-citizen, they might use their mother's name (metronym) instead of their father's. Ten days after a birth, relatives on both sides were invited to a sacrifice and feast called dekátē (δεκάτη), 'tenth day'; on this occasion the father formally named the child.[3]

...

In many contexts, etiquette required that respectable women be spoken of as the wife or daughter of X rather than by their own names.[6] On gravestones or dedications, however, they had to be identified by name. Here, the patronymic formula "son of X" used for men might be replaced by "wife of X", or supplemented as "daughter of X, wife of Y".

Many women bore forms of standard masculine names, with a feminine ending substituted for the masculine. Many standard names related to specific masculine achievements had a common feminine equivalent; the counterpart of Nikomachos, "victorious in battle", would be Nikomachē. The taste mentioned above for giving family members related names was one motive for the creation of such feminine forms. There were also feminine names with no masculine equivalent, such as Glykera "sweet one"; Hedistē "most delightful".
wiki  history  iron-age  mediterranean  the-classics  conquest-empire  culture  language  foreign-lang  social-norms  kinship  class  legacy  democracy  status  multi  gender  syntax 
august 2018 by nhaliday
Sturgeon’s Biases – Quietstars – Medium
Some smart social psychologist, anthropologist or sociologist probably wrote about this seventy years ago. So I’m just going to ramble about it here for a bit, and hope that somebody smarter than I am can point me to that paper. So I know what to call it.
communities-of-practice  cultural-assumptions  cultural-norms  essay  social-norms  rather-interesting 
april 2018 by Vaguery
SocArXiv Papers | Exposure to Opposing Views can Increase Political Polarization: Evidence from a Large-Scale Field Experiment on Social Media
There is mounting concern that social media sites contribute to political polarization by creating ``echo chambers" that insulate people from opposing views about current events. We surveyed a large sample of Democrats and Republicans who visit Twitter at least three times each week about a range of social policy issues. One week later, we randomly assigned respondents to a treatment condition in which they were offered financial incentives to follow a Twitter bot for one month that exposed them to messages produced by elected officials, organizations, and other opinion leaders with opposing political ideologies. Respondents were re-surveyed at the end of the month to measure the effect of this treatment, and at regular intervals throughout the study period to monitor treatment compliance. We find that Republicans who followed a liberal Twitter bot became substantially more conservative post-treatment, and Democrats who followed a conservative Twitter bot became slightly more liberal post-treatment. These findings have important implications for the interdisciplinary literature on political polarization as well as the emerging field of computational social science.
sociology  the-madness-of-crowds  polarization  social-norms  social-media  opinion  le-sigh 
april 2018 by Vaguery

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