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Frequency and phenotype of type 1 diabetes in the first six decades of life: a cross-sectional, genetically stratified survival analysis from UK Biobank - ScienceDirect
Findings

13 250 (3·5%) of 379 511 white European individuals in UK Biobank had developed diabetes in the first six decades of life. 1286 more cases of diabetes were in the half of the population with high genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes than in the half of the population with low genetic susceptibility. These genetically defined cases of type 1 diabetes were distributed across all ages of diagnosis; 537 (42%) were in individuals diagnosed when aged 31–60 years, representing 4% (537/12 233) of all diabetes cases diagnosed after age 30 years. The clinical characteristics of the group diagnosed with type 1 diabetes when aged 31–60 years were similar to the clinical characteristics of the group diagnosed with type 1 diabetes when aged 30 years or younger. For individuals diagnosed with diabetes when aged 31–60 years, the clinical characteristics of type 1 diabetes differed from those of type 2 diabetes: they had a lower BMI (27·4 kg/m2 [95% CI 26·7–28·0] vs 32·4 kg/m2 [32·2–32·5]; p<0·0001), were more likely to use insulin in the first year after diagnosis (89% [476/537] vs 6% [648/11 696]; p<0·0001), and were more likely to have diabetic ketoacidosis (11% [61/537] vs 0·3% [30/11 696]; p<0·0001).

Interpretation

Genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes results in non-obesity-related, insulin-dependent diabetes, which presents throughout the first six decades of life. Our results highlight the difficulty of identifying type 1 diabetes after age 30 years because of the increasing background prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Failure to diagnose late-onset type 1 diabetes can have serious consequences because these patients rapidly develop insulin dependency.
diabetes  type  1  age  incidence  prevalence  diagnosis  peer-reviewed  research  genetics  risk  adult  onset  T!D  demographics  presentation  UK  Europe  genetic 
june 2018 by Michael.Massing
Potential U.S. Population Impact of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association High Blood Pressure Guideline | JACC: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Condensed abstract

The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults provides recommendations for the definition of hypertension, antihypertensive medication treatment and blood pressure target goals. According to this guideline, 45.6% of US adults have hypertension and 36.2% are recommended antihypertensive treatment. Non-pharmacological intervention is advised for US adults (9.4%) with hypertension according to this guideline who are not recommended antihypertensive medication. Among US adults taking antihypertensive medication, 53.4% had BP above the treatment goal according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline and are recommended more intensive antihypertensive treatment.
hypertension  guidelines  prevalence  treatment  paywall 
november 2017 by Quercki
~70% of Americans don't have college degree | PolitiFact
"According to census data, 209.3 million people in the United States are 25 years old or older, and 66.9 million have a bachelor’s degree or higher (such as a master’s, professional or doctoral degree). That means about 68 percent of them do not have a bachelor’s degree. If we include people who have an academic associate degree -- about 11.7 million people -- the percentage of people without a degree declines slightly, to 62 percent.

The U.S. Labor Department's Bureau of Labor Statistics looked at the same question in a 2014 longitudinal study that followed young people to age 27. It found that by that age, 72 percent of respondents did not have bachelor's degrees."
USA  college  degree  prevalence  education 
september 2017 by dandv
Zoomable scatter: cancer prevalence and survival rates #makingof #d3js
Last Friday, De Tijd published a multimedia article on cancer in Belgium and immunotherapy. To set the stage, the author wanted to include some numbers on the prevalence of different types of cancer in Belgium.
d3js  d3  datavis  visualisation  ddj  djl  cancer  prevalence  DeTijd  MaartenLambrechts 
april 2016 by winnydejong
Diabetes prevalence and socioeconomic status: a population based study showing increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in deprived areas -- Connolly et al. 54 (3): 173 -- Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health
Abstract
OBJECTIVE To establish the relation between socioeconomic status and the age-sex specific prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The hypothesis was that prevalence of type 2 diabetes would be inversely related to socioeconomic status but there would be no association with the prevalence of type 1 diabetes and socioeconomic status.

SETTING Middlesbrough and East Cleveland, United Kingdom, district population 287 157.

PATIENTS 4313 persons with diabetes identified from primary care and hospital records.

RESULTS The overall age adjusted prevalence was 15.60 per 1000 population. There was a significant trend between the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and quintile of deprivation score in men and women (χ2 for linear trend, p<0.001). In men the prevalence in the least deprived quintile was 13.4 per 1000 (95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 11.44, 15.36) compared with 17.22 per 1000 (95% CI 15.51, 18.92) in the most deprived. For women the prevalence was 10.84 per 1000 (95% CI 9.00, 12.69) compared with 15.48 per 1000 (95% CI 13.84, 17.11) in the most deprived. The increased prevalence of diabetes in the most deprived areas was accounted for by increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the age band 40–69 years. There was no association between the prevalence of type 1 diabetes and socioeconomic status.

CONCLUSION These data confirm an inverse association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the middle years of life. This finding suggests that exposure to factors that are implicated in the causation of diabetes is more common in deprived areas.
diabetes  prevalence  socioeconomic  status  SES  correlation  peer-reviewed  research  poverty  education  risk 
march 2016 by Michael.Massing
Incident diabetes and pesticide exposure among licensed pesticide applicators: Agricultural Health Study, 1993-2003. - PubMed - NCBI
They found seven specific pesticides (aldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, alachlor, and cyanazine) for which the odds of diabetes incidence increased with both ever use and cumulative days of use. Applicators who had used the organochlorine insecticides aldrin, chlordane, and heptachlor more than 100 lifetime days had 51%, 63%, and 94% increased odds of diabetes, respectively. The observed association of organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides with diabetes is consistent with results from previous human and animal studies. Long-term exposure from handling certain pesticides, in particular, organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides, may be associated with increased risk of diabetes.
diabetes  type  2  T2D  pesticide  environment  environmental  pollution  risk  factor  etiology  epidemiology  agriculture  incidence  prevalence  peer-reviewed  research  NIH  correlation  exposure  incidental  worker  safety  agricultural  occupational  farming  food  human  in  vivo  situ  public  health 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing
Pesticide use and incident diabetes among wives of farmers in the Agricultural Health Study
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large prospective cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina, presents a unique opportunity to conduct longitudinal studies of diabetes incidence among individuals with a known history of pesticide use. A previous prospective analysis[4] among predominantly male licensed pesticide applicators in the AHS found elevated risk of diabetes associated with ever-use of eight pesticides (two organochlorines: chlordane and heptachlor; four organophosphates: coumaphos, phorate, terbufos, and trichlorfon; and two herbicides: alachlor and cyanazine). Diabetes risk also increased with cumulative lifetime days of use of seven pesticides: aldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, alachlor, and cyanazine.

Among women in the AHS cohort with at least one pregnancy in the 25 years prior to enrollment, gestational diabetes was twice as likely in those who reported mixing or applying any pesticides during the first trimester of pregnancy[17]. Gestational diabetes also increased with lifetime ever-use of seven specific pesticides (two organophosphates, diazinon and phorate; the carbamate insecticide carbofuran; and four herbicides, atrazine and butylate, as well as the historically dioxin-contaminated herbicides 2,4,5-T and 2,4,5-TP)[17].
diabetes  type  2  T2D  pesticide  environment  environmental  pollution  risk  factor  etiology  epidemiology  agriculture  incidence  prevalence  peer-reviewed  research  NIH  correlation  exposure  incidental  familial  women's  health  gestational  agricultural  farming  worker  safety  occupational  food  human  in  vivo  situ  public 
august 2015 by Michael.Massing

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