one   8206

« earlier    

[no title]
y the physicist Max Planck: “A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.”

The researchers identified more than 12,000 “elite” scientists from different fields. The criteria for elite status included funding, number of publications, and whether they were members of the National Academies of Science or the Institute of Medicine. Searching obituaries, the team found 452 who had died before retirement. They then looked to see what happened to the fields from which these celebrated scientists had unexpectedly departed, by analysing publishing patterns.

What they found confirmed the truth of Planck’s maxim. Junior researchers who had worked closely with the elite scientists, authoring papers with them, published less. At the same time, there was a marked increase in papers by newcomers to the field, who were less likely to cite the work of the deceased eminence. The articles by these newcomers were substantive and influential, attracting a high number of citations. They moved the whole field along.

A scientist is part of what the Polish philosopher of science Ludwik Fleck called a “thought collective”: a group of people exchanging ideas in a mutually comprehensible idiom. The group, suggested Fleck, inevitably develops a mind of its own, as the individuals in it converge on a way of communicating, thinking and feeling.

This makes scientific inquiry prone to the eternal rules of human social life: deference to the charismatic, herding towards majority opinion, punishment for deviance, and intense discomfort with admitting to error. Of course, such tendencies are precisely what the scientific method was invented to correct for, and over the long run, it does a good job of it. In the long run, however, we’re all dead, quite possibly sooner than we would be if we hadn’t been following a diet based on poor advice.

In a series of densely argued articles and books, including Why We Get Fat (2010), the science writer Gary Taubes has assembled a critique of contemporary nutrition science, powerful enough to compel the field to listen. One of his contributions has been to uncover a body of research conducted by German and Austrian scientists before the second world war, which had been overlooked by the Americans who reinvented the field in the 1950s. The Europeans were practising physicians and experts in the metabolic system. The Americans were more likely to be epidemiologists, labouring in relative ignorance of biochemistry and endocrinology (the study of hormones). This led to some of the foundational mistakes of modern nutrition.

The rise and slow fall of cholesterol’s infamy is a case in point. After it was discovered inside the arteries of men who had suffered heart attacks, public health officials, advised by scientists, put eggs, whose yolks are rich in cholesterol, on the danger list. But it is a biological error to confuse what a person puts in their mouth with what it becomes after it is swallowed. The human body, far from being a passive vessel for whatever we choose to fill it with, is a busy chemical plant, transforming and redistributing the energy it receives. Its governing principle is homeostasis, or the maintenance of energy equilibrium (when exercise heats us up, sweat cools us down). Cholesterol, present in all of our cells, is created by the liver. Biochemists had long known that the more cholesterol you eat, the less your liver produces.

Unsurprisingly, then, repeated attempts to prove a correlation between dietary cholesterol and blood cholesterol failed. For the vast majority of people, eating two or three, or 25 eggs a day, does not significantly raise cholesterol levels. One of the most nutrient-dense, versatile and delicious foods we have was needlessly stigmatised. The health authorities have spent the last few years slowly backing away from this mistake, presumably in the hope that if no sudden movements are made, nobody will notice. In a sense, they have succeeded: a survey carried out in 2014 by Credit Suisse found that 54% of US doctors believe that dietary cholesterol raises blood cholesterol.

To his credit, Ancel Keys realised early on that dietary cholesterol was not a problem. But in order to sustain his assertion that cholesterol causes heart attacks, he needed to identify an agent that raises its levels in the blood – he landed on saturated fats. In the 30 years after Eisenhower’s heart attack, trial after trial failed to conclusively bear out the association he claimed to have identified in the Seven Countries study.

The nutritional establishment wasn’t greatly discomfited by the absence of definitive proof, but by 1993 it found that it couldn’t evade another criticism: while a low-fat diet had been recommended to women, it had never been tested on them (a fact that is astonishing only if you are not a nutrition scientist). The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute decided to go all in, commissioning the largest controlled trial of diets ever undertaken. As well as addressing the other half of the population, the Women’s Health Initiative was expected to obliterate any lingering doubts about the ill-effects of fat.

It did nothing of the sort.
sugar  health  nutrition  diet  cholesterol  one  funeral 
7 days ago by ernie.bornheimer
👀 Facebook Ads in 2019 | From Facebook Ads Beginner to EXPERT in One Video! - YouTube ;;;
tags: Facebook Ads in 2019 | From Beginner to EXPERT One Video! - YouTube video advertisement HowTo ;;;
Facebook  Ads  in  2019  |  From  Beginner  to  EXPERT  One  Video!  -  YouTube  video  advertisement  HowTo 
12 days ago by neerajsinghvns

« earlier    

related tags

$1  $100  $380  &  'anchorman  'dying  'favorites  'friends'  'if  'smocking  'spoons'  'suffering'  "  "18hunna"  "other  (for  (kvm)  -  09:20am  1  12  18:9  1st  20  2018!  2018's  2018?  2018  2018’s  2019.  2019  2nd  3':  3-digit  3  4  5  7  8  911  @9techeleven  @luckyankit  @the  a  about  absolutely  according  account  acted  activist  actually  adapt  ads  advertisement  after  ages  air  airbag  alexa  alfonso  already  also  amazon  america  america’s  amid  an  and  android  andy  another  aparicio  apple  are  as  asking  at  aura  auto  automated  automotive  avengers:  averted?  avoid.  azory  b  back.  ball  ban  be  beautimus.  became  before.  beginner  below....��‍♂️  below��‍♂️  best  bet  beto  better  bigfoot  biggest  bill  bit  bitcoin  bitcoin:  black's  black  blicky  block  blood  bmw  books  border  breach  breaker  btw  bucks  buddy  budget  business  but  buzziest  by  calls  can't  can  capital  captain  captured  card?  card  cardi  carell  cast  celebrated  chance  characters  charitable  charity  chart  china  cholesterol  choose�  circuit  cities.  city  claims  cleared  cli  climate  close  cloud  clowned  collection  comment  common  company  connect  console  control  controller  cooperate  cord  cottage  could  country  coupo  covers  cpj  craze  crazy  created  credible  credits  credits�  crisis  crispr  criteria  cronus  crypto  cryptocurrency  cuarón  daily  dares  data  dave  day  dayone  deal  decision  defeat  delightful  demanded  democrats  dems’  designer  desk  dethrone  did  didn't  didn’t  diet  director  disappearance  discovery  dissection  do  dot  double  doug  down  drake  drive  dropbox  drugs  e.  e.g.  earth  easy.  economic  economy  effects  eg  el  electrical  eminem  enable  endgame  engine  ep  episodes  ever  every  ex-girlfriend  expert  explained  exploding  export  f  facebook  factories  farewell  fate  favourite  few)  fighting  films.  filter  fires  first  fix  foamposite  follow  for  ford  former  forum  foster  fox  free”  frequently  from  fund:  funeral  future  g6  gaming  general  genius  get  gets  getting  gif  gift  gifts  giphy  github  gives  giving  glitter  global  gmail  good  google  got  government  gpu  granny  great  greg  grimey  growth  gun'  gun  gwanda's  had  happening  has  have  hd  he's  headie  health  hedge  help  her  hexagon  hike–the  his  hit  holiday  homeless  honda  host  hotline  house  how  howto  hubble  i'm  i  idea  if  import  important  in-depth  in  ingalls  installation  instructions  interests  into  investigation  ipad  iptv  is  isn’t  it.  it  its  i’ll  jayg  jazz  jobs  jordan  journalist  judging  just  juárez  keen  keep  kelly  key  kid  kids  kiv  knows  kobo  kodak  kodi  koreader  kwam  lagos:  laptop  last  later  latest  laura  lavar  layout  leak  learn  lebron  lee  less  lewis  lexus  life  like  linux  little  live'  london  loss  lotusboutique  lover��‍♂️  machine  mad  maine  major  make  makeathon  makes  making  man's  many  man’s  maps  market  maroon  maybe  me  means  media  medicine  meek  melissa  mercilessly  message:  might  mill  million  mind.  mississippi  mistakes?  mom's  mom  monopoly  more  most-used  most  mostly  moto  movies  much  murray  music  muslim  must  my  nadal  navi  needsediting  netflix  never  new  news  nike  no  not  note  notification  november  now  number  nutrition  o'rourke  of  off-grid  off  offers  on  one'  oneday  only  or  ordered  oscars  ot  out  outlets  over?  paid  panic  parking  partial  paso  passthrough  path  paxos  people  persuasion  petro  philly  phones  place  plan  planet  plex  plugin  plus  poachers  podcasts  police  policymakers  polka  popular  portrait  powerful  premium  pressure  price  pro  problem  products  projects  protect  proxmox  pulled  question  quite  race  rafael  raid  raised  rapid  reasons  recall  recall:  recasting  receiving  recession  record  recruit  recyclables.  release  replacment  reportedly  republican  restocking  retirement:  review:  right  risk  risk:  robert  roma  roma’s  room  rsync  rules  runoff  rwandan's  sandberg.  say  says  scientists  scotland's  screen  second  seeking  selling  senate  senator  seriously  server  setup  sewing  sharing  sheryl  she’s  shop  shoppers  shot  shutdown  shy  side"  sinks  sister  so  sold  son  sonos  sons  soros’s  spam  speeches  spicy  spiked  spurs  stablecoin  standard:  start  state  steve  stock  stolen  stop  storage  stories  stream  study  subscription  sugar  suicides  surprising  switch  syria  table.  tactic  tag  take  taking  talking  tanzanian  tax  team  tech  techradar  tesla  tether  than  thank  thanksgiving  thanos  that  the  their  them.  them  there  these  they  thing  things  think  this  thriller  thunder  time  time:  times  to  today.  tomato!  took  top  tough  town  toy  trailer:  treadmill  trial  tried  trump  trump’s  tuesday  tv  tweet  twice  type  uk  uncounted  union  unit  up  updates  upset  us  use  used  users  using  vehicles  venezuela’s  video!  video  videos  visuals  vm  vs  wait  walmart  want  wants  was  way  wef  were  what  what’s  which  white  whittle  whoa  why  wild  wilder  wildlife:  will  winsol  with  wooden  world  worst  worth  writes  writing  x  xbox  xoxo  yalitza  year  years'  years  year’s  yellow  yet  york  you!  you  your  youtube  youtube’s  you’re  |    “buy  “janet(s)”  “look”  ••••••••••••••••••••  ⚠️⚠️⚠️⚠️⚠️⚠️⚠️⚠️⚠️⚠️⚠️⚠️⚠️⚠️  ❓❓  ➡️    �which  ��‍♀️comment 

Copy this bookmark: