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Leibniz: Explanation of Binary Arithmetic (1703)
EXPLANATION OF BINARY ARITHMETIC, WHICH USES ONLY THE CHARACTERS 0 AND 1, WITH SOME REMARKS ON ITS USEFULNESS, AND ON THE LIGHT IT THROWS ON THE ANCIENT CHINESE FIGURES OF FUXI
history  math  philosophy  sources 
2 hours ago by kmt
Confucius and the Confucian Family System
John Ruskin, once remarked that he had little interest in discussing prisons. If you got the schools right, you wouldn't even need the prisons, Ruskin argued. Confucius starts earlier. Get the families right, and all the rest of society will take care of itself, including the schools. That's just life, he would say. Life is lived in families, good families produce good individuals, bad families produce bad ones, so the most important job of any political system has to be: get the families right. A country's families are its building blocks, its most important social institution. The really wise man, his followers said, works on the "trunk" of the tree, he doesn't fuss with the endless little branches shooting off from it. "And surely proper behavior toward parents and elder brothers is the trunk of Goodness?" (Analects 1.2) "Be filial [dutiful], only be filial and friendly toward your brothers," Confucius claims, and "you will be contributing to government." (Analects 2.21)
world  philosophy 
9 hours ago by janpeuker
Project MUSE - Thymotic Politics: Sloterdijk, Strauss, and Neoconservatism
Peter Sloterdijk’s Rage and Time (2006) argues for the political significance of rage. To do this Sloterdijk turns to the Greek concept thymos which “signifies the impulsive centre of the proud self” (2006, 11). He places rage, or thymos, at the center of a historical narrative spanning Homeric myth, Christian theology and revolutionary politics. Sloterdijk emphasises the Homeric form of thymos through the figure of Achilles, as “rage celebrates a force that frees human beings from vegetable numbness” (2006, 5). Sloterdijk’s contention is that “we have not only stopped to judge and feel like the peoples of old, we secretly despise them for remaining ‘children of their time’” (2006, 5). The loss of an understanding of rage, the dynamic force of the political, leaves modern Western culture cut-off from the political itself. We may infer that the contemporary subject is, without access to rage, trapped in this state of “vegetable numbness.” Furthermore, rage is described as that which elevates the human subject; “wherever rage flames up… the identification of the human being with his driving forces realises itself” (2006, 10). The thymotic soul is identified with the human, but “for everyday people the evidence of the moment remains out of reach” (2006, 10). Those who have been domesticated through the city are cut off from thymos and therefore from self-realization.
thymos  sloterdijk  politics  Philosophy 
10 hours ago by jstenner
Project MUSE - A Thymotic Left?: Peter Sloterdijk and the Psychopolitics of Ressentiment
As its subtitle makes clear, Peter Sloterdijk’s Rage and Time: A Psychopolitical Investigation (2006) continues a line of research that begins with the Critique of Cynical Reason (1983), which already abounded with references to psychopolitics. Far from psychologising political powers, psychopolitics deals with the ecology and economy of energies or affects that are articulated only on a collective level. In this sense, Sloterdijk is indebted to crowd psychologists such as Hermann Broch and Elias Canetti, to the mimetic anthropology of Gabriel Tarde and René Girard, as well as to media theorists such as Marshall McLuhan or Jean Baudrillard. But his primary inspiration is Nietzschean, insofar as psychopolitics is inseparable from “a self-aware antipolitical therapeutics” which seeks “not to depoliticize individuals, but to deneuroticize politics”1 (Sloterdijk 1990, 90) with regard to the basic affect constellation of the West: ressentiment.
thymos  sloterdijk  politics  Philosophy 
10 hours ago by jstenner
State (polity) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_formation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_of_nature
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sovereignty

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_law
In the West, the ancient Greeks initially regarded the best form of government as rule by the best men.[10] Plato advocated a benevolent monarchy ruled by an idealized philosopher king, who was above the law.[10] Plato nevertheless hoped that the best men would be good at respecting established laws, explaining that "Where the law is subject to some other authority and has none of its own, the collapse of the state, in my view, is not far off; but if law is the master of the government and the government is its slave, then the situation is full of promise and men enjoy all the blessings that the gods shower on a state."[11] _More than Plato attempted to do, Aristotle flatly opposed letting the highest officials wield power beyond guarding and serving the laws._[10] In other words, Aristotle advocated the rule of law:

It is more proper that law should govern than any one of the citizens: upon the same principle, if it is advantageous to place the supreme power in some particular persons, they should be appointed to be only guardians, and the servants of the laws.[5]

The Roman statesman Cicero is often cited as saying, roughly: "We are all servants of the laws in order to be free."[12] During the Roman Republic, controversial magistrates might be put on trial when their terms of office expired. Under the Roman Empire, the sovereign was personally immune (legibus solutus), but those with grievances could sue the treasury.[7]

In China, members of the school of legalism during the 3rd century BC argued for using law as a tool of governance, but they promoted "rule by law" as opposed to "rule of law", meaning that they placed the aristocrats and emperor above the law.[13] In contrast, the Huang-Lao school of Daoism rejected legal positivism in favor of a natural law that even the ruler would be subject to.[14]
concept  conceptual-vocab  wiki  reference  leviathan  elite  government  institutions  politics  polisci  philosophy  vocab  antidemos  spatial  correlation  intersection-connectedness  geography  matching  nationalism-globalism  whole-partial-many  big-peeps  the-classics  morality  ethics  good-evil  order-disorder  history  iron-age  mediterranean  medieval  feudal  europe  the-great-west-whale  occident  china  asia  sinosphere  n-factor  democracy  authoritarianism  property-rights  civil-liberty  alien-character 
11 hours ago by nhaliday
Is Sloterdijk Conservative? – Becoming Integral: Notes on Planetary Coexistence
In the tension between neophilic and neophobic aspects of human existence, what Sloterdijk calls primary conservatism tends toward the latter. Stick with habits and traditions; don’t jump on the bandwagon of every promise of the new and improved. However, a problem arises in the process of humans becoming conscious. Consciousness emerges amid habits, and once you realize that there is a habit conditioning your consciousness, you are already somewhat distant from that habit: there’s you, and there’s your habit. Now you face a decision—continue differentiating yourself from your habits or stick with your habits; overcome your habits or let your habits overcome you.

A serious problem for the conservative perspective is that some new things have happened that aren’t all bad; good and noble things have extended beyond unique, rare, local circumstances, and they have spread around the globe throughout the twentieth century in waves of luxury, amusement, pampering, and affluence.

In You Must Change Your Life, Sloterdijk puts this in classical mythospeculative terms. We are not in the Iron Age anymore, contra conservatism, but we aren’t building the new Golden Age that pervades the fantasies of the far left either. Sloterdijk advocates a middle, a sort of rhizomatic milieu, which is not a centrist compromise between Iron Age and Golden Age fantasies. It’s a new Silver Age.

"The grandiloquent conservatives, who continue to cultivate the idiom of the Iron Age as if nothing had happened, must be challenged in a language of the middle. The same tone must be used to counter the far left ideologies still virulent at a local level, which, out of disappointment at the failed return to the Golden Age, do everything in power to smear the Silver Age as a farce. (423-24)"
conservatism  centrism  Philosophy  Sloterdijk 
12 hours ago by jstenner
Waarom sciencefictionserie Black Mirror ons zoveel vertelt over het héden | De Volkskrant
"Want: zinniger dan blijven hangen in angstvisioenen is het om na te denken hoe we techniek op een goede manier kunnen integreren in ons bestaan."
Tech  ethics  philosophy 
yesterday by yorickdupon

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