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Dilution of whisky – the molecular perspective | Scientific Reports
Whisky is a spirit that is produced in an extended process consisting of distillation of fermented grains, ageing and dilution. It is through this process that the distinctive taste of whisky develops. Distilled malt whiskies typically contain around 70% alcohol by volume (vol-%) before it is aged in barrels for at least three years. Some alcohol evaporates during the maturation resulting in an alcohol content of 55–65 vol-% of cask-strength whisky. Before bottling, the whisky is diluted to around 40 vol-% by the addition of water1, which changes the taste significantly. Whisky enthusiasts often also add a few drops of water to the spirit before drinking in order to further enhance the taste. Apart from water and alcohols, whiskies contain different organic compounds that contribute to their taste2. Many whiskies, especially those that are made on the Scottish island of Isley, have a typical smoky taste that develops when malted barley is smoked on peat fire. Chemically, the smoky flavour is attributed to phenols, and in particular guaiacol, which is much more common in Scottish whiskies than in American or Irish ones3, 4. Guaiacol is a small and mostly hydrophobic molecule that is able to interact with polar solvents via hydrogen-bonding and polar-aromatic interactions. Higher concentrations of guaiacol have been found in Scottish whiskies than in American and Irish ones. The concentration of guaiacol was found by GC/MS to be 3.7–4.1 mg L−1, or about 3.2·10−5 M in two undisclosed Scottish whiskies5. It is likely that the concentration of guaiacol in Isley whiskies is even higher. Yet, how diluting whisky with water affects its taste is not clear.
chemistry  food  science  research  interesting 
13 hours ago by rmohns
Plastic-Eating Worms Could Inspire Waste-Degrading Tools - Scientific American
Humans produce more than 300 million metric tons of plastic every year. Almost half of that winds up in landfills, and up to 12 million metric tons pollute the oceans.
research 
14 hours ago by dougleigh
Beauty standards are literally toxic for women of color | Popular Science
Women of color have higher levels of cosmetic-related chemicals in their bodies compared to white women.
research 
14 hours ago by dougleigh
Parenting Opinions Cause Rifts Between New Moms & Dads, Study Finds
STATE COLLEGE, Pa. — New parents are prone to disagreement and disappointment in their newfound capacity, particularly when a new mom holds stronger opinions about a parenting practice than a dad, a new study finds.
research 
14 hours ago by dougleigh
A New Look at How Autism Affects Girls -- Science of Us
“What’s next?” I said to my 4-year-old daughter, pointing to an image of a girl holding a toothbrush. We have a visual schedule printed out for her bedtime routine — seeing an image of each step, we’ve found, makes it easier for her to remember what to do next.
research 
14 hours ago by dougleigh
A study finding a huge increase in alcoholism may have been seriously flawed - Vox
Last week, multiple media outlets, including the Washington Post, Bloomberg, and, yes, Vox, reported on a study in JAMA Psychiatry that had an alarming finding: The rate of alcohol use disorder (alcoholism) in the US increased by more than 49 percent from 2001-’02 and 2012-’13.
research 
14 hours ago by dougleigh
Researchers develop bioreactor for microalgae production
Researchers from Washington State University and the National University of Colombia developed a bioreactor that can produce microalgae in about four days, uses less water and low light, and offers a high oil yield, according to a study in the journal Algal Research.
research 
15 hours ago by dougleigh
Physicists measure complementary properties using quantum clones
Schematic of the experimental setup, in which complementary properties x and y are jointly measured. Credit: Thekkadath et al. ©2017 American Physical Society(Phys.
research 
15 hours ago by dougleigh
JMIR-The Effect of Integration of Self-Management Web Platforms on Health Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management in Primary Care (e-Vita Study): Interrupted Time Series Design | Talboom-Kamp | Journal of Medical Internet Research
Background: Worldwide nearly 3 million people die from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) every year. Integrated disease management (IDM) improves quality of life for COPD patients and can reduce hospitalization.
research 
15 hours ago by dougleigh
Scratch 'n sniff test could track Alzheimer's - Futurity
Simple odor identification tests may help track the progression of Alzheimer’s disease before symptoms actually appear, particularly among those at risk.
research 
16 hours ago by dougleigh
Research Blog: Making Visible Watermarks More Effective
Visible watermarks are often designed to contain complex structures such as thin lines and shadows in order to make them harder to remove. (via Pocket at August 17, 2017 at 03:09PM )
google  research  blog  ifttt  from_pocket 
16 hours ago by amaral
Scientists give star treatment to lesser-known cells crucial for brain development | National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Researchers investigate star-shaped brain cells: NIH-funded researchers used 3-D collections of brain tissue grown from human cells to study the brain’s star-shaped astrocytes. After decades of relative neglect, star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes are finally getting their due.
research 
17 hours ago by dougleigh
Newly Upgraded Laser Allows Scientists to Peer Further Into the Extreme Universe at SLAC’s LCLS |
Scientists at the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently upgraded a powerful optical laser system used to create shockwaves that generate high-pressure conditions like those found within planetary interiors.
research 
17 hours ago by dougleigh
Is the detection of aquatic environmental DNA influenced by substrate type?
The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) to assess the presence-absence of rare, cryptic or invasive species is hindered by a poor understanding of the factors that can remove DNA from the system.
research 
17 hours ago by dougleigh
Mystery of how first animals appeared on Earth 'solved' by scientists | The Independent
New research has shed fresh light on how animals first appeared on the Earth. It is a story spanning hundreds of millions of years, of entire mountain ranges ground to dust by vast glaciers that once covered the planet and of dramatic climate change that ushered in a new biological age.
research 
17 hours ago by dougleigh

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