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Cause or effect? The link between gentrification and violent crime
July 12, 2018 | | Financial Times | by Nathan Brooker YESTERDAY.

London, which is experiencing a sustained increase in violent offences as crime rates in other global cities such as New York, Sydney and Hong Kong continue to fall......The escalation of violence has been linked to provocation on social media, increased competition in the drugs trade, a reduction in police measures such as stop and search and an overall drop in police funding— the Met has seen its annual budget cut by about 20 per cent since 2010-11, and it has lost 10 per cent of its police officers in that time......However, one factor that is often overlooked and, according to professional and academic observers, has played a key role in exacerbating London’s recent crime wave, is its gentrifying property market.

Areas of London that have higher levels of deprivation also tend to have higher crime rates.........The level of violence you see is getting much more extreme......Gentrification has had a significant impact on the area....“One of the issues young people have in Hackney Wick is the lack of aspiration, the lack of hope,” says Allen. “They’re all living in a rich, diverse city, but it still feels very separate to them. It’s not their development; it’s somebody else’s. They think they won’t be able to live in the area they were brought up in because they’re not going to be able to spend £600,000 on an apartment.”.........gentrification has not only affected gang recruitment..... it has fundamentally altered how some gangs operate.........“It changed their idea of territory, since some senior members were forced out of the area [by the redevelopment] and had to commute in, for want of a better term,” he says. “Ten years ago there was a very strong connection to territory. There was an emotional connection. But the redevelopment changed that. The only territory that was left was the market place — the drugs market place — and that needs to be protected.”

It’s the protection of that market — one both lucrative and highly nebulous — that is behind some of the increase in violent crime. Without the clear boundaries an estate or a postcode might provide, he says, and with the high value of the drugs trade upping the stakes, transgressions are met with more intense violence.....The reasons behind the dramatic decline in New York’s murder count are much argued over: the growing economy, the end of the crack epidemic have all been put up as possible causes. Yet improvements to policing brought in under former New York police commissioner Bill Bratton cannot be overlooked.

Bratton’s policies, which included clampdowns on various low-level offences, and an increase in stop-question-and-frisk, are often mischaracterised as a zero-tolerance approach to policing, he says.

“What he really did was a management innovation.” Bratton, who was in the office 1994-96 and returned in 2014-16, introduced CompStat, measures that used computer programs to map where and when crimes were taking place, and how police resources were being shared. “When [Bratton] took over, the largest number of cops were on the day shift, but the largest number of crimes took place on the evening shift and the night shift,” he says. Bratton reallocated officers accordingly. They had a slogan: “Put cops on the dots”.......the most important thing Bratton did, Kleiman says, was make management more accountable, hauling in three precinct captains each week to grill them on their CompStat data. During his first year as commissioner, Bratton replaced something like two-thirds of the city’s 76 precinct commanders......The problem with fear is that it’s an unhelpful response. Fear raises money for private security firms, not community programmes; it improves funding to free schools, not failing academies; it promotes only the most brutal, careless forms of policing. In communities that are undergoing gentrification, fear further divides the haves and the have-nots: decreasing the kinds of relationships that might aid social mobility and better connect disadvantaged youth with the city they live in.

And what gets forgotten, says Allen, is that fear goes both ways. “A lot of the young people that get caught up in youth violence are caught up because they’re vulnerable and they’re frightened,”
accountability  Bill_Bratton  carding  causality  CompStat  criminality  criminal_justice_system  data  deprivations  disaffection  fear  gentrification  homicides  killings  London  New_York_City  organized_crime  policing  property_markets  United_Kingdom  violent_crime  youth  NYPD 
3 days ago by jerryking
Prison Culture » Thinking Through the End of Police…
"Many people are more afraid of imagining a world without police than one without prisons. This seems especially true for people who consider themselves to be progressive. I don’t have the time, energy or inclination to write in depth about abolishing the police right now. But I’ve been asked a lot for ‘resources’ on the topic. To be honest, I’m crabby about offering those too. This is because what people usually mean by “resources” is a step-by-step guide or program. Well, that doesn’t exist because building a world without police is actually a collective project that will also mean that many, many other things will need to change too. That’s not a satisfying answer for people who don’t actually want to think and most importantly who think it’s “other people’s” responsibility to come up with “alternatives.”

Rinaldo Walcott offers a start for those looking for the right questions to ask about abolishing the police:
“We need broad based discussions about the future of modern policing and what it is really for.

We need to imagine a time when police are not needed. In the interim we need to disarm the police.

We must require police to work in communities they live in and make them accountable to communities they police.

We need to work towards forms of being in community where conflict is resolved within communities and where resolution is not necessarily oriented towards punishment.

These ways of being are not beyond us, indeed these ways of being are shared by many among us.

We need only recognize and acknowledge that such knowledge exists and the practice is doable.

In essence, any moral and ethical society willing to confront the deeper reasons why policing exist at all would be working towards its abolition.”

On another day when I am feeling less tired and more generous, I might write something that summarizes my ideas and thoughts on the matter. But not today…

So for now, here are a very few readings to help those who are interested in abolishing the police to think more deeply about the possibilities…"

[See also: https://www.facebook.com/luna.syenite/posts/2186195438292031

"I can't tell you how many messages I'm getting about these posters. I can't respond to all of them so I am going to comment on the biggest critiques (that are so important to acknowledge and address) and then refer back to this status.

1. "X solution can be oppressive" - Absolutely true. Any of the solutions named in the graphics could be enacted in oppressive ways. In order for these solutions to be implemented in the way they were imagined, the people implementing them must do so with an anti-oppressive (empowering) lens, outside of the systems and institutions currently oppressing people. I highly recommend anyone considering replacing policing, study Transformative Justice and its principles, study the work of anti-oppressive community organizers, especially those who are or have been marginalized.

These posters require us to imagine a better world, one in which the resources people need in order to address the root causes of violence and harm (oppression, exploitation) are collectively provided: free housing, free healthcare, and the preservation of our planet; and white supremacy is eliminated.

2. "Sometimes we need police in situations of life threatening violence" (or, "This would only work if you weren't directly experiencing violence in the moment) - There may be times of immediate life threatening violence in which a defensive organization is necessary to save lives (such as mass shootings, for example). Those people do not need to be the police, and we can envision all kinds of organizations that would be dedicated to liberation, self-determination, preservation of life, and using force as an absolute last resort. Such organizations would ideally be controlled / organized / held accountable by the people most impacted by violence.

3. "I have had to call the police to save my life." - Yes. Same. And this is not condemning anyone for using the tools that currently exist to save their own life. And it is absolutely harmful and violent that in our society the only means we have to save our lives in violent situations is to call the police and initiate a system of incarceration that does not hear our voices, address our needs, seek actual justice, resolve the root causes of violence, or seek to support us as people experiencing violence. It is harmful that our only option is to expose other people to the possibility of having their life or their freedom taken by the police or prisons. We need other options.

4. "Police are people too." - Yes, and their personhood does not mean that their profession, nor the power that is granted to them in that profession, needs to continue in order for their humanity to be recognized. Policing is harmful and violent and therefore must lose its power in society. Taking that power from individual officers is not a denial of their humanity.

5. "Why can't we just reform policing" - Read Alex Vitale's book "The End of Policing" for a detailed answer to this question - it's really good.

6. "What does Taking Accountability mean?" - In Transformative Justice practice, "Taking Accountability" means that the person who has done harm receives support in changing their behavior, takes responsibility for what they've done, takes steps to repair the harm done according to the wishes and needs of the person who was harmed, and changes their behavior. It also means that the community asks why the person caused harm in the first place (what the "root cause" of harm is), such as poverty, lack of access to healthcare, social isolation, or other unmet needs. The community is responsible for addressing the causes of harm that are cultural and social.

Not everyone is willing to take accountability for their actions of course (we need a major cultural shift to make this more likely), and in the case that the person who did harm does not choose to take accountability, it means that the community takes collective action to prevent that person from doing harm again, such as spreading awareness about the harm, doing education about how to prevent that harm, and intervening where and when the harm is happening so that the person can no longer successfully do so. It means protecting each other in ways that reduce harm, rather than produce it.

For more info about Transformative Justice here is a hand out comparing it to other forms of justice: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1oGeWHm8zHKm_31Ng3j5mqKwyiGw02t3ikOh_3UZHD74/edit

Here is a reading list: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1OMAg9P5Ad9vMwnqvguZHDKyqU75ygUKyxDXleIWnC8s/edit

Here is a link every single person should click: http://www.usprisonculture.com/blog/transformative-justice/

7. "Can I share these with x" Yes, you can share the images however you want. Here is a google drive with printable versions: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1HUpCPvOwUJElxtUP4mCysAY9GyZrSmUk

8. "I like all of these except the domestic violence one" - see all of the above and I highly recommend that people look into the work of Survived and Punished, an organization that specifically works with survivors of domestic and other violence who are then violently pulled into the policing and carceral system.

9. "Crisis Intervention Teams include police" - In these graphics, I am not using the term in the way it is used related to policing, I am using it as a name for a totally invented kind of team that would not in any way be connected to the police and would be staffed with people who are trained in anti-oppressive means of addressing conflicts. To be as clear as possible: I do not support any measure that would fund, reform, or employ police. And any of these solutions would require that people experiencing marginalization or oppression be empowered to collectively control the resources / services themselves.

These are the resources shared by the person who raised this concern, if anyone would like to look:

Alternatives to Police in Mental Health Crisis: https://www.facebook.com/pg/ACPDMHC/photos/?tab=album&album_id=1596632663793562

The Myth of Awareness Training
https://www.facebook.com/notes/kerima-cevik/the-myth-of-awareness-training-the-danger-of-disability-registries-special-ids-a/1647219461995178/ "

posted here:
https://robertogreco.tumblr.com/post/175793815358/alternatives-to-police-and-punishment-are-real ]


"Alternatives to police and punishment are real and tangible. Check out some of the great work from Luna Syenite, who has made them free to share. https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1HUpCPvOwUJElxtUP4mCysAY9GyZrSmUk … #Harmreduction #treatmentnotprison #communitynotprisons"

"Imagine a world without police.... posters inspired by the work of @prisonculture and created by Luna Syenite (https://www.facebook.com/luna.syenite/posts/2186195438292031 …) #AbolishICE #AbolishThePolice"

"As a follow up see: https://medium.com/@icelevel/whos-left-mariame-26ed2237ada6 …... which also features @projectnia & @prisonculture. We can change the way resources are allocated to change outcomes. Police & prisons aren't the only solutions. #AbolishICE #AbolishThePolice #ServicesNotSentences"
https://twitter.com/regina_tweeta/status/1017099000665821192 ]
activism  police  policing  prison  mariamekaba  rinaldowalcott  2014  reference  resources  publicsafety  lunasyenite 
5 days ago by robertogreco
JUGGALOS | Federal Bureau of Investigation [PDF]
53 tantalizing pages have been redacted from the FBI report on the Safe Streets/Gang Unit's investigation into Juggalos. Of the bits that aren't classified, there's this burn: "Insane Clown Posse can't get its music on the radio, but claim to have 1 million devoted fans".
music  fuckwits  americans  usa  law  policing  silly 
5 days ago by gominokouhai
How Police Can Stop Being Weaponized by Bias-Motivated 911 Calls | American Civil Liberties Union
Department policies should instruct dispatchers not to unthinkingly send officers to respond to questionable calls with minimal information. When, for example, a caller reports a “suspicious person,” the dispatcher should collect enough information to identify whether the caller has seen possible criminal activity that is worth an officer’s time to investigate. If it becomes clear that the caller is simply being racist rather than vague or inarticulate, the dispatcher should have the discretion to tell the caller that they will not dispatch an officer without a legitimate basis.

That said, if they do decide to send an officer to the scene, the dispatcher should communicate information that lets the officer know of any concerns or reasons to take the reported facts with a grain of salt. A failure to pass along such information will necessarily expose people to serious risks.
***  aclu  911  usa  race  discrimination  policing  racism  policy  bias 
10 days ago by gpe
Policing Is an Information Business | Urban Omnibus
Policing and urban planning have a lot in common. Both cops and planners’ ostensible goal is to make the city a more livable place, though this goal is constantly haunted by a question: Livable for whom? Both transform a public’s experience of a city, generally by imposing and enforcing rules and systems that change how people move through space. In the United States, public understanding of both professions is to some extent influenced by romanticized media narratives which heavily emphasize cities like Los Angeles and New York. Both sectors have a particularly heavy fetish for maps and data as mechanisms for understanding and shaping cities, a fetish that has intensified in the past few decades thanks to advances in technology.

Where the two professions diverge starkly is in matters of time and violence. Where urban planning might be considered a slower, bureaucratic, deliberative process, policing is expected to engage with and respond to city conditions and events in real time — or, increasingly, ahead of time. And unlike urban planners, cops are permitted to respond with firearms and Tasers.

That being said, planning is fully capable of enacting slower, more systemic acts of violence onto a city, and like policing, such violence can be enabled and plausibly denied by sufficiently complex data and maps. Where the urban planner has eminent domain and urban renewal, the police officer has crime hotspots and risk terrain modeling. Where a planner might control a city through highway design and traffic flows, a police department’s automated license plate readers or mobile cell site simulators render public movement into potential patterns of criminal behavior...

Of course, as tremendous instruments of power and violence, maps have been used by police (agents of the former, authorized to hold a monopoly on the latter) for decades. But in the 1990s, the emergence of desktop GIS software for and in police departments dramatically increased the data collection and storage capacities of that “information business.” The technology’s adoption coincided with the era of NYPD Commissioner Bill Bratton and his avuncular lieutenant Jack Maple. This is where many histories tend to pinpoint the transformational moment for crime mapping: Bratton and Maple tracking turnstile jumpers in the New York City subway system, Maple outlining a four-point theory of policing management on a napkin at Elaine’s restaurant (“Accurate, timely intelligence; rapid deployment, effective tactics; relentless follow-up and assessment”), New York’s crime rate precipitously falling thanks to the data-driven innovations of CompStat....

The first CompStat maps were made with pins, paper, and transparent acetate. The NYPD technically didn’t have the budget to support their cost, so the New York City Police Foundation provided a $10,000 donation. Although the department would eventually switch to computerized maps, displayed on eight foot-by-eight foot screens in One Police Plaza, the image of police officers fumbling with pushpins and acetate film they could barely afford suggests a surprisingly scrappy origin story for a management strategy so often associated with precision and technical expertise — even if its own name is both vague and technically meaningless....

With the suspension of traditional legal oversight over surveillance, the NYPD Intelligence Bureau expanded the geography of threats to public disorder beyond the broken window and inside the perfectly-maintained façades of mosques, restaurants, and internet cafés in predominantly Muslim communities.

That geography fell primarily to the purview of the Demographics Unit, which employed a mix of street-level surveillance and undercover work with mapping and analysis of publicly available data.
predictive_policing  smart_cities  governance  urban_planning  policing  mapping 
17 days ago by shannon_mattern

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