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Links 3/19: Linkguini | Slate Star Codex
How did the descendants of the Mayan Indians end up in the Eastern Orthodox Church?

Does Parental Quality Matter? Study using three sources of parental variation that are mostly immune to genetic confounding find that “the strong parent-child correlation in education is largely causal”. For example, “the parent-child correlation in education is stronger with the parent that spends more time with the child”.

Before and after pictures of tech leaders like Jeff Bezos, Elon Musk, and Sergey Brin suggest they’re taking supplemental testosterone. And though it may help them keep looking young, Palladium points out that there might be other effects from having some of our most powerful businessmen on a hormone that increases risk-taking and ambition. They ask whether the new availability of testosterone supplements is prolonging Silicon Valley businessmen’s “brash entrepreneur” phase well past the point where they would normally become mature respectable elders. But it also hints at an almost opposite take: average testosterone levels have been falling for decades, so at this point these businessmen would be the only “normal” (by 1950s standards) men out there, and everyone else would be unprecedently risk-averse and boring. Paging Peter Thiel and everyone else who takes about how things “just worked better” in Eisenhower’s day.

China’s SesameCredit social monitoring system, widely portrayed as dystopian, has an 80% approval rate in China (vs. 19% neutral and 1% disapproval). The researchers admit that although all data is confidential and they are not affiliated with the Chinese government, their participants might not believe that confidently enough to answer honestly.

I know how much you guys love attacking EAs for “pathological altruism” or whatever terms you’re using nowadays, so here’s an article where rationalist community member John Beshir describes his experience getting malaria on purpose to help researchers test a vaccine.

Some evidence against the theory that missing fathers cause earlier menarche.

John Nerst of EverythingStudies’ political compass.
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13 days ago by nhaliday
Reconsidering the Heritability of Intelligence in Adulthood: Taking Assortative Mating and Cultural Transmission into Account
Heritability estimates of general intelligence in adulthood generally range from 75 to 85%, with all heritability due to additive genetic influences, while genetic dominance and shared environmental factors are absent, or too small to be detected. These estimates are derived from studies based on the classical twin design and are based on the assumption of random mating. Yet, considerable positive assortative mating has been reported for general intelligence. Unmodeled assortative mating may lead to biased estimates of the relative magnitude of genetic and environmental factors.

...

Under the preferred phenotypic assortment model, the variance of intelligence in adulthood was not only due to non-shared environmental (18%) and additive genetic factors (44%) but also to non-additive genetic factors (27%) and phenotypic assortment (11%).This non-additive nature of genetic influences on intelligence needs to be accommodated in future GWAS studies for intelligence.
study  biodet  behavioral-gen  psychology  cog-psych  iq  twin-study  sib-study  biases  gotchas  models  map-territory  assortative-mating  variance-components  🌞  nonlinearity  regularizer  intricacy 
november 2017 by nhaliday
Genetic influences on measures of the environment: a systematic review | Psychological Medicine | Cambridge Core
Background. Traditional models of psychiatric epidemiology often assume that the relationship between individuals and their environment is unidirectional, from environment to person. Accumulating evidence from developmental and genetic studies has made this perspective increasingly untenable.

Results. We identified 55 independent studies organized into seven categories: general and specific stressful life events (SLEs), parenting as reported by child, parenting reported by parent, family environment, social support, peer interactions, and marital quality. Thirty-five environmental measures in these categories were examined by at least two studies and produced weighted heritability estimates ranging from 7% to 39%, with most falling between 15% and 35%. The weighted heritability for all environmental measures in all studies was 27%. The weighted heritability for environmental measures by rating method was: self-report 29%, informant report 26%, and direct rater or videotape observation (typically examining 10 min of behavior) 14%.
study  meta-analysis  biodet  behavioral-gen  genetics  population-genetics  🌞  regularizer  environmental-effects  GxE  psychiatry  epidemiology  composition-decomposition 
october 2017 by nhaliday
Testing the moderation of quantitative gene by environment interactions in unrelated individuals | bioRxiv
We use simulation to estimate the accuracy, power, and type I error rates of our method and to gauge its computational performance, and then apply this method to IQ data measured on 40,172 individuals with whole-genome SNP data from the UK Biobank. We found that the additive genetic variation of IQ tagged by SNPs increases as socioeconomic status (SES) decreases, opposite the direction found by several twin studies conducted in the U.S. on adolescents, but consistent with several studies from Europe and Australia on adults.
study  bio  preprint  biodet  behavioral-gen  genetics  GxE  class  iq  britain  environmental-effects  regularizer  variance-components  correlation  s-factor 
september 2017 by nhaliday
American income statistics aren't quite what people are saying they are — Adam Smith Institute
not very convincing rebuttal to wage stagnation, frankly (yes a few products have gotten cheaper/better, but do you have some sort of rigorous PPP adjustment via a representative basket of goods? healthcare is probably not all that much better...)
albion  econotariat  org:ngo  org:anglo  commentary  news  org:rec  money  compensation  stagnation  trends  zeitgeist  gender  gender-diff  healthcare  intricacy  data  regularizer  time-series 
september 2017 by nhaliday
Nasty, brutish, but not that short | West Hunter
Average life span is pretty short for contemporary foragers (30-35 years). For that matter, it was short for agricultural peoples until fairly recently. Most people probably don’t know this. Most of the people who do know fundamentally misunderstand it. Today most people die when they’re old, moderately close to the average age of death. Back in the day, a very large fraction died when young, due to infectious disease and food shortages. And subincision. Most people who know about those short lifespans in the past somehow can’t really believe that infant mortality accounts for most of the difference. If the average lifespan was 30, they figure that hardly anyone made it to 40. I’ve had a doctor explain to me that that hardly anyone lived to be 70 in 1900 in the US (!).

We know that this is not the case in contemporary hunter-gatherers. If you make it to 15, you have a pretty good chance of making it to 60. Life expectancy at 15 was about 48 among the Australian Aborigines and 51 for the !Kung Bushmen. In some other groups, expected lifetime at 15 was lower, in the 30s. Still – even so lots of people made it to 60 or later.

A high average paternal age was only possible if quite a few guys lived well over 50 – but that happened.
west-hunter  scitariat  discussion  rant  knowledge  longevity  farmers-and-foragers  sapiens  demographics  data  regularizer  life-history  paternal-age 
september 2017 by nhaliday
Career Options for Scientists
Most PhD students in the biological sciences will not go on to become academics. For these individuals, choosing the best career path can be difficult. Fortunately, there are many options that allow them to take advantage of skills they hone during graduate and postdoctoral work.

The declining interest in an academic career: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0184130
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september 2017 by nhaliday

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