ought   24

nuprl/10PL · GitHub
10 papers that all PhD students in programming languages ought to know, for some value of 10
10pl  list  papers  phd  plt  ought  know 
december 2015 by cstanhope
NORMATIVE/EVALUATIVE
NORMATIVE TERMS are terms that have ACTION-GUIDING [PRESCRIPTIVE/ PROSCRIPTIVE] force. Some common normative terms are: ought; duty; obligation; permissible; and forbidden. When applied to actions, appropriate and inappropriate are normative terms. [Note that not all NORMATIVE terms are MORAL terms. For example, ought can be used in a NON-MORAL, PRUDENTIAL sense, as in: One ought to eat nutritious foods.]

NORMATIVE MORAL TERMS are NORMATIVE TERMS with MORAL ACTION-GUIDING force.

EVALUATIVE TERMS are terms that express approval or disapproval. Some common evaluative terms are: good; bad; excellent; and awful. EVALUATIVE TERMS can express moral approval or disapproval, but can also express other types of non-moral approval or disapproval (e.g., The statement that apples taste good is a non-moral evaluative statement).

NORMATIVE/EVALUATIVE STATEMENTS are statements that include at least one normative/evaluative term. For example, moral statements about what one ought or ought not to do (e.g., the statement that one ought not to steal or the statement that one ought to tell the truth) are NORMATIVE, because they contain the NORMATIVE term ought. [Note that not all normative statements are moral. See above, for an example of a normative prudential statement.]

PURELY DESCRIPTIVE TERMS are terms that are NOT NORMATIVE and NOT EVALUATIVE.

PURELY DESCRIPTIVE STATEMENTS are statements that contain only PURELY DESCRIPTIVE terms (no NORMATIVE or EVALUATIVE terms). [Note that Normative/Evaluative statements can contain SOME Purely Descriptive terms, but Purely Descriptive statements cannot contain ANY Normative/Evaluative terms.]

NATURALISTIC TERMS are terms of empirical science. All NATURALISTIC TERMS are PURELY DESCRIPTIVE, but there may be some PURELY DESCRIPTIVE terms that are not NATURALISTIC. For example, 'God' and 'angel' are purely descriptive terms for supernatural beings.

NATURALISTIC STATEMENTS are statements that contain only NATURALISTIC terms.
philosophy  is  ought  norms  normative 
september 2015 by ernie.bornheimer
AU - AUS | AUSTRALIA NEWS
El Chapo operatives in Chicago “ought to be| Judge upholds Chicago police board s firing of officer in raciall…
Some  Chapo  El  Judge  Chicago  operatives  to  be  in  ought  from twitter
july 2015 by heyyouapp
Dominic Cummings (who ought to know) is not impressed by Michael Barber, Tony Blair’s former adviser and self-styled ‘delivery man’ » The Spectator
Sir Michael Barber Photo: Getty Allen Lane, pp.316, £16.99, ISBN: 9780241004975 In 2001, Tony Blair took Sir Michael Barber from his perch as special adviser in… via Dominic Cummings (who ought to know) is not impressed by Michael Barber, Tony Blair’s former adviser and self-styled ‘delivery man’
IFTTT  Dominic  Cummings  (who  ought  to  know)  is  not  impressed  by  Michael  Barber  Tony  Blair’s  former  adviser  and  self-styled  ‘delivery  man’ 
june 2015 by davidmarsden
Aesthetic Judgment (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
while some normative notions may be explainable in terms of others, we cannot express normative notions in non-normative terms.
philosophy  is  ought  fact  facts  value  values 
may 2015 by ernie.bornheimer
David Hepworth's Notebook: What the would-be songwriter ought to be getting this Christmas
Leonard Cohen had an album called "Songs From A Room". Nick Lowe knew a pub in West London with a small function room attached and he used to go there to sing his songs aloud into the empty air. It's only that way he could be certain he'd got something.
In Daniel Rachel's new book "Isle Of Noises", Andy Partridge paints a vivid picture of how he came to write "Senses Working Overtime". His then-wife's family had a couple of rooms above a shop which he was given use of. "I found being in such an empty space was quite inspiring to fill with your own sonic pictures. I'd stand there staring out of the window or at the black wooden floor with a guitar, just trying to pull stuff out."
He was determined to write a hit (you would be if you'd just got married) and asked himself what was the easiest way to do that. Taking Manfred Mann's "5-4-3-2-1" as a starting point, he wondered what there were five of, which led him to senses, then he messed up a chord and ended up with an E-flat. He thought the chord change summoned up a picture of a medieval serf ploughing. This made him wonder what the serf would sing and he decided he would sing "Hey, hey, the clouds are whey...." That's the way the song came.
He goes into a lot more detail in the book. It's a perfect example of what a bastard craft songwriting is. I'll be talking to Daniel at Word In Your Ear at the Lexington tomorrow night. He'll be signing copies of the book for anyone who wants to give a special Christmas present to that would-be songwriter friend.  Tickets here. via What the would-be songwriter ought to be getting this Christmas
IFTTT  What  the  would-be  songwriter  ought  to  be  getting  this  Christmas 
november 2013 by davidmarsden
One Ought Too Many - Stephen Finlay and Justin Snedegar
Some philosophers hold that "ought" is ambiguous between a sense expressing a propositional operator and a sense expressing a relation between an agent and an action. We defend the opposing view that "ought" always expresses a propositional operator against Mark Schroeder's recent objections that it cannot adequately accommodate an ambiguity in "ought" sentences between evaluative and deliberative readings, predicting readings of sentences that are not actually available. We show how adopting an independently well-motivated contrastivist semantics for "ought", according to which "ought" is always relativized to a contrast set of relevant alternatives, enables us to explain the evaluative/deliberative ambiguity and why the availability of these readings depends on sentential grammar.
semantics  deontic  modality  ought  sidebar 
september 2011 by fintelkai

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