pedagogy   11843

« earlier    

You Think You Want Media Literacy… Do You? – Data & Society: Points
We live in a world of networks now. We need to understand how those networks are intertwined and how information that spreads through dyadic — even if asymmetric — encounters is understood and experienced differently than that which is produced and disseminated through mass media.
media  literacy  networked  trust  cognitive  pedagogy 
6 days ago by dmensing
You Think You Want Media Literacy… Do You? – Data & Society: Points
The funny thing about education is that we ask our students to challenge their assumptions. And that process can be enlightening.
media  literacy  pedagogy  epistemology 
7 days ago by wlanderson
You Think You Want Media Literacy… Do You? – Data & Society: Points
For the last year, I’ve been struggling with media literacy. I have a deep level of respect for the primary goal. As Renee Hobbs has written, media literacy is the “active inquiry and critical thinking about the messages we receive and create.” The field talks about the development of competencies or skills to help people analyze, evaluate, and even create media. Media literacy is imagined to be empowering, enabling individuals to have agency and giving them the tools to help create a democratic society. But fundamentally, it is a form of critical thinking that asks people to doubt what they see. And that makes me nervous.

Most media literacy proponents tell me that media literacy doesn’t exist in schools. And it’s true that the ideal version that they’re aiming for definitely doesn’t. But I spent a decade in and out of all sorts of schools in the US, where I quickly learned that a perverted version of media literacy does already exist. Students are asked to distinguish between CNN and Fox. Or to identify bias in a news story. When tech is involved, it often comes in the form of “don’t trust Wikipedia; use Google.” ...

In 2017, sociologist Francesca Tripodi was trying to understand how conservative communities made sense of the seemingly contradictory words coming out of the mouth of the US President. Along her path, she encountered people talking about making sense of The Word when referencing his speeches. She began accompanying people in her study to their bible study groups. Then it clicked. Trained on critically interrogating biblical texts, evangelical conservative communities were not taking Trump’s messages as literal text. They were interpreting their meanings using the same epistemological framework as they approached the bible. Metaphors and constructs matter more than the precision of words....

We’re not living through a crisis about what is true, we’re living through a crisis about how we know whether something is true. We’re not disagreeing about facts, we’re disagreeing about epistemology. The “establishment” version of epistemology is, “We use evidence to arrive at the truth, vetted by independent verification (but trust us when we tell you that it’s all been independently verified by people who were properly skeptical and not the bosom buddies of the people they were supposed to be fact-checking).”
The “alternative facts” epistemological method goes like this: “The ‘independent’ experts who were supposed to be verifying the ‘evidence-based’ truth were actually in bed with the people they were supposed to be fact-checking. In the end, it’s all a matter of faith, then: you either have faith that ‘their’ experts are being truthful, or you have faith that we are. Ask your gut, what version feels more truthful?”...

Let’s be honest — most of us educators are deeply committed to a way of knowing that is rooted in evidence, reason, and fact. But who gets to decide what constitutes a fact? In philosophy circles, social constructivists challenge basic tenets like fact, truth, reason, and evidence. ...

In many Native communities, experience trumps Western science as the key to knowledge. These communities have a different way of understanding topics like weather or climate or medicine. Experience is also used in activist circles as a way of seeking truth and challenging the status quo. Experience-based epistemologies also rely on evidence, but not the kind of evidence that would be recognized or accepted by those in Western scientific communities....

Right now, the conversation around fact-checking has already devolved to suggest that there’s only one truth. And we have to recognize that there are plenty of students who are taught that there’s only one legitimate way of knowing, one accepted worldview. This is particularly dicey at the collegiate level, where us professors have been taught nothing about how to teach across epistemologies....

Many progressive activists ask whether or not the US government commits terrorism in other countries. The ads all came down because they were too political, but RT got what they wanted: an effective ad campaign. They didn’t come across as conservative or liberal, but rather a media entity that was “censored” for asking questions. Furthermore, by covering the fact that they were banned, major news media legitimized their frame under the rubric of “free speech.” Under the assumption that everyone should have the right to know and to decide for themselves....

In their book, “The Ambivalent Internet,”media studies scholars Whitney Phillips and Ryan Milner highlight how a segment of society has become so well-versed at digital communications — memes, GIFs, videos, etc. — that they can use these tools of expression to fundamentally destabilize others’ communication structures and worldviews. It’s hard to tell what’s real and what’s fiction, what’s cruel and what’s a joke. But that’s the point. That is how irony and ambiguity can be weaponized. And for some, the goal is simple: dismantle the very foundations of elite epistemological structures that are so deeply rooted in fact and evidence....

Perhaps you want to encourage people to think critically about how information is constructed, who is paying for it, and what is being left out. Yet, among those whose prior is to not trust a news media institution, among those who see CNN and The New York Times as “fake news,” they’re already there. They’re looking for flaws. It’s not hard to find them. After all, the news industry is made of people in institutions in a society. So when youth are encouraged to be critical of the news media, they come away thinking that the media is lying. Depending on someone’s prior, they may even take what they learn to be proof that the media is in on the conspiracy. That’s where things get very dicey.

Many of my digital media and learning colleagues encourage people to make media to help understand how information is produced. Realistically, many young people have learned these skills outside the classroom as they seek to represent themselves on Instagram, get their friends excited about a meme, or gain followers on YouTube. Many are quite skilled at using media, but to what end? Every day, I watch teenagers produce anti-Semitic and misogynistic content using the same tools that activists use to combat prejudice....

One of the main goals for those who are trying to manipulate media is to pervert the public’s thinking. It’s called gaslighting. Do you trust what is real? One of the best ways to gaslight the public is to troll the media. By getting the news media to be forced into negating frames, they can rely on the fact that people who distrust the media often respond by self-investigating. This is the power of the boomerang effect. And it has a history. After all, the CDC realized that the more news media negated the connection between autism and vaccination, the more the public believed there was something real there....

when you start to empathize with worldviews that are toxic, it’s very hard to stay grounded. It requires deep cognitive strength. Scholars who spend a lot of time trying to understand dangerous worldviews work hard to keep their emotional distance. One very basic tactic is to separate the different signals. Just read the text rather than consume the multimedia presentation of that. Narrow the scope. Actively taking things out of context can be helpful for analysis precisely because it creates a cognitive disconnect. This is the opposite of how most people encourage everyday analysis of media, where the goal is to appreciate the context first. Of course, the trick here is wanting to keep that emotional distance. Most people aren’t looking for that.

I also believe that it’s important to help students truly appreciate epistemological differences. In other words, why do people from different worldviews interpret the same piece of content differently?... What’s common about the different approaches I’m suggesting is that they are designed to be cognitive strengthening exercises, to help students recognize their own fault lines, not the fault lines of the media landscape around them. I can imagine that this too could be called media literacy and if you want to bend your definition that way, I’ll accept it. But the key is to realize the humanity in ourselves and in others. We cannot and should not assert authority over epistemology, but we can encourage our students to be more aware of how interpretation is socially constructed. And to understand how that can be manipulated.
media_literacy  epistemology  pedagogy  propaganda 
13 days ago by shannon_mattern

« earlier    

related tags

2017  2018  500  academia  academic-culture  academics  acrl  afrofuturism  ai  altright  and  animation  anthropocene  apps  architecture  art  arteducation  arthistory  assessment  augmented_reality  autonomy  bett  bias  biasinterrupters  books  brunomunari  chess  childhood  children  civics  class_struggles_in_america  climate_change  cognitive  competition  computer_science_education  computing  conformity  conservative  controversy  core  corporatism  course  creativity  credentials  criticalmaking  curriculum  curriculum_planning  cybersecurity  data  debugging  deep-learning  democracy  deschooling  design  detroit  digital-pedagogy  digital_humanities  digital_scholarship  discussion  disintermediation-targets  dj  ed-tech  edtech  education  educational-psychology  educational  elitism  elm  engagement  engineering-criticism  engl1213  epistemology  error  evaluations  example  expertise  expression  faculty  flipping  food  freire_project  games  gamification  gender  graduate_education  have_read  henrygiroux  highered  hiphop  hist2000  history  howto  howwetech  human  humans  inequality  influence  instructional_design  int  intuition  italia  italy  justice  kid  knowing-what-you-know  lcproject  learning  libguides  librarianship  libraries  literacy  liu  liublc  lorismalaguzzi  machine-learning  machinelearning  markrothko  materials  math  mathematical-recreations  mathematics  maths  media  media_literacy  memorization  middlebury  modernart  modernism  mooc  musiking  myinstitution  ndn  networked  neuralnetworks  niceexplanations  nmai  ntu  numeracy  ocaml  open-access  open-education  openstudioproject  opinion  oppression  organization  orgbehavior  papert  pathology  paulo_freire  people  philosophy-of-engineering  philosophy  planning  policy  politics  popularculture  presentation_images  programming  project_based_learning  propaganda  publishing  questions  race  racism  rather-interesting  reading  readme  reference  reggioemilia  remida  research  resistance  rightwing  rote  rotelearning  rttp  school  schooling  schools  sfsh  simoncreasey  simulations  socialmedia  society  somebody-has-to-pay-the-rent-bullshit  speculativedesign  standardization  statistics  stephendownes  syllabus  system-of-professions  teachers  teaching  teched  theory  tinkering  tips  to-write-about  to_teach:undergrad-ada  toread  trust  ubiratan_d'ambrosio  ui  uk  unions  unschooling  us  vendors  videos  writing  writing_advice  youtube  zine 

Copy this bookmark: