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Can a Sauna Session Count as a Workout?
Those who sweated it out two to three times per week were 23 percent less likely to suffer from coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease. People who sauna-bathed four to seven times per week were 48 percent less likely to die of those heart diseases — and 40 percent less likely to die of any other causes than people who only sauna-bathed once per week. 

The longer people spent in the heat during each sauna session — which ran from two- to 90-minutes(!) long — the greater their risk of survival. Guys who spent more than 19 minutes in the sauna were 52 percent less likely to suffer sudden cardiac death that men who sauna-bathed for less than 11 minutes at a time.
sauna  bathing  risk  benefit  cardiac  cardiovascular  morbidity  mortality  correlation  human  cohort  prospective  in  vivo  situ  peer-reviewed  research  all-cause 
26 days ago by Michael.Massing
Sauna bathing reduces the risk of stroke in Finnish men and women | Neurology
Baseline habits of sauna bathing were assessed in 1,628 adult men and women aged 53–74 years (mean age, 62.7 years) without a known history of stroke in the Finnish Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study. Three sauna bathing frequency groups were defined: 1, 2–3, and 4–7 sessions per week. Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were estimated for incident stroke.

Results During a median follow-up of 14.9 years, 155 incident stroke events were recorded. Compared with participants who had one sauna bathing session per week, the age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI) for stroke was 0.39 (0.18–0.83) for participants who had 4–7 sauna sessions per week. After further adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors and other potential confounders, the corresponding HR (95% CI) was 0.39 (0.18–0.84) and this remained persistent on additional adjustment for physical activity and socioeconomic status at 0.38 (0.18–0.81). The association between frequency of sauna bathing and risk of stroke was not modified by age, sex, or other clinical characteristics (p for interaction > 0.10 for all subgroups). The association was similar for ischemic stroke but modest for hemorrhagic stroke, which could be attributed to the low event rate (n = 34).

Conclusions This long-term follow-up study shows that middle-aged to elderly men and women who take frequent sauna baths have a substantially reduced risk of new-onset stroke.
sauna  risk  reduction  benefit  bathing  peer-reviewed  research  human  in  vivo  situ  prospective  cohort  stroke  ischemic  correlation 
28 days ago by Michael.Massing
Frequency and phenotype of type 1 diabetes in the first six decades of life: a cross-sectional, genetically stratified survival analysis from UK Biobank - ScienceDirect
Findings

13 250 (3·5%) of 379 511 white European individuals in UK Biobank had developed diabetes in the first six decades of life. 1286 more cases of diabetes were in the half of the population with high genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes than in the half of the population with low genetic susceptibility. These genetically defined cases of type 1 diabetes were distributed across all ages of diagnosis; 537 (42%) were in individuals diagnosed when aged 31–60 years, representing 4% (537/12 233) of all diabetes cases diagnosed after age 30 years. The clinical characteristics of the group diagnosed with type 1 diabetes when aged 31–60 years were similar to the clinical characteristics of the group diagnosed with type 1 diabetes when aged 30 years or younger. For individuals diagnosed with diabetes when aged 31–60 years, the clinical characteristics of type 1 diabetes differed from those of type 2 diabetes: they had a lower BMI (27·4 kg/m2 [95% CI 26·7–28·0] vs 32·4 kg/m2 [32·2–32·5]; p<0·0001), were more likely to use insulin in the first year after diagnosis (89% [476/537] vs 6% [648/11 696]; p<0·0001), and were more likely to have diabetic ketoacidosis (11% [61/537] vs 0·3% [30/11 696]; p<0·0001).

Interpretation

Genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes results in non-obesity-related, insulin-dependent diabetes, which presents throughout the first six decades of life. Our results highlight the difficulty of identifying type 1 diabetes after age 30 years because of the increasing background prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Failure to diagnose late-onset type 1 diabetes can have serious consequences because these patients rapidly develop insulin dependency.
diabetes  type  1  age  incidence  prevalence  diagnosis  peer-reviewed  research  genetics  risk  adult  onset  T!D  demographics  presentation  UK  Europe  genetic 
9 weeks ago by Michael.Massing
Twitter
RT : Sauna baths 2-3 a week correlate with 12% less likelihood of stroke; 4-7 times a week appears to reduce risk by 62%…
sauna  peer-reviewed  research  correlation  risk  benefit  stroke  from twitter
may 2018 by Michael.Massing
Determining the Optimal Time for Postprandial Peak Hyperglycemia (PPG) in the Follow up of the Patients with Diabetes Mellitus | American Diabetes Association
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is a common cause of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Glycemic control is essential for effective CVD risk reduction. PPG is particularly deleterious to vascular function and a stronger predictor of CVD than elevation of glucose at fasting. There is no consensus about timing of PPG measurement. Our aim was to determine the optimal time for estimating PPG by measuring fasting and PPG, insulin secretion, triglyceride and free fatty acids (FFAs). We studied on 4 groups; 15 patients on diet or plus metformine 850 mg twice daily at noon and bedtime, 15 patients using rapid acting insulin analogues, 15 patients having glinides (as repaglinide 2 mg three times daily) and 15 healthy controls. All subjects were free from clinically apparent atherosclerotic disease and diabetic complications. Blood samples were withdrawn at 8.00 AM after 12 h of fasting and following breakfast composed of foods proper for each patient, at 60[sup]th[/sup], 90[sup]th[/sup] and 120[sup]th[/sup] minutes. Patients were maintained on their usual treatment with glinide and rapid acting insulin analogue during the period of blood withdrawal. Control group received a mixed meal breakfast. In control group glycemia peak occured at 90th minute and insulin peak at 60th minute, when the levels of FFA was lowest. In the group of patients using glinide, glycemia and insulinemia levels peaked at 90th minute (there was no difference between 60th and 90th minutes). In the group of patients on diet and metformin, glycemia and insulinemia levels peaked at 60th minute, whereas glycemia has peaked at 60th and 90th minutes at insulin group. FFA levels were lowest at 120th minutes in both groups. FFAs were decreasing postprandially in all groups and triglycerides were increasing and reaching a maximum level at 2nd hour. In conclusion, postprandial glucose levels are better predictors of overall glycemic control and are correlated better with HbA1c than fasting glucose levels. Our results indicate that measurement of plasma glucose 1h after the end of a meal generally approximates the peak value in patients with diabetes and provides a reasonable assessment of postprandial hyperglycemia.
blood  peak  research  timing  in  after-meal  management  care  glucose  vivo  clinical  postmeal  human  self  postprandial  peer-reviewed 
january 2018 by Michael.Massing
Diet-induced insulin resistance precedes other aspects of the metabolic syndrome. - PubMed - NCBI
This study was designed to examine the effects of a high-fat refined-sugar (HFS) or a low-fat complex-carbohydrate (LFCC) diet on insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose transport, plasma insulin, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides, plasma glycerol, body weight, and body fat in female Fischer rats. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport was significantly reduced in the HFS group at 2 wk, 2 mo, and 2 yr, whereas serum insulin was significantly elevated at all time points. Blood pressure was not significantly elevated in the HFS group until 12 mo, and all HFS animals were hypertensive by 18 mo. Glycerol, triglycerides, and abdominal fat cell size were not significantly different at 2 wk but were significantly elevated in the HFS rats at 2 and 6 mo. Body weight was similar in both groups until 20 wk on the diet, when the HFS rats started to gain more weight. These results demonstrate that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia occur before the other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome and that diet, not obesity, is the underlying cause.
insulin  resistance  metabolic  syndrome  factor  risk  etiology  diabetes  in  vivo  animal  peer-reviewed  research  diet  high  fat  sugar  complex  carbohydrate  low  symptoms 
january 2018 by Michael.Massing
Diet-induced insulin resistance precedes other aspects of the metabolic syndrome | Journal of Applied Physiology
This study was designed to examine the effects of a high-fat refined-sugar (HFS) or a low-fat complex-carbohydrate (LFCC) diet on insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose transport, plasma insulin, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides, plasma glycerol, body weight, and body fat in female Fischer rats. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport was significantly reduced in the HFS group at 2 wk, 2 mo, and 2 yr, whereas serum insulin was significantly elevated at all time points. Blood pressure was not significantly elevated in the HFS group until 12 mo, and all HFS animals were hypertensive by 18 mo. Glycerol, triglycerides, and abdominal fat cell size were not significantly different at 2 wk but were significantly elevated in the HFS rats at 2 and 6 mo. Body weight was similar in both groups until 20 wk on the diet, when the HFS rats started to gain more weight. These results demonstrate that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia occur before the other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome and that diet, not obesity, is the underlying cause.
insulin  resistance  metabolic  syndrome  factor  risk  etiology  diabetes  in  vivo  animal  peer-reviewed  research  diet  high  fat  sugar  complex  carbohydrate  low  symptoms 
january 2018 by Michael.Massing
Continuous Glucose Profiles in Healthy Subjects under Everyday Life Conditions and after Different Meals
The mean 24-hour interstitial glucose concentration under everyday life conditions was 89.3 ± 6.2 mg/dl (mean ± SD, n = 21), and mean interstitial glucose concentrations at daytime and during the night were 93.0 ± 7.0 and 81.8 ± 6.3 mg/dl, respectively. The highest postprandial glucose concentrations were observed after breakfast: 132.3 ± 16.7 mg/dl (range 101–168 mg/dl); peak concentrations after lunch and dinner were 118.2 ± 13.4 and 123.0 ± 16.9 mg/dl, respectively. Mean time to peak glucose concentration was between 46 and 50 minutes. After ingestion of standardized meals with fast absorption characteristics, peak interstitial glucose concentrations were 133.2 ± 14.4 and 137.2 ± 21.1 mg/dl, respectively. Meals with a higher fiber, protein, and fat content induced a smaller increase and a slower decrease of postprandial glucose concentrations with peak values of 99.2 ± 10.5 and 122.1 ± 20.4 mg/dl, respectively.

Conclusions

This study provided continuous glucose profiles in nondiabetic subjects and demonstrated that differences in meal composition are reflected in postprandial interstitial glucose concentrations. Regarding the increasing application of continuous glucose monitoring in diabetic patients, these data suggest that detailed information about the ingested meals is important for adequate interpretation of postprandial glucose profiles.

Keywords: continuous glucose monitoring, continuous glucose profiles, healthy subjects, interstitial fluid glucose, postprandial glucose
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Introduction
Tight glycemic control has been shown to reduce the risk of complications in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.1,2
tight  glucose  control  management  interstitial  blood  diet  cycle  metabolism  normoglycemia  peak  postprandial  peer-reviewed  research  in  vivo  human  rhythms  circadian 
november 2017 by Michael.Massing
Effect of fructose consumption on insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diet-intervention trials. - PubMed - NCBI
Twenty-nine articles that described 46 comparisons in 1005 normal-weight and overweight or obese participants met the eligibility criteria. An energy-matched (isocaloric) exchange of dietary carbohydrates by fructose promoted hepatic insulin resistance (SMD: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.91; P = 0.04) but had no effect on fasting plasma insulin concentrations (MD: -0.79 pmol/L; 95% CI: -6.41, 4.84 pmol/L; P = 0.78), the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (MD: 0.13; 95% CI: -0.07, 0.34; P = 0.21), or glucose disposal rates under euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp conditions (SMD: 0.00; 95% CI: 20.41, 0.41; P = 1.00). Hypercaloric fructose (∼25% excess of energy compared with that of the weight-maintenance control diet) raised fasting plasma insulin concentrations (MD: 3.38 pmol/L; 95% CI: 0.03, 6.73 pmol/L; P < 0.05) and induced hepatic insulin resistance (SMD: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.28, 1.26; P < 0.01) without affecting the HOMA-IR (MD: 0.18; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.39; P = 0.08) or glucose disposal rates (SMD: 0.10; 95% CI: -0.21, 0.40; P = 0.54). Results may have been limited by the low quality, small sample size, and short duration (mostly <60 d) of included trials.
CONCLUSIONS:
Short-term fructose consumption, in isocaloric exchange or in hypercaloric supplementation, promotes the development of hepatic insulin resistance in nondiabetic adults without affecting peripheral or muscle insulin sensitivity. Larger and longer-term studies are needed to assess whether real-world fructose consumption has adverse effects on insulin sensitivity and long-term outcomes.
fructose  normoglycemia  hyperglycemia  insulin  resistance  hepatic  liver  peer-reviewed  research  overview  review  in  vivo  human  clinical  trial 
november 2017 by Michael.Massing
Cereal grains and legumes in the prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke: a review of the literature. - PubMed - NCBI
The intake of wholegrain foods clearly protects against heart disease and stroke but the exact mechanism is not clear. Fibre, magnesium, folate and vitamins B6 and vitamin E may be important. The intake of high GI carbohydrates (from both grain and non-grain sources) in large amounts is associated with an increased risk of heart disease in overweight and obese women even when fibre intake is high but this requires further confirmation in normal-weight women.
RECOMMENDATION:
Carbohydrate-rich foods should be wholegrain and if they are not, then the lowest GI product available should be consumed. Glycemic index is largely irrelevant for foods that contain small amounts of carbohydrate per serve (such as most vegetables).
antioxidant  GI  glycemic  index  load  GL  carbohydrates  vegetables  fiber  blood  glucose  lipids  management  risk  diet  self  care  peer-reviewed  research  zinc  magnesium  vitamin  E  supplements  cholesterol  harm  reduction  bran  CHD  cardiovascular  protection  in  vivo  human  review  overview  stroke  saelf  B6  folate 
november 2017 by Michael.Massing
Effect on Insulin, Glucose and Lipids in Overweight/Obese Australian Adults of 12 Months Consumption of Two Different Fibre Supplements in a Random... - PubMed - NCBI
Higher fibre intakes are associated with risk reduction for chronic diseases. This study investigated the effects of supplementation with PolyGlycopleX® (PGX), a complexed polysaccharide, on insulin, glucose and lipids in overweight and obese individuals. In this double-blind 12 months study, participants were randomised into three groups: control (rice flour); PGX or psyllium (PSY). Participants followed their usual lifestyle and diet but consumed 5 g of their supplement before meals. Insulin was significantly lower in the PGX and PSY groups compared to control at 3 and 6 months and in the PSY group compared to control at 12 months. Serum glucose was significantly lower in the PGX group at 3 months compared to control. Total cholesterol was significantly lower in the PGX and PSY groups compared to control at 3 and 6 months. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly increased in the PGX group compared to control at 12 months. low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was significantly lower in the PGX group at 3 and 6 months compared to control and in the PSY group at 3 months compared to control. A simple strategy of fibre supplementation may offer an effective solution to glucose, insulin and lipid management without the need for other nutrient modification.
fiber  blood  glucose  lipids  management  risk  diet  self  care  peer-reviewed  research  supplements  cholesterol  harm  reduction  insulin  psyllium  in  vivo  human  clinical  trial 
november 2017 by Michael.Massing

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