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CBRS spectrum sharing could be first good use case for blockchain | PolicyTracker, Jan 2019
The US Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS) could be a "great candidate" for the first use of blockchain technology for spectrum sharing, according to Nokia's Seppo Yrjölä. Interest in the use of blockchain for spectrum management is growing, but problems such as regulation, costs and the lack of business models need to be sorted out.
spectrum  PolicyTracker  blockchain  CBRS 
4 days ago by pierredv
Viewpoint: Do we still need spectrum auctions? | PolicyTracker, Jan 10, 2019 by William Webb
"When there is cleared spectrum to award, the default process is now the auction. It has been widely used for some 30 years and is generally agreed to be the least bad way to distribute spectrum when demand exceeds supply. But is this still true?

"Where the entity awarding the spectrum – typically the national regulator – is unsure as to the best distribution of that spectrum among competing companies, then the auction allows the market to make the decision. But what if the answer is obvious – distribute it equally to the existing mobile operators?"

"Equal distribution could be just that – all operators get the same amount. Or it could be weighted by, for example, market share."
PolicyTracker  spectrum-auctions  William-Webb  opinion  spectrum-assignment 
10 days ago by pierredv
Ofcom sets 900 and 1800 MHz licence fees and consults on 3.4 and 3.6 GHz fees | PolicyTracker: Jan 2019
"UK mobile network operators (MNOs) will pay £1.09 million ($1.4 million) per MHz per year for 900 MHz spectrum, and £0.805 million ($1.02 million) per MHz annually for 1800 MHz spectrum beginning 31 January 2019, Ofcom said.

The levels reflect the full market value of the frequencies and take into account input from Vodafone, Telefónica (O2), EE and H3G (Three), as well as evidence from previous UK spectrum auctions and international benchmarks, the regulator added. The lump-sum values were converted into equivalent annual payments using an annualisation rate derived from a post-tax discount rate and a tax adjustment factor."
PolicyTracker  Ofcom  spectrum  cellular  Vodafone  O2  EE  spectrum-fees  900MHz  1800MHz 
11 days ago by pierredv
Mexico seeks to define spectrum efficiency metrics | PolicyTracker, Jan 2019
The IFT report includes this draft definition for spectrum efficiency: “the capacity of telecommunications or broadcasting systems to convey the greatest amount of information using a quantity of determined radio spectrum, maintaining the quality of communications to at least a certain minimum level.”

"One draft concern of the metrics is the “social factor”. For example, the Mexican constitution protects plurality, so spectrum efficiency metrics should take this into account. "

"Martinez hopes the IFT’s work could be included in an amended version of ITU-R Recommendation SM.1046, which concerns spectrum use and efficiency. That report, says Martinez, erroneously conflates the effective use of spectrum and its efficient use."

"The 2013 reform also gave the IFT the power to fine companies between 2.01 and six per cent of their turnover for using spectrum inefficiently. Being able to define spectrum efficiency metrics would, therefore, create another tool for the already powerful IFT."

"Spectrum fees are also on the agency’s agenda. IFT commissioner Mario Fromow told the Latin America Spectrum Management conference in September that mobile industry association the GSMA had argued that spectrum fees in Mexico are too high. The IFT wanted its own data on this so has hired a consultant to analyse the value of assigned mobile spectrum in Mexico. This may inform a future review of spectrum fees – if needed – in cooperation with the country’s internal revenue agency."
PolicyTracker  spectrum-efficiency  Mexico  IFT  spectrum-fees 
16 days ago by pierredv
Outages show the need to think clearly about national security | PolicyTracker: Dec 2018
"On Thursday, millions of smartphone users in the UK lost their data services after the O2 network suffered technical problems. While the problem only lasted a day, it was one of the biggest mobile network outages because it hit the many external services that rely on the operator’s data network."

"The blackout raises questions over the future of mission-critical applications. What will happen when 5G networks underpin a country’s water supply, electricity grid, emergency services and even self-driving cars?"

"Isn’t it time for an evidence-based approach to the security of networks, based on independent testing of equipment from companies which are prepared to cooperate? Anything else looks suspiciously like a backdoor way of damaging potential competitors."
PolicyTracker  cyber-spectrum  cybersecurity  cellular 
5 weeks ago by pierredv
European and North American authorities consider future spectrum needs of train passengers and operations | PolicyTracker: Nov 2018
"US regulator the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is considering a request for an ultra-wideband positive train control system while in Europe, CEPT is studying spectrum requirements and candidate bands to replace the current train connectivity system. "

"CEPT is currently consulting on spectrum needs for the successor to GSM-R."

"The US regulator is considering a proposal from Metrom Rail for waiver of certain rules to allow the company to install and operate an ultra-wideband positive train control (PTC)system in the 3.272-5.015 GHz band."

"Freight and passenger railroads in the US are required by law to have PTC in place, including all the required spectrum, by 31 December 2018, with PTC systems fully implemented by the end of 2020."
PolicyTracker  railroads  FCC  CEPT  spectrum  800MHz  PTC 
7 weeks ago by pierredv
High-frequency traders flirt with high-frequency spectrum | PolicyTracker, Nov 2017
"The ongoing hunt for low latency communications between financial exchanges has generated renewed interest in the technology used for shortwave broadcasting – but using the spectrum in this way appears to breach of US regulations."

"Now an engineer in the US has stumbled upon the use of trans-Atlantic shortwave radio by high-frequency traders. As with the use of microwave, the rationale is that radio travels twice as fast through the air than light travels through fibre-optic cables."

"In addition to the technical limitations, the regulatory environment in the US, as it presently stands, also appears to cause problems for shortwave-based high-frequency traders: the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) does not appear to offer any sort of spectrum authorization product for this service."

"According to several commentators, most high-frequency traders overcome the regulatory vacuum by obtaining experimental licences. "
PolicyTracker  shortwave  AM  trading  high-frequency-trading  finance  spectrum  FCC 
10 weeks ago by pierredv
FCC to create new 6 GHz unlicensed band | PolicyTracker, Oct 2018
"The Federal Communications Commission has agreed to publish a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that would allow unlicensed use of the 6 GHz band. The band, which is also being studied in Europe, is widely seen as the world’s next major band for unlicensed applications.

"Under the terms of the proposals, unlicensed access to the 850 MHz of spectrum would be controlled by a lightweight database. This approach, often described as automated frequency control (AFC), is designed to prevent interference to incumbent fixed links. "

"Satellite earth stations use the band for uplinks throughout the band, but particularly within the U-NII-5 frequencies. The FCC does not think these applications should be taken into account by AFC databases because the receivers (satellites) are located so far away from Earth."

"Cable lobbyists the NCTA, as well as Commissioners Michael O’Rielly and Jessica Rosenworcel, have recently promoted the possibility of a Further NPRM (FNPRM) for the 5875–5925 MHz range. ... That band has been reserved in the US for Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC), ... FCC chair Ajit Pai would not commit to an FNPRM, but ... This did not impress Commissioner Rosenworcel."
PolicyTracker  6GHz  unlicensed  FCC  satellite  DSRC 
11 weeks ago by pierredv
Spectrum assignments need a rethink, say academics | PolicyTracker Oct 2018
"Academics and telecoms industry representatives recently discussed the future of spectrum auctions in a seminar on New directions in spectrum assignment for 5G hosted at French graduate engineering school Telecom ParisTech. They concluded that there is a need to rethink assignment policies to help achieve wider economic and social policy goals. "

Gerarg Pogorel, Erik Bohlin, Martin Cave
Francesco Nonno, director of regulatory affairs at Italian fibre provider Open Fiber,
" France, where the government has replaced upfront fees for licence renewals in the 900, 1800 and 2100 MHz bands with specific guaranteed coverage obligations. Pierre-Jean Benghozi of French regulator ARCEP told the seminar that this model was driven by the objective of improving geographic coverage and meeting new capacity needs."
PolicyTracker  spectrum-auctions  5G 
12 weeks ago by pierredv
Philippines aims to choose third operator by the end of 2018 | PolicyTracker Oct 2018
"It may have taken nearly a decade but the Philippines is close to ending its long-running duopoly. It is using a novel approach to achieve this. "

"The selection criteria are population coverage, minimum average broadband speed and capex/opex spend with a weighting of 40 per cent, 25 per cent and 35 per cent respectively counting towards the final score.

“It’s a quasi-auction approach, only instead of bidding with money, you bid with coverage, speed and capex/opex,” said Kas Kalba, founder of advisory firm Kalba International."

"Like an auction, the Philippines approach offers the opportunity for aggressive bidding, particularly on coverage and capex/opex, Kalba said."

"Consumer pricing is not included as one of the three criteria, which must be a relief to the two incumbents fearful of a disruptive newcomer. "

"Monitoring broadband speeds can be a tricky business but, under the Philippines’ plan, it will be done by an independent auditor, who will also establish whether the licence winner is meeting the coverage terms included in its bid."

"In the final analysis, the winner risks losing a performance security placed with the NTC – worth 10 per cent of the remaining cumulative capex and opex commitment – if they fail to deliver."

"This year, DICT won a battle against the Department of Finance’s proposal for an auction based on the highest financial bid, paving the way for the current process."
PolicyTracker  Philippines  spectrum-auctions 
october 2018 by pierredv
Protect spectrum access systems from attacks, study says | PolicyTracker Sep 2018
"Keeping networks safe from malicious or inadvertent attacks isn't just a matter for the online world. As new technologies enable the development of more potentially interfering devices, instances of spectrum disruption are on the rise. The UK Spectrum Policy Forum (SPF) has 10 recommendations to help spectrum users, managers and installers fight back. "

"Disruptions may come from cyber-spectrum criminals seeking to make money from fraud or from industrial competitors and foreign intelligence agencies looking for an economic advantage for their companies or countries, the report said. Hacktivists might want to attack spectrum-dependent systems (SDSs) for political or ideological reasons, and company insiders with legitimate access to SDSs may cause disruptions accidentally or for malign reasons. Other SDSs in the same spectrum might disrupt though accidental or deliberate system configurations; changes to the local built or natural environment could also increase interference signals."

Examples:
"Car theft is on the rise in the UK as more criminals use radio transmitters to perform “relay” car hacks.
"A robber in Saint Petersburg, Russia, defeated the alarm system in a jewellery store with a repetitive radio frequency generator whose manufacture was reportedly no more complicated than assembling a home microwave oven.
"GSM-R, which is part of the European Train Management System, involves some data which is safety-critical, said MacLeod. If the GSM-R connection is lost, the train must stop. Compact battery-powered jammers can be bought on the internet for GSM systems, and it’s likely they can be operated from within the train. In 2015, the number of interferences reported on GSM-R that could stop trains from running rose to the point where Finland reportedly switched to a domestic radio system.
"Other problems have included interference to meteorological radars from a 5 GHz disabled dynamic frequency selection mechanism and ground-based interference that caused the loss of meteorological satellite services."
PolicyTracker  cybersecurity  spectrum  UK  SPF-SpectrumPolicyForum 
september 2018 by pierredv
5G experts discuss public vs private networks at URLLC event | PolicyTracker: Sep 2018
“The industry wants the control of a private network but the convenience of something that is managed as a service,” said Brendan Lynch...

"This provides a useful summary of the ongoing discussions between mobile providers and new market segments over how to roll out 5G verticals: public versus private networks. Although operators could ultimately benefit, given that they face a significant increase in the amount of data transmitted over their networks, opportunities could soon turn into challenges if they fail to address issues like liability, security or data protection."
5G  IoT  PolicyTracker 
september 2018 by pierredv
South Africa opens door to spectrum liberalisation | PolicyTracker Sep 2018
"South Africa’s telecoms ministry has published a draft amendment to the Electronic Communications Act (ECA) that places significant emphasis on spectrum issues, with changes to access policies and licensing.

"The draft version of the amendment bill–to be presented to the South African parliament this week–includes measures designed to encourage spectrum liberalisation, such as plans to create a national wholesale open access network (WOAN) and to enable spectrum sharing, trading and refarming as well as the introduction of a “use it or lose it” licensing regime.

"The new act also gives the government, instead of the regulator ICASA, full control of the national radio plan. However, the Ministry of Telecommunications and Postal Services must still consult with the regulatory body on future actions."
spectrum  policy  South-Africa  PolicyTracker 
september 2018 by pierredv
Automated frequency coordination emerges as compromise for unlicensed access to 6 GHz | PolicyTracker: Aug 2018
"A coalition of major companies with an interest in unlicensed spectrum access is advocating a form of light licensing called automated frequency coordination (AFC) for the 5925–7125 MHz range in the US. The idea is that AFC would prevent interference to the fixed links and C-band satellite uplinks that currently use the band by limiting the locations where radio local area networks (RLANs) can operate. RLANs would also have to periodically transmit identifying information so that the source of any given interference can be rapidly identified."

"PolicyTracker previously noted that advocates of unlicensed use of the 5925–7125 MHz band were proposing to mitigate against potential (supposedly rare) interference to incumbent installations by setting up a database of outdoor RLAN deployments, alongside mandatory transmission of identification information.

The AFC proposal builds on this to propose that RLAN master devices cannot operate in the same channel as an incumbent fixed link within a given exclusion zone. This would be enforced through an AFC function that contains a repository of the bands’ current usage. An exception would be made for indoor devices operating at low power."

"This proposal is supported by Apple, Broadcom, Cisco, Facebook, Google, Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE), Intel, Microsoft, Qualcomm and Ruckus Networks"
PolicyTracker  5GHz  spectrum-sharing  6GHz 
august 2018 by pierredv
Harmful spectrum pricing driven by political decisions, GSMA says | PolicyTracker, Aug 2018
"Spectrum prices in developing nations are on average three times greater than in developed countries in proportion with income per capita, according to a report recently published by mobile industry association the GSMA. The association believes the figure is driven by legislative decisions rather than market forces."

"High spectrum prices in developing countries are linked to more expensive and lower quality mobile broadband services, the report says."
PolicyTracker  GSMA  spectrum-auctions  economics 
august 2018 by pierredv
RSPG to examine role of machine learning | PolicyTracker aug 2018
"There is growing interest in the application of artificial intelligence (AI) to spectrum: Google thinks it could replace propagation modelling; a leading consultancy has described the telecoms sector as a "perfect opportunity" and AI will be one of the forthcoming study areas for the EU's spectrum advisory group. "
PolicyTracker  AI  ML  RSPG  spectrum 
august 2018 by pierredv
Europe works on evolved LSA to accommodate 5G verticals’ needs | PolicyTracker: Aug 2018
Mueck claims eLSA is more similar to CBRS than to its older relative LSA. Like the US model, he says, it has included a new target user. “The prime focus has shifted from MNOs [mobile network operators] to verticals. It aims to make spectrum available to industries which are not able to afford current prices.”

"Wilzeck told PolicyTracker that many verticals would like to deploy 5G networks on their own without dependency on an MNO because local area applications do not really benefit from being in a mobile network."
LSA  ASA  spectrum-sharing  CBRS  PolicyTracker  ETSI 
august 2018 by pierredv
South Korea’s 5G auction stands up well to international benchmarks | PolicyTracker: Jul 2018
"Winners of the 3.5 GHz frequencies received a 10-year licence, while the 28 GHz frequencies have just a five-year term, both significantly less than is usually the case for 3G or 4G licences. However, the short terms do not appear to have acted as a brake on bidding."

"The 3.5 GHz result is equivalent to $0.19 per MHz per pop, comparable to the $0.15 per MHz per pop raised in the recent sale of 3.4 GHz spectrum in the UK. That was a contest in which the four incumbents faced competition from an outsider."

"Given the lack of precedent for mmWave band auctions, benchmarking is harder for 28 GHz, but not impossible. The Korean sale is equivalent to $0.0045 per MHz per pop. By comparison, the US Federal Communications Commission is proposing to sell off frequencies at 28 GHz in mid-November this year with a minimum opening bid of $0.002 per MHz per pop, half the amount raised in Korea."
PolicyTracker  South-Korea  5G  28GHz  3.5GHz 
july 2018 by pierredv
FCC proceeds with mmWave 5G plans | PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
"US mobile industry association the CTIA wanted the planned auctions of the 37.6–40 GHz bands and the 47 GHz band (47.2–48.2 GHz) to be brought forward to November 2018 so that they could be held alongside a planned auction of the 24 GHz band (24.25–24.45 GHz + 24.75–25.25 GHz)."
PolicyTracker  mmwave  5G  FCC  SpectrumFrontiers  CTIA  spectrum-auctions 
june 2018 by pierredv

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