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The Indispensable Man: How Giuliani Led Trump to the Brink of Impeachment - The New York Times
A dozen witnesses testified over five days, and if Mr. Giuliani were somehow subtracted from their stories, there seems to be no one in or out of government who could take his place as the president’s man on the ground. No one to carry out a campaign to force a vulnerable ally, Ukraine, to damage a political opponent of Mr. Trump and undermine a special counsel investigation in ways that would help both Mr. Trump and an ally now in prison for laundering millions of dollars.

No impeachment train, picking up steam.

Mr. Giuliani has been the voice in Mr. Trump’s ear when others could not be heard, and served as the voice of Mr. Trump in places where presidents dare not go.
Trump  Power_in_America  Passions  reasoning  truth  corruption  newyork  law  state  government 
5 days ago by Jibarosoy
Biased Algorithms Are Easier to Fix Than Biased People - The New York Times
Humans are inscrutable in a way that algorithms are not. Our explanations for our behavior are shifting and constructed after the fact. To measure racial discrimination by people, we must create controlled circumstances in the real world where only race differs. For an algorithm, we can create equally controlled just by feeding it the right data and observing its behavior.

Algorithms and humans also differ on what can be done about bias once it is found.

With our résumé study, fixing the problem has proved to be extremely difficult. For one, having found bias on average didn’t tell us that any one firm was at fault, though recent research is finding clever ways to detect discrimination.

Another problem is more fundamental. Changing people’s hearts and minds is no simple matter. For example, implicit bias training appears to have a modest impact at best.
Passions  reasoning  pol.508  Power_materials  Psychology  Technology  morals  computers  data  Teaching 
5 days ago by Jibarosoy
What if ’s objective would be to discover your ? What if ’ objective would be to disc…
schools  universities  passions  from twitter_favs
13 days ago by tolkien
Data from: Neuroimaging "Will to fight" for Sacred Values_ Dryad
Violent intergroup conflicts are often motivated by commitments to abstract ideals such as god or nation, so-called “sacred” values that are relatively insensitive to material incentives or disincentives. There is scant knowledge of how the brain processes costly sacrifices for such cherished causes. We studied willingness to fight and die for sacred values using fMRI among supporters of a radical Islamist group from different neighborhoods in and around Barcelona, Spain. We measured brain activity in radicalized individuals as they indicated their willingness to fight and die for sacred and non-sacred values, and as they reacted to peers’ ratings for the same values. We observed diminished activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), inferior frontal gyrus, and parietal cortex while participants conveyed willingness to fight and die for sacred relative to non-sacred values - regions that have previously been implicated in calculating costs and consequences. These differences could not be attributed to differences between sacred and non-sacred values in emotional intensity, familiarity or salience. An overlapping region of dlPFC was active when viewing conflicting ratings of sacred values from peers, to the extent participants were sensitive to peer influence, suggesting that it is possible to induce flexibility in the way people defend sacred values. Our results are consistent with a view that “devoted actors” motivated by an extreme commitment towards sacred in-group values rely on distinctive neurocognitve processes that can be identified.
terrorism  Passions  reasoning  database  Religion  morals  Violence_y_Power  pol.185  pol.508 
13 days ago by Jibarosoy
Neuroimaging ‘will to fight’ for sacred values: an empirical case study with supporters of an Al Qaeda associate | Royal Society Open Science
This prior work allowed us to specify our hypotheses. If processing sacred values involves a reduced reliance on cost–benefit utilitarian calculations, as anticipated by a devoted actor framework and behavioural research on sacred values [2,8,11,12,14], then existential decisions about sacred values relative to non-sacred values, as in willingness to fight and die, should involve less activity in areas previously implicated in cost–benefit computations. To be able to test this, we studied willingness to fight and die for sacred values using fMRI among supporters of the radical Islamist group Lashkar-et-Taiba (Army of the Righteous) recruited from different neighbourhoods in and around Barcelona, Spain. Lashkar-et-Taiba, which executed the 2001 attack on India's Parliament and the 2008 Mumbai attacks, has been designated a terrorist organization by the USA, European Union and Russia. UN Security Council Resolution 1267 (May 2008) considers Lashkar-et-Taiba ‘an entity associated with Al Qaeda’.
terrorism  pol.508  Passions  reasoning  Religion  state  Violence_y_Power  morals 
13 days ago by Jibarosoy
This Is Your Brain on Terrorism: The Science Behind a Death Wish
Rather than challenging sacred values, those seeking to prevent or counter radicalization would be better off acknowledging these values while at the same time offering alternative interpretations of their meaning. Salafi preachers have had some success dissuading would-be suicide bombers this way, embedding the Quran’s arguments against violence into interpretations of how to defend Islam. This strategy requires deep engagement with actual social networks, not just in the realm of ideas. But if one person can be convinced to follow a less violent path in support of the group’s sacred values, others may follow.
pol.508  Passions  reasoning  morals  intuition  Religion  Violence_y_Power  Pol.11 
13 days ago by Jibarosoy
Shame Test
This is an important emotion to human social life. Some scientists believe that we developed shame displays to indicate our place in the hierarchy of our group. People with lower status tend to display shame much more than those in higher status positions. It is believed that guilt and shame was a mechanism designed to maintain social order. In other words, if we do something that breaks the social norm, we feel bad and that brings us back into relationship with the group by seeking to amend our behaviour in order to be included in the community. The difference between guilt and shame is that guilt recognises that our ‘behaviour’ was inappropriate and we find a way to repair any damage or hurt caused. Shame states that ‘the core of who we are is bad’ –and therefore completely stifles the soul – often paralysing a human to seek connection because they do not believe they deserve it, where in fact, they are in desperate need for connection.
Pol.11  Pol.12  Power_materials  Psychology  Passions  reasoning  Culture  Religion 
13 days ago by Jibarosoy
Many Evangelicals Excuse Anything Trump Does — Because He’s the “Chosen One”
Trump’s myriad moral failings mean nothing. To those that adhere to this worldview, they don’t care if the president mocks a disabled journalist or the Gold Star family of a veteran killed in action. Trump swears in public, boasts of sexual assault and even says that he could shoot someone dead in broad view without losing the support of his base. Yet, to such believers, all of these are simply the imperfections of a man ordained by God to rid the U.S. of abortion and secularism and the other great sins of the modern age.

Which brings me back to Rick Perry. Perry’s up to his eyeballs in the Ukraine scandal. But instead of coming clean, he has, like so many other high officials, unquestioningly followed Trump’s orders and refused to comply with congressional subpoenas to testify.

The rule of law and the constitutional order are under direct, sustained assault from the executive branch. And so long as senior figures such as Perry look at Trump and see something akin to a biblical prophecy adapted for the modern age, they will continue to side with a lawless president over the constitutionally guaranteed authority of the U.S. Congress.
Trump  Religion  Christian  state  Power_in_America  Violence_y_Power  Leadership  Passions 
15 days ago by Jibarosoy
Graham, Haidt, & Nosek (2009): Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations - Brian Nosek Dataverse
How and why do moral judgments vary across the political spectrum? To test moral foundations theory (J. Haidt & J. Graham, 2007; J. Haidt & C. Joseph, 2004), the authors developed several ways to measure people’s use of 5 sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. Across 4 studies using multiple methods, liberals consistently showed greater endorsement and use of the Harm/care and Fairness/reciprocity foundations compared to the other 3 foundations, whereas conservatives endorsed and used the 5 foundations more equally. This differ ence was observed in abstract assessments of the moral relevance of foundation-related concerns such as violence or loyalty (Study 1), moral judgments of statements and scenarios (Study 2), “sacredness” reactions to taboo trade-offs (Study 3), and use of foundation-related words in the moral texts of religious sermons (Study 4). These findings help to illuminate the nature and intractability of moral disagreements in the American “culture war.” (2009)
pol.508  pol.185  Passions  reasoning  polarization  Power_in_America  political_science  political_theory  database 
20 days ago by Jibarosoy
Morality Between the Lines: Detecting Moral Sentiment in Text
Expressions of moral sentiment play a fundamental role in political framing, social solidarity, and basic human motivation. Moral rhetoric helps us com- municate the reasoning behind our choices, how we feel we should govern, and the communities to which we belong. In this paper, we use short- post social media to compare the accuracy of text analysis methods for detecting moral rhetoric and longer form political speeches to explore detecting shifts in that rhetoric over time. Building on previ- ous work using word count methods and the Moral Foundations Dictionary [Graham et al., 2009], we make use of pre-trained distributed representations for words to extend this dictionary. We show that combining the MFD with distributed representa- tions allows us to capture a cleaner signal when detecting moral rhetoric, particularly with short- form text. We further demonstrate how the addition of distributed representations can simplify dictio- nary creation. Finally, we demonstrate how captur- ing moral rhetoric in text over time opens up new avenues for research such as assessing when and how arguments become moralized and how moral rhetoric impacts subsequent behavior.
pol.508  pol.200  pol.185  Passions  reasoning  Power_in_America  polarization  political_science  political_theory 
20 days ago by Jibarosoy
Moral Foundations Theory |
Moral Foundations Theory was created by a group of social and cultural psychologists (see us here) to understand why morality varies so much across cultures yet still shows so many similarities and recurrent themes. In brief, the theory proposes that several innate and universally available psychological systems are the foundations of “intuitive ethics.” Each culture then constructs virtues, narratives, and institutions on top of these foundations, thereby creating the unique moralities we see around the world, and conflicting within nations too.
pol.508  Passions  reasoning  polarization  pol.185  Power_in_America  political_theory  political_science 
20 days ago by Jibarosoy
Power and Imagination - Yuval Noah Harari
Fiction is nevertheless of immense importance, because it enabled us to imagine things collectively. We can weave common myths such as the biblical creation story, the Dreamtime myths of Aboriginal Australians, and the nationalist myths of modern states. And it is these myths that enable Sapiens alone to cooperate flexibly with thousands and even millions of complete strangers.

True, ants and bees can also work together in huge numbers, but they do so in a very rigid manner and only with close relatives. Wolves and chimpanzees cooperate far more flexibly than ants, but they can do so only with small numbers of individuals whom they know intimately. If you tried to bunch together thousands of chimpanzees into Wembley Stadium, Oxford Street, St Paul’s Cathedral or the House of Commons, the result would be pandemonium. Sapiens, in contrast, gather there by the thousands and together they organize and reorganize trade networks, mass celebrations, and political institutions. That’s why we rule the world, whereas ants eat our leftovers and chimps are locked up in zoos and research laboratories.
fiction  truth  Trump  SON  state  nations  Power_materials  Religion  Passions  reasoning  Pol.11  Pol._120 
4 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Opinion | Why Fiction Trumps Truth - The New York Times
On the one hand, power means having the ability to manipulate objective realities: to hunt animals, to construct bridges, to cure diseases, to build atom bombs. This kind of power is closely tied to truth. If you believe a false physical theory, you won’t be able to build an atom bomb.

On the other hand, power also means having the ability to manipulate human beliefs, thereby getting lots of people to cooperate effectively. Building atom bombs requires not just a good understanding of physics, but also the coordinated labor of millions of humans. Planet Earth was conquered by Homo sapiens rather than by chimpanzees or elephants, because we are the only mammals that can cooperate in very large numbers. And large-scale cooperation depends on believing common stories. But these stories need not be true. You can unite millions of people by making them believe in completely fictional stories about God, about race or about economics.
Passions  reasoning  tribe  fiction  truth  Trump  pol.508  Pol._120  Power_in_America  Leadership  fear  state 
5 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Opinion | Is Politics a War of Ideas or of Us Against Them? - The New York Times
While both sides in the debate over “affective” versus “ideological” partisanship marshal reams of survey data in support of their positions — often data from the same surveys — one thing both sides are in full agreement on is that partisan hostility has reached new heights. This is reflected in two recent papers, one by Abramowitz and Webster, “Negative Partisanship: Why Americans Dislike Parties But Behave Like Rabid Partisans” and one by Nathan Kalmoe, a political scientist at Louisiana State, and Lilliana Mason, “Lethal Mass Partisanship.”
Trump  polarization  Political  pol.508  Power_in_America  Passions  reasoning  tribe 
5 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
How Trump Reshaped the Presidency in Over 11,000 Tweets - The New York Times
In the Oval Office, an annoyed President Trump ended an argument he was having with his aides. He reached into a drawer, took out his iPhone and threw it on top of the historic Resolute Desk:

“Do you want me to settle this right now?”

There was no missing Mr. Trump’s threat that day in early 2017, the aides recalled. With a tweet, he could fling a directive to the world, and there was nothing they could do about it.
Trump  Passions  reasoning  polarization  Leadership  fear  pol.508  Power_in_America  Violence_y_Power 
6 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Trump’s Twitter Presidency: 9 Key Takeaways - The New York Times
Donald J. Trump has exploited social media like no other American president, using it as a springboard to change policy, as a cudgel against critics and as an outlet for self-affirmation. “He needs to tweet like we need to eat,” said Kellyanne Conway, his White House counselor.

Along the way, he has lent credibility to unsavory Twitter accounts through his habit of retweeting posts that catch his attention, seemingly without regard for who is behind them or their motives.

In three articles, The New York Times analyzed Mr. Trump’s posts, studied the accounts he follows and interviewed dozens of administration officials, lawmakers, Twitter executives and ordinary Americans caught up in his tweets. Here are some of our findings.
Trump  pol.508  Passions  reasoning  polarization  Leadership  fear  Power_in_America  legitimacy 
6 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
In Trump’s Twitter Feed: Conspiracy-Mongers, Racists and Spies - The New York Times
The president gets some of his questionable material on Twitter from the 47 accounts he follows that show up in his feed, a curated timeline of tweets that come mostly from his family, celebrities, Fox News hosts and Republican politicians, some of whom in turn follow Twitter accounts that promote QAnon or express anti-Islam or white nationalist views.

QAnon-related accounts have potentially migrated to the president’s iPhone courtesy of retweets by Donald Trump Jr., the Fox News anchor Maria Bartiromo and the conservative commentator Eric Bolling, all of whom Mr. Trump follows. The younger Mr. Trump has also retweeted Russian intelligence operatives pushing divisive stories about immigration and voter fraud.
Trump  conspiracy  pol.508  Passions  reasoning  Power_in_America  truth  polarization  legitimacy  rulers  fear 
6 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
A Visual Book Review of The Righteous Mind by Jonathan Haidt | Steve Thomason
This is one of those books that has caused me to go back and reshuffle some of the building blocks in my worldview. The main reason I appreciate this book is that it offers a very practical approach, rooted deeply in sociological research, to understand why we have such a deep divide in our society and how we can seek to bridge that gap and seek a better way forward together. This is closely related to my ongoing study of communicative rationality.
pol.508  Passions  reasoning  Power_in_America  morals  political_theory  Psychology  Trump 
6 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
‘The Righteous Mind,’ by Jonathan Haidt - The New York Times
These moral systems aren’t ignorant or backward. Haidt argues that they’re common in history and across the globe because they fit human nature. He compares them to cuisines. We acquire morality the same way we acquire food preferences: we start with what we’re given. If it tastes good, we stick with it. If it doesn’t, we reject it. People accept God, authority and karma because these ideas suit their moral taste buds. Haidt points to research showing that people punish cheaters, accept many hierarchies and don’t support equal distribution of benefits when contributions are unequal.
pol.508  Passions  reasoning  Trump  Power_in_America  political_theory  Psychology  morals 
6 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Republicans Grind Impeachment Inquiry to Halt as Picture Darkens for Trump - The New York Times
House Republicans ground the impeachment inquiry to a halt for hours on Wednesday, staging an attention-grabbing protest at the Capitol that sowed chaos and delayed a crucial deposition as they sought to insulate President Trump against mounting evidence of misconduct.

The day after the most damning testimony yet about Mr. Trump’s pressure campaign to enlist Ukraine to smear his political rivals, House Republicans stormed into the secure office suite where impeachment investigators have been conducting private interviews that have painted a damaging picture of the president’s behavior — and refused to leave.
Passions  reasoning  Trump  congress  Power_in_America 
7 weeks ago by Jibarosoy

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